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Graduation Presentation

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The presentation of my graduation project \'Commuter Retreat\'

The presentation of my graduation project \'Commuter Retreat\'

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  • 1. Commuter Retreat A refuge in the middle of rush-hour Graduation project P5 Presentation Studio Border Conditions - New York City 31-03-2009 Pieter Schreurs phmschreurs@hotmail.com +31(0)6-21256096 Tutors: Henriette Bier [Architecture] Sang Lee [Architecture] Freerk Hoekstra [Building Technology] Cees van Weeren [External examiner]
  • 2. Research Context Border Conditions New York City The ‘Commuter Retreat’ project was developed in the context of the Border Conditions graduation studio. This studio emphasizes on an experimental approach to architecture, based on the development of specific techniques of representation to describe specific urban and architectural phenomena. The first part of the studio focuses on the urban investigation of a specific city and the second part consist of an architectural design, derived from the discourse developed in the first part of the studio. The project is located in New York City. Travelling through this specific city as an outsider, our understanding of it is largely limited by the scope of the Rapid Transit network, as this is the primary means of public transportation that is available. This very much limits the scope of what one experiences of the city to a reasonable walking distance from subway stations. The New York City of our experience is thereby limited by areas of about a quarter-mile in diameter located along the public transport lines. Inspired by this notion of our limited experience of the city by the constraint of its public transportation network, the project departs with the development of a notation system for the representation of different networks and connections between networks in the city. To develop a notion of these determine our experience of the city. Based on this notion of networks and nodes, the project follows a very methodological approach which focusses on the genesis of architectural form based on flow and movement and the architectural and constructive expression of the specific complex 3 dimensional geometries, generated from these flows and movements. In this approach the process and method are the driving force that prevails over esthetic or formal decisions. The analysis of the rapid transit network was limited to 24 stations, as shown in the next image. It primarily focussed on the functioning of two specific Elevated and Underground stations and the sequencing of the transition from one network into the other. The design itself was developed in the Queens Plaza area (red circle), where the Manhattan and Brooklyn portions of the network come together but remain strangely disconnected.
  • 3. The Bronx Long Island Sound er Riv River East on an ds att Hu nh Ma Queens Queens plaza Bedford-Nostrand Avenue Norwood Avenue Upper New York Bay Brooklyn Staten Island Lower New York Bay Atlantic Ocean 0 2 4 6 8 10KM N
  • 4. Node and network Mapping movement, exchange, connectivity, transition and phasing
  • 5. Phase 1 | Relocation Phase 3 | Disconnection Phase 5 | Relocation / Re-connection Phase 7 | Re-connection / Submergence 1 9 10 11 16 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 12 13 14 15 17 Phase 2 | Re-orientation Phase 4 | Submergence (1st phase) Phase 6 | Re-orientation Phase 4 | Exposure
  • 6. Flow and movement Queens plaza as a multi-layered network system The analysis of the design location, Queens plaza, developed some interesting insights into the functioning of this location as a node in the transport networks of New York city, as well as into the notion of networks as an architectural tool in general. Queens plaza itself is an important interchange for the borough of Queens, where large numbers of commuters to and from Manhattan pass through each day. It is highly chaotic, disorganised and hard to read. The different public transport networks on the location are hardly connected to each other and difficult to interchange. The primary aim of the commuter retreat is to reintegrate and connect these networks and (re-)develop Queens plaza as a node. It aims to create a direct passage from the Subway to the Elevated train system and develop a contradictory program, a health and conference centre, within this passage. The analysis also points out that the notion of network is a good way to describe the patterns of use by different modes of transportation on a specific location. The notion of network is used to describe the constellation of flows, which are in turn a description of the movement of users through an urban configuration. When combined with specific information about speed of movement and numbers of users, a 3 dimensional spatial representation of these flow patterns can be developed. This notion in combination with the hierarchical branching of the flow patterns that becomes visible, is the driving idea behind the architectural development of the newly introduced connections that form the building.
  • 7. We Sat ekda y Sun urday s: 91 day s: 3 17 s: 2 634 user 332 us s use ers rs Q67 & B61-line 3109 / 256 / 156 users & Q101 & Q102-line 19798 / 11629 / 8162 users 4520 / 1947 / 1546 users & 3168 / 1704 / 1218 users Q101 & Q102-line 4520 / 1947 / 1546 users & 3168 / 1704 / 1218 users 3 u use ers 59 0 us se rs Primary phase pedestrian routes s: 93 2 Q19A & Q39-line ay s: 83 rs 10444 / 4466 / 2948 users & nd ay : 2 Su rd ays 7692 / 2324 / 1319 users Secondary phase pedestrian routes Sa eekd W tu Third phase pedestrian routes Primary phase car routes Secondary phase car routes Third phase car routes Q32 & Q60-line 14778 / 11602 / 8879 users & 15888 / 13050 / 11227 Bus routes users Q32 & Q60-line Rapid transit routes 14778 / 11602 / 8879 users & 15888 / 13050 / 11227 users Bus stops s ser 4u s 628 4 user s: day : 270 users Primary car nodes ek We rdays 1740 u Sat days: Sun Secondary car nodes Pedestrian nodes N Transition nodes
  • 8. Connection Introduction of a new network layer and additional program The design of the Commuter Retreat is based on the notions of flow, movement, connectivity and the network as a basic means of notating these phenomena. The design was generated from these notions and aims to test these notions as architectural tools by means of 3D computer modeling with Nurbs surfaces. This is crucial, as these surfaces are defined in space by vectors , which have a specific speed and direction, rather than by points, which are static. This type of modeling is fundamental to a different way of thinking about and dealing with 3 dimensional spaces, which can now be based on movement and transformation rather than stasis. The primary function of the building is to connect the underground subway station to the Elevated station above ground, in order to create a new connection between two separate networks. In to this basic connection the function of a retreat centre, consisting of a Health centre, with several pools and spa’s and a conference centre is added. This program is divided into three main elements. These main elements are each organized along one path connecting the two stations. Each of these paths branches into four specific routes, with specific speed of use and privacy. The programmatic units of each of the elements are ordered along these paths according to their specific requirements. The elements are then ordered on the location in plan and section and assigned a specific location in the 3D space of the location. The shape of the routes is determined by these locations and so by the specific programmatic requirements. The building now consists of twelve specific routes with connected program.
  • 9. Coccoon 15 x 4 Whirlpool 2x10 Ice pool 25 Steam pool 25 Sauna 2 x 40 Massage room 2 x 15 Cold pool 2x 50 960 m2 Health centre Hot pool 2 x 50 Seminar room 4 x 40 Fitness room 150 2 Swimming pool 250 Dressing rooms Showers Toilets program Lockers 980 m2 Service Library Restaurant Bar Terrace program Public toilet 672 m2 Kiosk Public Info Ticket 0 Garden Conference Reading room 40 Workplace 10 x 4 570 m2 centre Media room 50 Discussion room 4 x 30 Presentation room 3 x 50 1 Conference room 2 x 100
  • 10. A B A
  • 11. Point Vector Line Spline Nurbs surface Polygon surface
  • 12. Distribu on of programma c elements over four paths per route according speed of ac on and privacy level Private 4 23 Public 1
  • 13. Distribu on of programma c elements on each path according to privacy level Public Private Public
  • 14. Distribu on of programma c elements determines the loca on of control points in sec on Con ngency: Z - Coordinate Dependency of elements: Z & X coordinates 00
  • 15. PRODUCTIVE TRANSFER SPEED Path 0.3 Subway Library 150 m2 Toilets 2 x 15 m2 Bar 200 m2 Toilets 2 x 15 m2 Restaurant 200 m2 Elevated -05 -03 +00 +03 +10 +15
  • 16. REFLECTIVE TRANSFER SPEED Path 2.4 Subway Cold Pool 50 m2 Hot pool 50 m2 Steam pool 25 m2 Whirlpool 10 m2 Coccoon Sauna Coccoon 40 m2 Coccoon Whirlpool Coccoon 10 m2 Coccoon Ice pool Coccoon 25 m2 Coccoon Cold Pool Coccoon 50 m2 Coccoon Coccoon Hot pool 10 x 4 m2 50 m2 Elevated -05 -03 +00 +03 +10 +15
  • 17. Distribu on of programma c elements determines the loca on of control points in plan Scale and loca on of program X & Y coordinates
  • 18. Restaurant 200 m2 Toilets 2 x 15 m2 Toilets 2 x 15 m2 Bar 200 m2 Toilets 2 x 15 m2 Toilets 2 x 15 m2 Library 150 m2 Path 0.3 - Bar and restaurant
  • 19. Hot pool 50 m2 Coccoon Coccoon Cold Pool Coccoon 50 m2 Coccoon Coccoon Ice pool Coccoon 25 m2 Coccoon Whirlpool Coccoon 10 m2 Coccoon Sauna Coccoon 40 m2 Coccoon 10 x 4 m2 Whirlpool 10 m2 Steam pool 25 m2 Hot pool 50 m2 Cold Pool 50 m2 Path 2.4- Spa pools and retreat spaces
  • 20. Coccoon Coccoon CoccoonCoccoon CoccoonCoccoonCoccoon Coccoon Coccoon Coccoon Workspace Workspace Workspace Workspace Workspace 10 x 4 m2 Pa th 2 .4 Workspace Pa th 2 Seminar room 4 m2 4 m2 4 m2 4 m2 4 m2 Pa th 2 .3 Hot pool Ice pool Cold Pool Sauna Hot pool Cold Pool Whirlpool Whirlpool Steam pool Pa Workspacex 4m2 10 40 m2 Pa h 2 .2 50 m2 25 m2 50 m2 40 m2 50 m2 50 m2 10 m2 10 m2 25 m2 .1 Seminar room Fitness room 4 t Workspace 0. 40 m2 150 m2 3 th Bar 0. Kiosk Massage room th 200 m2 Pa 10 m2 Workspace Restaurantm2 15 Massage Dressing roomsDressing rooms room Lockers 200 m2 15 m2 4 x 20 m2 4 x 20 m2 50 m2 Workspace Toilets Toilets Toilets Showers Workspace 2 x 15 m2 2 x 15 m2 Showers 2 x 15 m2 Toilets 2 x 20 m2 2 x 20 m2 Swimming pool 2 x 15 m2 Garden Workspace 250 m2 600 m2 Coccoon Coccoon Ticket vending Kiosk boot Informa on Public toilet Library 5 x 4 m2 Workspace 10 m2 15 m2 12 m2 150Relax room m2 40 m2 Workspace Terrace Public toilet 200 m2 15 m2 Coccoon Workspace Coccoon Coccoon Discussion Room Seminar room Conference room 30 m2 Reading room 40 m2 100 m2 Discussion room 40 m2 30 m2 Discussion room Reading room 30 m2 Media room m2 Discussion Room 40 50 Path 0.4 m2 .4 .4 30 m2 Presenta on room Path 1.4 .4 4 Presenta on room 50 m2 Seminar room 50 m2 Path 2.4 4 40 m2 Conference room Path 2.1Path 2.3 a 100 m2 Path 1.2 Path 0.1 a Surroundings Path 1.3 Path 1.1 Path 0.2 Path 0.3 th 3 h Paths 1.1 to 1.4 P Path 2.2 Conference center Paths 0.1 to 0.4 Service functions Paths 2.1 to 2.4 Health center .1 h1 Pat h 1.4 Pat 1.3 h Pat 1.2 Collective program h Pat 0.2 h Pat 0.1 (Conference center) h Pat Private program (Health center) Public & supportive program
  • 21. Data Points: Control point at -10 m Control point at -05 m Control point at -03 m Control point at +00 m Control point at +03 m Control point at +05 m Control point at +10 m Control point at +15 m
  • 22. Transformation Manipulation of a 3 dimensional diagram to a spatial configuration From the basic 2D diagrams created in the previous phase, the basic 3D model is developed. Through a series of transformations, each time a new layer of information is added and the basic spatial configuration of the building is determined. The location and basic shape of the program is consolidated as well as the set-up of the double layered skin that is intended to deal with the specific requirements of each element of the building. The inner layer of skin is to become specific to the characteristics of the programmatic elements and the flow pattern and the outer skin is meant to deal with external factors of load-bearing and shielding from the elements.
  • 23. Extrusion of a basic geometry along dened spline
  • 24. Path 0.3 - Bar and restaurant
  • 25. Path 2.4- Spa pools and retreat spaces
  • 26. Scale width of the geometry with the cuvature to accomodate the scale of the program
  • 27. Path 0.3 - Bar and restaurant
  • 28. Path 2.4- Spa pools and retreat spaces
  • 29. Sweep nurbs sec on along modied path to create the geometry of the outer skin
  • 30. Path 0.3 - Bar and restaurant
  • 31. Path 2.4- Spa pools and retreat spaces
  • 32. Insert programma c volumes and stairs into the developed geometry
  • 33. Path 0.3 - Bar and restaurant
  • 34. Path 2.4- Spa pools and retreat spaces
  • 35. Sweep nurbs geometry along paths outside inserted programma c volumes to create the basic inner skin
  • 36. Path 0.3 - Bar and restaurant
  • 37. Path 2.4- Spa pools and retreat spaces
  • 38. Deformation Manipulating 3 dimensional geometries to accommodate specific requirements In this phase the two layers of skin, are deformed and manipulated to the specificity of the programmatic in fill on the inside and the structural requirements on the outside, in order to develop an architectural expression for the diagrammatic 3D model. By means of developing sequences of sections that are designed specific to the local programmatic requirements, the diagrammatic 3D model is rebuild and made specific.
  • 39. A Bra nc hin ga nd de pro for gra mm ma o na a c in llo win ll g B
  • 40. Standard A BC Straight Deforma on shaping A BC programma c space Theater D A BC Pool
  • 41. Path 2.4- Spa pools and retreat spaces
  • 42. Information Developing the architectural expression of the 3D model Onto the deformed 3D model a constructive grid is projected that runs in three directions, in order to deal with the load-bearing requirements. This grid is developed as steel sections that carry the separate layers of skin and accommodate their shape. The outer, structural skin is developed by projecting simple construction elements onto the complex 3D skin and have the computer calculate their specific parametric deformation. (Parametric modelling). This information can be directly used for the computer aided manufacturing of these elements. The specificity of the inner skin to the programmatic requirements is developed through the manipulation of the control points of the nurbs surfaces. The shape now becomes specific to the level of benches and cabinets. To be able to control these manipulation, a grid with four directions, a diagrid, is projected onto the model. The supportive functions and technical requirements like installations are solved in between the two layers of skin.
  • 43. East bound elevated platform North bound elevated platform +15 +10 Elevated station mezzanine Workspaces +05 Public garden and terrace +03 Public workspaces Bar area Dressing rooms ans showers Fitness room +00 Lockers and storage Dressing rooms and showers Floorplan Physical model Restaurant area Section AA Subway mezzanine Public library -05 Cold pool area Sauna and whirlpool area Main swimming pool Hot pool area -10 Subway platforms Seminar room
  • 44. Grid Constructive grid Diagrid
  • 45. Development 1 to 100 A Construc on 1 to 50 3 A 2 1
  • 46. South elevation East elevation
  • 47. North elevation West elevation
  • 48. K 2100 L 2 2100 M 2100 N 2100 O 2100 P 2100 Q 2100 2100 R 2100 S 2100 T 2100 U 2100 V 2100 19 W 2100 X 2100 Y 2100 2100 2100 A 2100 2100 2100 2100 18 2100 9 17 2100 10 16 2100 A 15 2100 14 12 2100 13 2 2100 3 12 2100 11 11 14 3 2100 13 14 10 14 19 2100 1 4 14 9 14 15 15 2100 3 16 8 7 2100 18 7 17 5 7 6 6 2100 6 8 2100 5 2100 Floorplan restaurant area 1 to 100 Construc on 4 1 to 50 A Sec on 1 to 100 A A 2100 3 A c on 2100 jec on constru 2 N 2100 Axonometric pro 1
  • 49. 2 3 3 1 4 3 7 7 5 6 6 8
  • 50. 1 2 3 4 5 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 10 11 6 9 7 8 7 6 5 16 17 4 3 2 1 1 1 2 3 0 10 1 11 4 9 7 14 2 15 5 12 13 5 6 Floorplan restaurant area 1 to 100 7 Construc on 1 to 50 A 6 Sec on 1 to 100 A A 3 12 8 8 A 4 5 6
  • 51. 17 1 2 3 10 11 4 9 7 14 15 5 12 13 5 6 7 6 12 8 8
  • 52. 17 3 10
  • 53. Consolidation Technical development of the architectural model In this final phase the principles of file-to-factory techniques are developed to the level of a conceptual detailing. The basic set up of the nodes in the structural system and the possible deformation they can accommodate is modelled and tested. The complete approach of CAD/CAM is tested by making a scale model of the building, based on the smaller version of these techniques.
  • 54. Investigation of structural models on basic section type Steel sections connected by triangulated steel mesh (open) Steel sections connected by triangulated steel mesh (clad) Steel sections connected by triangulated steel mesh on top and segmented concrete bottom (partly underground sections) Segmented solid section (underground sections)
  • 55. 1 2 / Detail A 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
  • 56. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
  • 57. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
  • 58. 800.00 Cardboard 3,0 mm: Cardboard 3,0 mm: 450.00 450.00 800.00 800.00 Cardboard 3,0 mm: Cardboard 3,0 mm: 450.00 450.00 800.00 800.00 Cardboard 3,0 mm: Cardboard 3,0 mm:
  • 59. Commuter Retreat A refuge in the middle of rush-hour P5 presentation Pieter Schreurs Border Conditions - New York City 31-03-2009 phmschreurs@hotmail.com +31(0)6-21256096

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