Ontologie et al.-
Begriffsdefinitionen im Kontext
Wissensrepräsentation

                              Peter Scheir
      ...
Überblick


   Einführung - Ontologie
   Taxonomie
   Thesaurus
   Semantisches Netz / Assoziatives Netz
   Concept Map
  ...
Ontologie (Gruber) [1]


   explicit specification of a conceptualization
   conceptualization is an abstract, simplified ...
Taxonomie


   Einteilung von Dingen in Gruppen
   Kontrolliertes Vokabular
   Kann hierarchische sein


   Z.B. Einteilun...
Taxonomie




                                                             5
                                  http://www....
Thesaurus


   Wortnetz
   Kontrolliertes Vokabular
   Begriffe mit typisierten Relationen
   Definierte Menge an Relation...
Thesaurus




                                                             7
                                  http://www....
Überblick


   Ontologie
   Taxonomie
   Thesaurus
   Semantisches Netz / Assoziatives Netz
   Concept Map
   Conceptual G...
Semantic Network / Semantisches Netz


   Netzwerk von Begriffen
   Kontrolliertes Vokabular
   Typisierte Relationen
   B...
Semantic Network / Semantisches Netz


   Oft auf Quillian (1968) [5] zurückgeführt.
   Spezielle Typen von Relationen:
  ...
Semantic Network / Semantisches Netz


   Graphische Sprache
   Knoten stehen für Konzept
   Kanten für Beziehung zwischen...
Assoziatives Netzwerk


   Netzwerk von Dingen
   Kanten stehen für Assoziation zwischen Dinge
   Können benannt und/oder ...
Concept Map


   Graphisches Werkzeug für:
      Wissensdarstellung
      Brainstorming
      Wissensorganisation



   Ko...
Concept Map




                                                           14
                                http://www.k...
Überblick


   Ontologie
   Taxonomie
   Thesaurus
   Semantisches Netz / Assoziatives Netz
   Concept Map
   Conceptual G...
Conceptual Graphs



     1984 - John Sowa


     Concept
     Conceptual Relation
     Concept Types
     Relation Types
...
Conceptual Graphs [6] [7]




(Betw [Rock] [Place *x] [Person]) (Attr ?x [Hard])
                                         ...
Topic map


   1999 - ISO Standard (ISO 13250)
   Erstellung von Wissensstrukturen
   Verbindung der Struktur mit Informat...
XML Topic Maps


   2001 - XML Topic Maps (XTM) 1.0
   XML Standard zur Serialisierung von Topic Maps




                ...
Topic map [3]




                                                            20
                                 http://w...
Überblick


   Ontologie
   Taxonomie
   Thesaurus
   Semantisches Netz / Assoziatives Netz
   Concept Map
   Conceptual G...
Ontologie (Gruber) [1]


   explicit specification of a conceptualization
   conceptualization is an abstract, simplified ...
Ontologie (Gruber) [1]




   Ontologies are often equated with taxonomic
   hierarchies of classes, but class definitions...
Ontologie (Guarino) [2]




   An ontology is a logical theory accounting for the
   intended meaning of a formal vocabula...
Ontologie (Sowa) [8]


   An informal ontology may be specified by a
   catalog of types that are either undefined or
   d...
Ontologie (Obrst) [4]


   With respect to definitions of ontologies, I hope to send a portion of a
   briefing I made at ...
Diskussionsgrundlage


Begriff              Formale          Informale
                     Ontologie        Ontologie
Tax...
Referenzen


 [1] Thomas Gruber, Toward Principles for the Design of Ontologies Used for Knowledge
     Sharing (1993)
 [2...
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Ontologie et al. Begriffsdefinitionen im Kontext Wissensrepräsentation

  1. 1. Ontologie et al.- Begriffsdefinitionen im Kontext Wissensrepräsentation Peter Scheir TU Graz & Know-Center http://www.know-center.at/swat © Know-Center - gefördert durch das Kompetenzzentrenprogramm
  2. 2. Überblick Einführung - Ontologie Taxonomie Thesaurus Semantisches Netz / Assoziatives Netz Concept Map Conceptual Graph Topic Map 2 Ontologie http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  3. 3. Ontologie (Gruber) [1] explicit specification of a conceptualization conceptualization is an abstract, simplified view of the world that we wish to represent for some purpose Definitions associate the names of entities in the universe of discourse with human-readable text describing what the names mean, and formal axioms that constrain the interpretation and well-formed use of these terms. Formally, an ontology is the statement of a logical theory 3 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  4. 4. Taxonomie Einteilung von Dingen in Gruppen Kontrolliertes Vokabular Kann hierarchische sein Z.B. Einteilung von Tierarten in ein hierarchischem System 4 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  5. 5. Taxonomie 5 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  6. 6. Thesaurus Wortnetz Kontrolliertes Vokabular Begriffe mit typisierten Relationen Definierte Menge an Relationen: Äquivalenz Assoziation Hierarchische Relationen 6 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  7. 7. Thesaurus 7 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  8. 8. Überblick Ontologie Taxonomie Thesaurus Semantisches Netz / Assoziatives Netz Concept Map Conceptual Graph Topic Map 8 Ontologie http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  9. 9. Semantic Network / Semantisches Netz Netzwerk von Begriffen Kontrolliertes Vokabular Typisierte Relationen Beliebige Menge an Relationstypen 9 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  10. 10. Semantic Network / Semantisches Netz Oft auf Quillian (1968) [5] zurückgeführt. Spezielle Typen von Relationen: is kind of (Kannarienvogel – Vogel) is part of (Flügel – Vogel) 10 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  11. 11. Semantic Network / Semantisches Netz Graphische Sprache Knoten stehen für Konzept Kanten für Beziehung zwischen verbunden Konzepten Semantik von Knoten und Kanten nicht eindeutig interpretierbar 11 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  12. 12. Assoziatives Netzwerk Netzwerk von Dingen Kanten stehen für Assoziation zwischen Dinge Können benannt und/oder gewichtet sein 12 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  13. 13. Concept Map Graphisches Werkzeug für: Wissensdarstellung Brainstorming Wissensorganisation Konzepte und Verbindungen Kein zentraler Begriff (wie in Mindmap) 13 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  14. 14. Concept Map 14 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  15. 15. Überblick Ontologie Taxonomie Thesaurus Semantisches Netz / Assoziatives Netz Concept Map Conceptual Graph Topic Map 15 Ontologie http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  16. 16. Conceptual Graphs 1984 - John Sowa Concept Conceptual Relation Concept Types Relation Types 16 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  17. 17. Conceptual Graphs [6] [7] (Betw [Rock] [Place *x] [Person]) (Attr ?x [Hard]) 17 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  18. 18. Topic map 1999 - ISO Standard (ISO 13250) Erstellung von Wissensstrukturen Verbindung der Struktur mit Information Topics (Types, Names) Assoziationen (Types, Roles) Occurences (Roles) 18 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  19. 19. XML Topic Maps 2001 - XML Topic Maps (XTM) 1.0 XML Standard zur Serialisierung von Topic Maps 19 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  20. 20. Topic map [3] 20 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  21. 21. Überblick Ontologie Taxonomie Thesaurus Semantisches Netz / Assoziatives Netz Concept Map Conceptual Graph Topic Map 21 Ontologie http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  22. 22. Ontologie (Gruber) [1] explicit specification of a conceptualization conceptualization is an abstract, simplified view of the world that we wish to represent for some purpose Definitions associate the names of entities in the universe of discourse with human-readable text describing what the names mean, and formal axioms that constrain the interpretation and well-formed use of these terms. Formally, an ontology is the statement of a logical theory 22 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  23. 23. Ontologie (Gruber) [1] Ontologies are often equated with taxonomic hierarchies of classes, but class definitions, and the subsumption relation, but ontologies need not be limited to these forms. … To specify a conceptualization one needs to state axioms that do constrain the possible interpretations for the defined terms. 23 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  24. 24. Ontologie (Guarino) [2] An ontology is a logical theory accounting for the intended meaning of a formal vocabulary, i.e. its ontological commitment to a particular conceptualization of the world. The intended models of a logical language using such a vocabulary are constrained by its ontological commitment. An ontology indirectly reflects this commitment (and the underlying conceptualization) by approximating these intended models. an ontology is language-dependent a conceptualization is language-independent 24 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  25. 25. Ontologie (Sowa) [8] An informal ontology may be specified by a catalog of types that are either undefined or defined only by statements in a natural language. A formal ontology is specified by a collection of names for concept and relation types organized in a partial ordering by the type- subtype relation. 25 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  26. 26. Ontologie (Obrst) [4] With respect to definitions of ontologies, I hope to send a portion of a briefing I made at the Army Knowledge Management Conference in Ft. Lauderdale late Aug/early Sept of 2004, that takes you through the ontology spectrum, from taxonomy (weak and strong) to thesaurus (a strong term taxonomy+) to conceptual model (weak ontology) to logical theory (strong ontology). The first is unstandardized, the second and third each has a set of standards associated with them, the third and fourth have multiple representation languages supporting them, and the last has some logic behind the representation language, typically ranging from a description logic (OWL) to first-order logic (KIF, Common Logic) to a higher order logic. A logical theory is a formal ontology. The others range from informal to semi-formal. Other informal ontologies can be natural language sentences in a document. The key point about formal ontologies (logical theories) is that they are machine-interpretable, i.e., semantically interpretable by machine. The others are not, are only interpretable by human beings, though they may be machine- 26 readable and machine-processable. http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  27. 27. Diskussionsgrundlage Begriff Formale Informale Ontologie Ontologie Taxonomie ~ Thesaurus Semantisches Netz ~ Assoziatives Netz ~ ~ Concept Map Conceptual Graph Topic Map 27 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI
  28. 28. Referenzen [1] Thomas Gruber, Toward Principles for the Design of Ontologies Used for Knowledge Sharing (1993) [2] Nicola Guarino, Formal Ontology and Information Systems (1998) [3] Steve Pepper, The TAO of Topic Maps, http://www.ontopia.net/topicmaps/materials/tao.html [4] Leo Obrst, Re: [ontolog-forum] Updating the Ontolog Charter ... definitionsandUBL (2005), http://ontolog.cim3.net/forum//ontolog-forum/2005-03/msg00005.html#nid04 [5] Ross Quillian, Semantic Memory (1968) [6] John Sowa, Conceptual Graph Examples, http://www.jfsowa.com/cg/cgexampw.htm [7] John Sowa, Conceptual Graph Standard, http://www.jfsowa.com/cg/cgstand.htm [8] John Sowa, Ontology, http://www.jfsowa.com/ontology/ 28 http://www.know-center.at/swat 05/2006 © Know-Center / KMI

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