Understanding Cancer and Related Topics Understanding Cancer Developed by:Lewis J. Kleinsmith, Ph.D.Donna Kerrigan, M.S.Jeanne KellyBrian Hollen Discusses and illustrates what cancer is, explains the link between genes and cancer, and discusses what is known about the causes, detection, and diagnosis of the disease. These PowerPoint slides are not locked files. You can mix and match slides from different tutorials as you prepare your own lectures. In the Notes section, you will find explanations of the graphics. The art in this tutorial is copyrighted and may not be reused for commercial gain.Please do not remove the NCI logo or the copyright mark from any slide. These tutorials may be copied only if they are distributed free of charge for educational purposes.
What Is Cancer?
Different Kinds of Cancer Leukemias: Bloodstream Some common carcinomas: Lung Breast (women) Colon Bladder Prostate (men) Lymphomas: Lymph nodes Some common sarcomas: Fat Bone Muscle
Naming Cancers Cancer Prefixes Point to Location Prefix Meaning adeno- gland chondro- cartilage erythro- red blood cell hemangio- blood vessels hepato- liver lipo- fat lympho- lymphocyte melano- pigment cell myelo- bone marrow myo- muscle osteo- bone
Loss of Normal Growth Control Normal cell division Cell Suicide or Apoptosis Cell damage—no repair Cancer cell division Fourth orlater mutation Third mutation Second mutation First mutation Uncontrolled growth
Example of Normal Growth Dead cells shed from outer surface Epidermis Cell migration Dividing cells in basal layer Dermis
The Beginning of Cancerous Growth Underlying tissue
Tumors (Neoplasms) Underlying tissue
Invasion and Metastasis 1 Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and blood vessels 2 Cancer cells are transported by the circulatory system to distant sites 3 Cancer cells reinvade and grow at new location
Malignant versus Benign Tumors Malignant (cancer) cells invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and metastasize to different sites Benign (not cancer) tumor cells grow only locally and cannot spread by invasion or metastasis Time
Why Cancer Is Potentially Dangerous Brain Melanoma cells travel through bloodstream Liver Melanoma(initial tumor)