ITEP-132
                                       O.S. Application

Psalm Joseph Blanco                                     ...
•   Firmware, which is software programmed resident to electrically programmable
       memory devices on board mainboards...
The term "software" was first used in this sense by John W. Tukey in 1958.[3] In computer
   science and software engineer...
•   interpreters
   •   linkers
   •   text editors

An Integrated development environment (IDE) is a single application t...
Application software is often purchased separately from computer hardware. Sometimes
       applications are bundled with ...
Execution
Main article: Execution (computing)

Computer software has to be "loaded" into the computer's storage (such as a...
Patents
Main articles: Software patent and Software patent debate

Software can be patented; however, software patents can...
increasingly used in many different areas like in finance, web searching, data mining,
mathematics, space exploration, gam...
Answer 3


                Job of O.S. (Operating System) to the Computer System

       The O.S. Derives from a word Oper...
Answer no. 4
                                    10 Example of O.S.


   Mac OS X




   Mac OS X (pronounced /mæk oʊ ɛs t...
UBUNTU 9.10 Karmic Koala                             UBUNTU LTS Beta 2

Ubuntu (pronounced /ʊˈbʊntu/),[5][6] is a computer...
OS/2




                     OS/2 Warp 4 Desktop
OS/2 is a computer operating system, initially created by Microsoft and ...
Solaris




Solaris is a Unix operating system introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1992 as the successor to
SunOS.

Solaris ...
Windows 3.1 – 3.11




                     Win. 3.11 Desktop

Windows 3.1x is a series of 16-bit operating systems produc...
ACORN




Acorn command line interface

Acorn's Machine Operating System (MOS)[1] or OS was a computer operating system us...
AMIGA




Workbench 1.0 desktop                            New OS of Amiga

The 1.x series of Amiga OS defaults to a disti...
Windows Server 2003




Windows Server 2003 (also referred to as Win2K3) is a server operating system produced by
Microsof...
WINDOWS 98 First and Second Edition




Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system by Microsoft. It wa...
•   Upgrading from Windows 95 (FAT16) or 3.1 (FAT): 140-400 MB (typically 205 MB).
   •   New installation (FAT32): 190-30...
WINDOWS SEVEN




Windows 7 is a version of Microsoft Windows, a series of operating systems produced by
Microsoft for use...
The new Action Center, which replaces Windows Security Center




When the action center detects a security threat, it dis...
button is part of the new feature in Windows 7 called Aero Peek. Hovering over this button
makes all visible windows trans...
DirectX 10 in remote desktop environments.[61] The three application limit, previously present in
the Windows Vista Starte...
Update, and add USB 3.0 support, improvements to Bluetooth performance and an updated
       Remote Desktop client impleme...
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Exam 1 in ITEP 132

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Exam 1 in ITEP 132

  1. 1. ITEP-132 O.S. Application Psalm Joseph Blanco April 10, 2010 Mr. Sandoval BS-Info. Tech – III 1. What is a Software? 2. What is a Different type of Software? and describe each 3. What do you think of Operating System to the Computer System? 4. Give 10 example of O.S. 5. What is your expectation of ITEP-132 (Operating System Application).? Answer no. 1 SOFTWARE Computer software, or just software is a general term primarily used for digitally stored data such as computer programs and other kinds of information read and written by computers. Today, this includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes and records.[1] The term was coined in order to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical devices); in contrast to hardware, software is intangible, meaning it "cannot be touched".[2] Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Examples: • Application software, such as word processors which perform productive tasks for users.
  2. 2. • Firmware, which is software programmed resident to electrically programmable memory devices on board mainboards or other types of integrated hardware carriers. • Middleware, which controls and co-ordinates distributed systems. • System software such as operating systems, which govern computing resources and provide convenience for users. • Software testing is a domain independent of development and programming. Software testing consists of various methods to test and declare a software product fit before it can be launched for use by either an individual or a group. • Testware, which is an umbrella term or container term for all utilities and application software that serve in combination for testing a software package but not necessarily may optionally contribute to operational purposes. As such, testware is not a standing configuration but merely a working environment for application software or subsets thereof. • Video games (except the hardware part) • Websites Overview Software includes all the various forms and roles that digitally stored data may have and play in a computer (or similar system), regardless of whether the data is used as code for a CPU, or other interpreter, or whether it represents other kinds of information. Software thus encompasses a wide array of products that may be developed using different techniques such as ordinary programming languages, scripting languages, microcode, or an FPGA configuration. The types of software include web pages developed in languages and frameworks like HTML, PHP, Perl, JSP, ASP.NET, XML, and desktop applications like OpenOffice, Microsoft Word developed in languages like C, C++, Java, C#, or Smalltalk. Application software usually runs on an underlying software operating systems such as Linux or Microsoft Windows. Software (or firmware) is also used in video games and for the configurable parts of the logic systems of automobiles, televisions, and other consumer electronics. Computer software is so called to distinguish it from computer hardware, which encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor. A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. Programs are an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer in a particular sequence. It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language. High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code. Software may also be written in an assembly language, essentially, a mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet. Assembly language must be assembled into object code via an assembler.
  3. 3. The term "software" was first used in this sense by John W. Tukey in 1958.[3] In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all computer programs. The theory that is the basis for most modern software was first proposed by Alan Turing in his 1935 essay Computable numbers with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem (Decision problem).[4] Answer no. 2 Different type of Sofware and Description Types of software Practical computer systems divide software systems into three major classes[citation needed]: system software, programming software and application software, although the distinction is arbitrary, and often blurred. System software System software helps run the computer hardware and computer system. It includes a combination of the following: • device drivers • operating systems • servers • utilities • windowing systems The purpose of systems software is to unburden the applications programmer from the often complex details of the particular computer being used, including such accessories as communications devices, printers, device readers, displays and keyboards, and also to partition the computer's resources such as memory and processor time in a safe and stable manner. Examples are - Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. Programming software Programming software usually provides tools to assist a programmer in writing computer programs, and software using different programming languages in a more convenient way. The tools include: • compilers • debuggers
  4. 4. • interpreters • linkers • text editors An Integrated development environment (IDE) is a single application that attempts to manage all these functions. Application software Application software allows end users to accomplish one or more specific (not directly computer development related) tasks. Typical applications include: • industrial automation • business software • video games • quantum chemistry and solid state physics software • telecommunications (i.e., the Internet and everything that flows on it) • databases • educational software • medical software • military software • molecular modeling software • image editing • spreadsheet • simulation software • Word processing • Decision making software Application software exists for and has impacted a wide variety of topics. Software topics Architecture See also: Software architecture Users often see things differently than programmers. People who use modern general purpose computers (as opposed to embedded systems, analog computers and supercomputers) usually see three layers of software performing a variety of tasks: platform, application, and user software. • Platform software: Platform includes the firmware, device drivers, an operating system, and typically a graphical user interface which, in total, allow a user to interact with the computer and its peripherals (associated equipment). Platform software often comes bundled with the computer. On a PC you will usually have the ability to change the platform software. • Application software: Application software or Applications are what most people think of when they think of software. Typical examples include office suites and video games.
  5. 5. Application software is often purchased separately from computer hardware. Sometimes applications are bundled with the computer, but that does not change the fact that they run as independent applications. Applications are usually independent programs from the operating system, though they are often tailored for specific platforms. Most users think of compilers, databases, and other "system software" as applications. • User-written software: End-user development tailors systems to meet users' specific needs. User software include spreadsheet templates, word processor [Platform software: Platform includes the firmware, device drivers, an operating system, and typically a graphical user interface which, in total, allow a user to interact with the computer and its peripherals (associated equipment). Platform software often comes bundled with the computer. On a PC you will usually have the ability to change the platform software. Even email filters are a kind of user software. Users create this software themselves and often overlook how important it is. Depending on how competently the user-written software has been integrated into default application packages, many users may not be aware of the distinction between the original packages, and what has been added by co- workers. Documentation Main article: Software documentation Most software has software documentation so that the end user can understand the program, what it does, and how to use it. Without a clear documentation, software can be hard to use— especially if it is a very specialized and relatively complex software like the Photoshop or AutoCAD. Developer documentation may also exist, either with the code as comments and/or as separate files, detailing how the programs works and can be modified. Library Main article: Software library An executable is almost always not sufficiently complete for direct execution. Software libraries include collections of functions and functionality that may be embedded in other applications. Operating systems include many standard Software libraries, and applications are often distributed with their own libraries. Standard Main article: Software standard Since software can be designed using many different programming languages and in many different operating systems and operating environments, software standard is needed so that different software can understand and exchange information between each other. For instance, an email sent from a Microsoft Outlook should be readable from Yahoo! Mail and vice versa.
  6. 6. Execution Main article: Execution (computing) Computer software has to be "loaded" into the computer's storage (such as a [hard drive], memory, or RAM). Once the software has loaded, the computer is able to execute the software. This involves passing instructions from the application software, through the system software, to the hardware which ultimately receives the instruction as machine code. Each instruction causes the computer to carry out an operation – moving data, carrying out a computation, or altering the control flow of instructions. Data movement is typically from one place in memory to another. Sometimes it involves moving data between memory and registers which enable high-speed data access in the CPU. Moving data, especially large amounts of it, can be costly. So, this is sometimes avoided by using "pointers" to data instead. Computations include simple operations such as incrementing the value of a variable data element. More complex computations may involve many operations and data elements together. Quality and reliability Main articles: Software quality, Software testing, and Software reliability Software quality is very important, especially for commercial and system software like Microsoft Office, Microsoft Windows and Linux. If software is faulty (buggy), it can delete a person's work, crash the computer and do other unexpected things. Faults and errors are called "bugs." Many bugs are discovered and eliminated (debugged) through software testing. However, software testing rarely – if ever – eliminates every bug; some programmers say that "every program has at least one more bug" (Lubarsky's Law). All major software companies, such as Microsoft, Novell and Sun Microsystems, have their own software testing departments with the specific goal of just testing. Software can be tested through unit testing, regression testing and other methods, which are done manually, or most commonly, automatically, since the amount of code to be tested can be quite large. For instance, NASA has extremely rigorous software testing procedures for many operating systems and communication functions. Many NASA based operations interact and identify each other through command programs called software. This enables many people who work at NASA to check and evaluate functional systems overall. Programs containing command software enable hardware engineering and system operations to function much easier together. License Main article: Software license The software's license gives the user the right to use the software in the licensed environment. Some software comes with the license when purchased off the shelf, or an OEM license when bundled with hardware. Other software comes with a free software license, granting the recipient the rights to modify and redistribute the software. Software can also be in the form of freeware or shareware.
  7. 7. Patents Main articles: Software patent and Software patent debate Software can be patented; however, software patents can be controversial in the software industry with many people holding different views about it. The controversy over software patents is that a specific algorithm or technique that the software has may not be duplicated by others and is considered an intellectual property and copyright infringement depending on the severity. Design and implementation Main articles: Software development, Computer programming, and Software engineering Design and implementation of software varies depending on the complexity of the software. For instance, design and creation of Microsoft Word software will take much longer time than designing and developing Microsoft Notepad because of the difference in functionalities in each one. Software is usually designed and created (coded/written/programmed) in integrated development environments (IDE) like Eclipse, Emacs and Microsoft Visual Studio that can simplify the process and compile the program. As noted in different section, software is usually created on top of existing software and the application programming interface (API) that the underlying software provides like GTK+, JavaBeans or Swing. Libraries (APIs) are categorized for different purposes. For instance, JavaBeans library is used for designing enterprise applications, Windows Forms library is used for designing graphical user interface (GUI) applications like Microsoft Word, and Windows Communication Foundation is used for designing web services. Underlying computer programming concepts like quicksort, hashtable, array, and binary tree can be useful to creating software. When a program is designed, it relies on the API. For instance, if a user is designing a Microsoft Windows desktop application, he/she might use the .NET Windows Forms library to design the desktop application and call its APIs like Form1.Close() and Form1.Show() [5] to close or open the application and write the additional operations him/herself that it need to have. Without these APIs, the programmer needs to write these APIs him/herself. Companies like Sun Microsystems, Novell, and Microsoft provide their own APIs so that many applications are written using their software libraries that usually have numerous APIs in them. Software has special economic characteristics that make its design, creation, and distribution different from most other economic goods.[6][7] A person who creates software is called a programmer, software engineer, software developer, or code monkey, terms that all essentially have a same meaning. Industry and organizations Main article: Software industry The software industry is made up of different entities and peoples that produce software, and as a result there are many software companies and programmers in the world. Because software is
  8. 8. increasingly used in many different areas like in finance, web searching, data mining, mathematics, space exploration, gaming and mining and such, software companies and people usually specialize in certain areas. For instance, Electronic Arts primarily creates video games. Also selling software can be quite a profitable industry. For instance, Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft is the richest person in the world in 2009 largely by selling the Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office software programs. The same goes for Larry Ellison, largely through his Oracle database software. There are also many non-profit software organizations like the Free Software Foundation, GNU Project, Mozilla Foundation. Also there are many software standard organizations like the W3C, IETF and others that try to come up with a software standard so that many software can work and interoperate with each other like through standards such as XML, HTML, HTTP or FTP. Some of the well known software companies include Microsoft, Oracle, Novell, SAP, Symantec, Adobe Systems, and Corel. Many small companies provide innovation. This is particularly important in the Internet information age where individuals set up small websites that compete with big companies.
  9. 9. Answer 3 Job of O.S. (Operating System) to the Computer System The O.S. Derives from a word Operating System is a software that acts as an interface between user of a computer system and the computer hardware and at this point the O.S. acts a host of whole computer system’s consist of (input/output data, printer/scanner, motherboard, processor, memory, storage media such a hard-disk and other peripherals). And as a host or like a Bridge between user and computer system/hardware they manage and coordinate all input and output data through a hardware of computer. Aside from this, our generation in a computer has evolved and many software corporations such as Microsoft built a new GUI (Graphical User Interface) O.S. for the user who actually didn’t know how to use a computer. For the instance copying, deleting and moving files and surfing the net using only mouse and graphics deliver by the O.S. Example of a new GUI Operating System is a Windows Seven a finish product of Microsoft Corp. in October last year. And so Win. Seven has a side-bar such as clock, calendar, picture frame and performance monitor of CPU & RAM/Memory. And as far as I know the only reason why the O.S. is built in all computer micro Computer to Super Computer is to do a Job or a Task concern by the user and also to modified according to the user and for the purpose. Aside from being modified Operating System, some machine have the O.S. that it can not be modified or change. They programmed and attach on a ROM chip & in PCB board to work alone in a according to the device job. Example of a device has a constant Operating System: Television, washing machine, and even PS2 Game.
  10. 10. Answer no. 4 10 Example of O.S. Mac OS X Mac OS X (pronounced /mæk oʊ ɛs tɛn/ mak oh es ten)[6] is a series of operating systems and graphical user interfaces developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. Since 2002, Mac OS X has been included with all new Macintosh computer systems. It is the successor to Mac OS 9, the final release of the "classic" Mac OS, which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984. UBUNTU Operating System
  11. 11. UBUNTU 9.10 Karmic Koala UBUNTU LTS Beta 2 Ubuntu (pronounced /ʊˈbʊntu/),[5][6] is a computer operating system based on the Debian GNU/ Linux distribution. It is named after the Southern African ethical ideology Ubuntu ("humanity towards others")[7] and is distributed as free and open source software with additional proprietary software available. Ubuntu provides an up-to-date, stable operating system for the average user, with a strong focus on usability and ease of installation. Web statistics from late 2009 suggest that Ubuntu's share of Linux desktop usage is between 40 and 50%.[8][9] Ubuntu is composed of multiple software packages, of which the vast majority are distributed under a free software license (also known as open source). The main license used is the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) which, along with the GNU Lesser General Public License (GNU LGPL), explicitly declares that users are free to run, copy, distribute, study, change, develop and improve the software. Ubuntu is sponsored by the UK-based company Canonical Ltd., owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth. By keeping Ubuntu free and open source, Canonical is able to utilize the talents of community developers in Ubuntu's constituent components. Instead of selling Ubuntu for profit, Canonical creates revenue by selling technical support and from creating several services tied to Ubuntu. Canonical endorses and provides support for three additional Ubuntu-derived operating systems: Kubuntu, Edubuntu and Ubuntu Server Edition. There are several other derivative operating systems including local language and hardware-specific versions.[10] Canonical releases new versions of Ubuntu every six months and supports Ubuntu for eighteen months by providing security fixes, patches to critical bugs and minor updates to programs. LTS (Long Term Support) versions, which are released every two years,[11] are supported for three years on the desktop and five years for servers.[12] The latest version of Ubuntu, 9.10 (Karmic Koala), was released on October 29, 2009.
  12. 12. OS/2 OS/2 Warp 4 Desktop OS/2 is a computer operating system, initially created by Microsoft and IBM, then later developed by IBM exclusively. The name stands for "Operating System/2," because it was introduced as part of the same generation change release as IBM's "Personal System/2 (PS/2)" line of second-generation personal computers. OS/2 is no longer marketed by IBM, and IBM standard support for OS/2 was discontinued on 31 December 2006.[1] Currently, Serenity Systems sells OS/2 under the brand name eComStation. OS/2 was intended as a protected mode successor of PC-DOS. Notably, basic system calls were modeled after MS-DOS calls; their names even started with "Dos" and it was possible to create "Family Mode" applications: text mode applications that could work on both systems.[2] Because of this heritage, OS/2 shares similarities with Unix, Xenix, and Windows in many ways.
  13. 13. Solaris Solaris is a Unix operating system introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1992 as the successor to SunOS. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace and ZFS.[1][2] Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. Solaris is certified against the Single Unix Specification. Although it was historically developed as proprietary software, it is supported on systems manufactured by all major server vendors, and the majority of its codebase is now open source software via the OpenSolaris project.
  14. 14. Windows 3.1 – 3.11 Win. 3.11 Desktop Windows 3.1x is a series of 16-bit operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. The series began with Windows 3.1, which was first sold during March 1992 as a successor to Windows 3.0. Further editions were released between 1992 and 1994 until the series was superseded by Windows 95.
  15. 15. ACORN Acorn command line interface Acorn's Machine Operating System (MOS)[1] or OS was a computer operating system used in the Acorn BBC computer range. It included support for four-channel sound and graphics, file system abstraction, and digital and analogue I/O including a daisy-chained fast expansion bus. The implementation was single-tasking, monolithic and non re-entrant. Versions 0.10 to 1.20 were used on the BBC Micro, version 1.00 on the Electron, version 2 was used on the B+, and versions 3 to 5 were used in the BBC Master Series range. The final BBC computer, the BBC A3000, was 32-bit and ran RISC OS. Its operating system used portions of the Acorn MOS architecture and shared a number of characteristics (commands, VDU system) with the earlier 8-bit MOS. Versions 0 and 1 of the MOS were 16KiB in size, written in 6502 machine code, and held in ROM on the motherboard. The upper quarter of the 16-bit address space (0xC000 to 0xFFFF) is reserved for its ROM code and I/O space. Versions 2 to 5 were still restricted to a 16KiB address space but managed to hold more code and hence more complex routines, partly because of the alternative 65C102 CPU with its denser instruction set plus the careful use of paging.
  16. 16. AMIGA Workbench 1.0 desktop New OS of Amiga The 1.x series of Amiga OS defaults to a distinctive blue and orange color scheme, designed to give high contrast on even the worst of television screens (the colors can be changed by the user). Versions 1.1 consists mostly of bug fixes and, like version 1.0, was distributed only for the Amiga 1000. The entire Amiga OS consists of three floppy disks: Kickstart, Workbench and ABasic by MetaComCo. The Amiga1000 model needs a Kickstart disk to be inserted into floppy drive to boot up. An image of a simple illustration of a hand on a white screen, holding a blue Kickstart floppy, invited the user to perform this operation. After the kickstart was loaded into a special section of memory called the writable control store (WCS), the image of the hand appeared again, this time inviting the user to insert the Workbench disk. Workbench Version 1.2 was the first to support Kickstart stored in a ROM. Kickstart disk was still necessary for Amiga1000 models, but it was no longer necessary for Amiga500 or 2000, but the users of these systems must change the ROMs (which were socketed) to change the kickstart version. AmigaOS now spanned two floppy disks, and supported installing and booting from hard drive (assuming the Amiga was equipped with one), the name of the main disk was still named "Workbench" (the user interface portion of the operation system). The second disk was the Extras disk. AmigaOS set of disks was still three disks, due to abolition of Kickstart disk. Users of A1000 could ask a Commodore dealer to obtain one. The third disk was now AmigaBasic by Microsoft. Kickstart Version 1.2 corrected various flaws and added AutoConfig support. AutoConfig is a protocol similar to and is the predecessor of Plug and Play, in that it can configure expansion boards without user intervention. Kickstart Version 1.3 improved little on its predecessor, the most notable change being auto booting from hard drives. Into Workbench 1.3 floppy disk, on the other hand, users can find several significant improvements to AmigaOS, including FFS a faster file system for hard disks storage which resolved the problem of old Amiga filesystem which wasted too much hard disk space due to the fact it could store only 488bytes any block of 512bytes keeping 24 bytes for checksums. Many improvements were made to the CLI (command line interface) of Amiga which was now a complete text based Shell, named AmigaShell, and various additional tools and programs.
  17. 17. Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 (also referred to as Win2K3) is a server operating system produced by Microsoft, introduced on 24 April 2003. An updated version, Windows Server 2003 R2, was released to manufacturing on 6 December 2005. Its successor, Windows Server 2008, was released on 4 February 2008. According to Microsoft, Windows Server 2003 is more scalable and delivers better performance than its predecessor, Windows 2000.[2] New and updated features Manage Your Server See also: Features new to Windows XP • Internet Information Services (IIS) v6.0 - A significantly improved version of IIS. • Increased default security over previous versions, due to the built-in firewall and having most services disabled by default. • Significant improvements to Message Queuing. • Manage Your Server - a role management administrative tool that allows an administrator to choose what functionality the server should provide. • Improvements to Active Directory, such as the ability to deactivate classes from the scheme, or to run multiple instances of the directory server (ADAM) • Improvements to Group Policy handling and administration • Provides a backup system to restore lost files • Improved disk management, including the ability to back up from shadows of files, allowing the backup of open files. • Improved scripting and command line tools, which are part of Microsoft's initiative to bring a complete command shell to the next version of Windows. • Support for a hardware-based "watchdog timer", which can restart the server if the operating system does not respond within a certain amount of time.[3]
  18. 18. WINDOWS 98 First and Second Edition Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system by Microsoft. It was released to manufacturing on 15 May 1998 and to retail on 25 June 1998. Windows 98 is the successor to Windows 95. Like its predecessor, it is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit monolithic product with an MS-DOS based boot loader. Windows 98 was succeeded by Windows Me on 14 September 2000. Microsoft support for Windows 98 ended on 11 July 2006. Windows 98 Second Edition (often shortened to SE) is an updated release of Windows 98, released on 5 May 1999. It includes fixes for many minor issues, improved USB support, and the replacement of Internet Explorer 4.0 with Internet Explorer 5.0. Also included is Internet Connection Sharing, which allows multiple computers on a LAN to share a single Internet connection through Network Address Translation. Other features in the update include Microsoft NetMeeting 3.0 and integrated support for DVD-ROM drives. A memory overflow issue was resolved which in the older version of Windows 98 would crash most systems if left running for 49.7 days (equal to 2 32 milliseconds).[13] Windows 98 SE could be obtained as retail upgrade and full version packages, as well as OEM and a Second Edition Updates Disc for existing Windows 98 users. System requirements • 486DX-2/66 MHz or higher processor (Pentium processor recommended) • 16 MB of RAM (24 MB recommended, it's possible to run on 8 MB machines with /im option used during the installation process) • At least 500 MB of space available on HDD. The amount of space required depends on the installation method and the components selected, but virtual memory and system utilities as well as drivers should be taken into consideration.
  19. 19. • Upgrading from Windows 95 (FAT16) or 3.1 (FAT): 140-400 MB (typically 205 MB). • New installation (FAT32): 190-305 MB (typically 210 MB). • Note 1: Both Windows 98 and Windows 98 SE can have significant problems associated with hard drives that are over 32 Gigabytes (GB) in size. This issue only occurs with certain Phoenix BIOS settings. A software update has been made available to fix this shortcoming.[3] • Note 2: Also, both Windows 98 and Windows 98 SE are unable to handle hard drives that are over 137 Gigabytes (GB) in size with the default drivers, because of missing 48 Bit LBA support. Data corruption is possible. An experimental third party software update is available to fix this shortcoming.[4] • VGA or higher resolution monitor • CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive • Microsoft Mouse or compatible pointing device (optional).[5] Like its predecessor, Windows 95, and its successor, Windows Millennium Edition (Me), users can bypass hardware requirement checks with the undocumented /im setup switch. This allows installation on computers with processors as old as the 80386.
  20. 20. WINDOWS SEVEN Windows 7 is a version of Microsoft Windows, a series of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, netbooks, tablet PCs, and media center PCs.[3] Windows 7 was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009,[4] and reached general retail availability on October 22, 2009,[5] less than three years after the release of its predecessor, Windows Vista. Windows 7's server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 R2, was released at the same time. Unlike its predecessor, which introduced a large number of new features, Windows 7 was intended to be a more focused, incremental upgrade to the Windows line, with the goal of being fully compatible with applications and hardware with which Windows Vista is already compatible.[6] Presentations given by Microsoft in 2008 focused on multi-touch support, a redesigned Windows Shell with a new taskbar, referred to as the Superbar, a home networking system called HomeGroup,[7] and performance improvements. Some applications that have been included with prior releases of Microsoft Windows, including Windows Calendar, Windows Mail, Windows Movie Maker, and Windows Photo Gallery, are not included in Windows 7;[8][9] most are instead offered separately as part of the free Windows Live Essentials suite.[10] New and changed features Main article: Features new to Windows 7
  21. 21. The new Action Center, which replaces Windows Security Center When the action center detects a security threat, it displays a thumbnail with problems listed. Windows 7 includes a number of new features, such as advances in touch and handwriting recognition, support for virtual hard disks, improved performance on multi-core processors,[36][37] [38][39] improved boot performance, DirectAccess, and kernel improvements. Windows 7 adds support for systems using multiple heterogeneous graphics cards from different vendors (Heterogeneous Multi-adapter), a new version of Windows Media Center,[40] a Gadget for Windows Media Center, improved media features, the XPS Essentials Pack and Windows PowerShell being included, and a redesigned Calculator with multiline capabilities including Programmer and Statistics modes along with unit conversion. Many new items have been added to the Control Panel, including ClearType Text Tuner, Display Color Calibration Wizard, Gadgets, Recovery, Troubleshooting, Workspaces Center, Location and Other Sensors, Credential Manager, Biometric Devices, System Icons, and Display.[41] Windows Security Center has been renamed to Windows Action Center (Windows Health Center and Windows Solution Center in earlier builds), which encompasses both security and maintenance of the computer. The default setting for User Account Control in Windows 7 has been criticized for allowing untrusted software to be launched with elevated privileges by exploiting a trusted application.[42] Microsoft's Windows kernel engineer Mark Russinovich acknowledged the problem, but noted that there are other vulnerabilities that do not rely on the new setting.[43] Windows 7 also supports Mac-like RAW image viewing through the addition of WIC-enabled image decoders, which enables raw image thumbnails, previewing and metadata display in Windows Explorer, plus full- size viewing and slideshows in Windows Photo Viewer and Window Media Center.[44] The taskbar has seen the biggest visual changes, where the Quick Launch toolbar has been replaced with pinning applications to the taskbar. Buttons for pinned applications are integrated with the task buttons. These buttons also enable the Jump Lists feature to allow easy access to common tasks.[45] The revamped taskbar also allows the reordering of taskbar buttons. To the far right of the system clock is a small rectangular button that serves as the Show desktop icon. This
  22. 22. button is part of the new feature in Windows 7 called Aero Peek. Hovering over this button makes all visible windows transparent for a quick look at the desktop.[46] In touch-enabled displays such as touch screens, tablet PCs, etc., this button is slightly wider to accommodate being pressed with a finger.[47] Clicking this button minimizes all windows, and clicking it a second time restores them. Additionally, there is a feature named Aero Snap, that automatically maximizes a window when it is dragged to either the top or left/right edges of the screen, similar to Linux.[48] This also allows users to snap documents or files on either side of the screen to compare them. When a user moves windows that are maximized, the system restores their previous state automatically. This functionality is also accomplished with keyboard shortcuts. Unlike in Windows Vista, window borders and the taskbar do not turn opaque when a window is maximized with Windows Aero applied. Instead, they remain translucent. The Windows 7 taskbar. For developers, Windows 7 includes a new networking API with support for building SOAP- based web services in native code (as opposed to .NET-based WCF web services),[49] new features to shorten application install times, reduced UAC prompts, simplified development of installation packages,[50] and improved globalization support through a new Extended Linguistic Services API.[51] At WinHEC 2008 Microsoft announced that color depths of 30-bit and 48-bit would be supported in Windows 7 along with the wide color gamut scRGB (which for HDMI 1.3 can be converted and output as xvYCC). The video modes supported in Windows 7 are 16-bit sRGB, 24-bit sRGB, 30-bit sRGB, 30-bit with extended color gamut sRGB, and 48-bit scRGB. [52][53] Microsoft has also implemented better support for solid-state drives,[54] including the new TRIM command, and Windows 7 is able to identify a solid-state drive uniquely. Microsoft is planning to support USB 3.0 in a subsequent patch, support not being included in the initial release due to delays in the finalization of the standard.[55] Internet Spades, Internet Backgammon and Internet Checkers, which were removed from Windows Vista, were restored in Windows 7. Windows 7 includes Internet Explorer 8 and Windows Media Player 12. Users are also able to disable many more Windows components than was possible in Windows Vista. New additions to this list of components include Internet Explorer, Windows Media Player, Windows Media Center, Windows Search, and the Windows Gadget Platform.[56] Windows 7 includes 13 additional sound schemes, titled Afternoon, Calligraphy, Characters, Cityscape, Delta, Festival, Garden, Heritage, Landscape, Quirky, Raga, Savanna, and Sonata.[57] A new version of Microsoft Virtual PC, newly renamed as Windows Virtual PC was made available for Windows 7 Professional, Enterprise, and Ultimate editions.[58] It allows multiple Windows environments, including Windows XP Mode, to run on the same machine. Windows XP Mode runs Windows XP in a virtual machine and redirects displayed applications running in Windows XP to the Windows 7 desktop.[59] Furthermore, Windows 7 supports the mounting of a virtual hard disk (VHD) as a normal data storage, and the bootloader delivered with Windows 7 can boot the Windows system from a VHD, only in the Professional and Ultimate editions however.[60] The Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) of Windows 7 is also enhanced to support real- time multimedia application including video playback and 3D games, thus allowing use of
  23. 23. DirectX 10 in remote desktop environments.[61] The three application limit, previously present in the Windows Vista Starter Edition, has been removed from Windows 7.[62] Removed features Main article: List of features removed in Windows 7 A number of capabilities and certain programs that were a part of Windows Vista are no longer present or have been changed, resulting in the removal of certain functionality. These include the classic Start Menu user interface, Windows Ultimate Extras and InkBall. Four applications bundled with Windows Vista — Windows Photo Gallery, Windows Movie Maker, Windows Calendar[63] and Windows Mail — are not included with Windows 7, but are instead available for free in a separate package called Windows Live Essentials which can be found on the Microsoft website. Microsoft has published their minimum specifications for a system running Windows 7.[102] Requirements for the 32-bit version are much the same as recommendations for premium editions of Vista, but the 64-bit versions are higher. Microsoft has released an upgrade advisor that scans a computer to see if it is compatible with Windows 7. Minimum hardware requirements for Windows 7[102] Architecture 32-bit 64-bit Processor 1 GHz 32-bit processor 1 GHz 64-bit processor Memory (RAM) 1 GB of RAM 2 GB of RAM Graphics Card DirectX 9 graphics processor with WDDM driver model 1.0 (For Aero) HDD free space 16 GB of available disk space 20 GB of available disk space Optical drive DVD drive (only to install from DVD/CD Media) Additional requirements to use certain features:[102] • Windows XP Mode (available on Professional, Ultimate and Enterprise), requires an additional 1 GB of RAM, an additional 15 GB of available hard disk space and a processor capable of hardware virtualization with Intel VT or AMD-V enabled. The requirement for a processor capable of hardware virtualization has been lifted.[103] • Windows Media Center (included with Home Premium, Professional, Ultimate and Enterprise), requires a TV tuner to receive and record TV. Service Pack Windows 7 Service Pack 1 (SP1) was announced on 18 March 2010 and is currently in development, planned for release in autumn 2010.[104][105] After months of speculation by analysts, Microsoft confirmed that the service pack is to be on a much smaller scale than those released for previous versions of Windows, particularly Windows Vista.[106] Service Pack 1 is expected to contain minor updates, including all patches and hotfixes already delivered through Windows
  24. 24. Update, and add USB 3.0 support, improvements to Bluetooth performance and an updated Remote Desktop client implementing upcoming RemoteFX technology. On 7 April 2010, a build of Windows 7 Service Pack 1 dated from 27 March 2010 was leaked onto torrent sites.[107][108] The leaked service pack has a build number of 6.1.7601.16537.amd64fre.win7.100327-0053 and installation has been reported to be much quicker than service packs for previous versions of Windows.[109] Answer no. 5 My Expectation about ITEP132 My expectation about the subject ITEP132 is to make me familiarize some of the Operating System from old to new O.S., having a GUI or without. And teach me how to use different type of O.S., installing O.S and to configure it according to what type or Setting. Also helping me to become good listener, worker, and a leader And Making me more capable and more flexible in my future work and becoming generously to others by having class seminars, group projects not only to gain knowledge but also to help others by creating projects for others.

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