Workshop presented at the South Australian Christian Schools Library Staff conference, May 2010 http://me.edu.au/p/pru
This presentation is centred around what have become key publications in the world of ICT in education, The Horizon Reports produced by New Media Consortium “ a qualitative research project established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative inquiry on college and university campuses within the next five years. The 2010 Horizon Report is the seventh in the series and is produced as part of an ongoing collaboration between the New Media Consortium (NMC) and the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI) , an EDUCAUSE program.” “ In each edition of the Horizon Report , six emerging technologies or practices are described that are likely to enter mainstream use on campuses within three adoption horizons spread over the next one to five years. Each report also presents critical trends and challenges that will affect teaching and learning over the same time frame.”
Do this individually for 2 minutes, then work as a group of 6 – 8 to agree on three emerging technologies likely to have largest impact in 5 years time
To get most likely picture for Australian schools, may need to consider the intersections of three editions of the Horizon reports To get definitions, descriptions and examples of these technologies check out the relevant edition.
This presentation considers four aspects of technology from the Horizon report predictions that people see may impact on libraries Mobile devices with internet connection – also affects content Open licensing maximises the value of content by facilitating free flow of information, media, data and ideas, and by enabling users to remix these to create new content. E-books – and e-book readers – some argue these won’t be separate from mobile devices Visual data – making sense of mass amounts of information and data, particularly in ways that visual learners/generation will grasp quickly
“ massive and increasing number of people all over the world own and use computers that fit in their hand and are able to connect to the network wirelessly from virtually anywhere. Tens of thousands of applications designed to support a wide variety of tasks on a host of mobile devices and platforms are readily available, with more entering the market all the time. These mobile computing tools have become accepted aids in daily life for everything from business to personal productivity to social networking.” How many internet-enabled phones in this room? Smartphones, iPhone, Blackberry? How many have one of these in their household? How many students have internet-enabled phones? A recent German estimate = 80% of Year 9s. Kerrie Smith’s preliminary survey results: 53% of 10-11 year olds claimed ownership of a mobile phone – not necessarily internet enabled What do they use it for? Phone calls, texting questions/answers, facebook, twitter, searching, getting directions/maps, email, movie reviews
“ The range and number of educational applications for mobiles are growing at a rapid pace, yet their use in schools is limited — more often constrained by policy than by the capabilities of the devices they run on.” iPod touch trials in some Australian schools Check out SlidetoLearn website for excellent overview and pdf guide So when every child in a class has this capacity what difference will it make to the library? Can the OPAC be searched? Can reserves be placed? Can you message students about new resources available for them? Can they ask questions via sms or facebook chat? Can they book resources? Your time? Can you send a quick survey to all teachers asking what themes they are doing in Term 3? How many smart devices have barcode reading capability? RFID tags? What will circulation look like? Most innovation starts by using the new technology to do the same tasks slightly differently? Example the horseless carriage… Twitter ( http://www.twitter.com ) as an in-class discussion tool. Students participate by sending messages to ask and answer questions or expand on thoughts. Another simple tool, Poll Anywhere ( http://www.pollanywhere.com ), turns mobiles into personal response systems,
A new world…. Discuss: Is this is where we are heading? Are we there yet? What are the signs? Is this desirable? Do we want to be part of this? How will we get there? Quote from The CapeTown Open Education Declaration A good introduction to this topic is found in an international declaration on the benefits of open education Q. What qualifies as an open educational resource? The Cape Town Declaration defines open educational resources as &quot;openly licensed course materials, lesson plans, textbooks, games, software and other materials that support teaching and learning.&quot; It goes on to state that these resources should be &quot;... licensed to facilitate use, revision, translation, improvement and sharing by anyone.&quot; The text in the Declaration was inspired by the definition of open educational resources established by UNESCO in 2002.
It’s not only the high cost of current education copyright licence regimes that makes use of openly licensed resources attractive. The ability for teachers to adapt, build upon, remix and re-share learning resources licensed this way has the potential to greatly enhance efficiency and creativity of teaching and learning. Allowing teachers and students to find resources that are licensed in a way that encourages them to use, share and modify content will assist educators to more easily develop relevant learning materials for their students, will encourage them to build on the work of others and to share their own work with other educators. The terminology: mashups The Horizon report (2009) refers to the personalisation of learning resources enabled by Web 2.0. “Many online texts allow professors to edit, add to, or otherwise customize material for their own purposes, so that their students receive a tailored copy that exactly suits the style and pace of the course.” This provides a challenge for schools and libraries that have systems set up around cataloguing and managing resources and textbooks as static physical objects rather than as flexible, digital content that can be repackaged according to individual needs. Creator of the Web 2.0 term, Tim O’Reilly (2006a) makes the point that Web 2.0 saves users re-inventing the wheel continuously, and admonishes data and service providers to “open your data and services for re-use by others, and re-use the data and services of others whenever possible”. We all learn faster when we piggyback on the learning of colleagues. The web builds faster when we build on the back of those who have similar requirements.
Creative Commons licences offer content creators a best-of-both-worlds way to protect their works while encouraging certain uses of them - to declare &quot;some rights reserved”. An excellent way to introduce staff and students to the ideas behind open licensing is to use one of the short videos such as Mayer and Bettle [i] or Wanna work together . [ii] All Creative Commons licences require the user to provide attribution to the creator and just as we teach citation and referencing, school library staff need to ensure their community are informed about the correct and most effective way to fulfil their obligations in use of Creative Commons licences. A useful overview of the licences and their education is available from Smartcopying [iii] . A more detailed look at attribution requirements is also available in draft version, Creative Commons attribution guide for teachers and educators [i] Mayer and Bettle 2008 Creative Commons Australia http://creativecommons.org/videos/mayer-and-bettle [ii] Wanna work together 2006 Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org/videos/wanna-work-together [iii] Creative Commons Resources” 2008 Smartcopying , MCEETYA http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/525
http://flickrcc.bluemountains.net – attribution built-in Find photographs related to your topic Correctly attribute them
This example of best practice from Delia Browne, MCEETYA Recommend that as a rule give attribution for ALL images/media used, even if GPL or public domain or purchased stock photos so that all subsequent users know immediately how to get permission themselves. What proportion of your time is spent teaching about copyright and how to reference information? What proportion of your time is spent teaching about open licensing and how to attribute under Creative Commons?
If you want to know more about copyright in education, use the website smartcopying.edu.au – NOT general copyright agency websites Have you seen this/used it? Explore in workshop Your library spends so much on purchasing content and information that it is not allowed to share. Copyright that might have worked OK for physical resources are now being applied to digital content which doesn't have anything like the cost of production and distribution. Copyright licences are costing way too much, and are far too restrictive. Luckily there is plenty of good quality content available via Creative Commons, Higher education research is being put into open access research repositories
Wikimedia projects are the ultimate in the sharing economy Wikis represent one of the most accessible and flexible platforms for building knowledge and collaborative learning. Todd (2008) describes the power of wikis in terms such as “open, contributory, living documents that facilitate social construction of knowledge, negotiation of meaning, and group’s best effort, not an individual.” In helping students learn about wikis and collaborative learning, it is impossible to ignore the power and potential benefit of collaborative projects such as Wikipedia and the other Wikimedia projects, and we do our students a disservice if we fail to address the specifics of these projects in our information literacy programmes. Wikimedia Commons is a media file repository making available over three million public domain and freely-licensed educational media content (images, sound and video clips) to all and to which anyone can contribute. The important page to work through with students and teachers is Commons: Reusing content outside Wikimedia . [i] [i] Commons: Reusing content outside Wikimedia , 2008 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Commons:Reusing_content_outside_Wikimedia Commons.wikimedia.org – search for pictures, videos etc School libraries can support creative educators and students by providing and promoting efficient access to sources of open learning resources. The Wikimedia (2009) philosophy of bringing free content to the world is one example.
Charles Leadbeater’s book We-think talks about the importance of mass innovation not mass production in the digital age. Resnick (2007) states “if we want children to develop as creative thinkers, we need to provide them with more opportunities to create”. His message is that consuming and interacting with content alone is not enough, we need to be involved in creating, constructing, designing, and reflecting about what we create. However, it is difficult to find evidence of libraries that deal effectively with digital content that makes use of the ‘write’ capabilities of Web 2.0 or user-generated content. However, if we are to assist our community to move from being merely consumers of information to contributors and creators, one of the areas that requires urgent attention is our community’s understanding of 21st century copyright.
Many of the world's most brilliant thinkers are sharing their output openly. Look at the huge volume of blogging, of podcasting and other user contributed content. Top universities release entire courses, podcast their best lecturers. But your library is not guiding people to this valuable content through their catalogue. We are promoting commercial interests only. What incentives can we provide for students, teachers, leaders and library staff to share their content? It is important to make the process easy and also to ensure contributors receive feedback on who or how many people are accessing their content. Provide access for other users to comment and provide feedback, and take opportunities to promote and re-use locally grown material with acknowledgement in your own bibliographies/information packages.
Check out Wikipedia articles for diverse format types, readers etc. Get hold of an e-reader and see how it works, what it is like to read on a dedicated device. It is NOT like reading on a laptop. Benefits: less shelf space, travelling, not as heavy as textbooks, Problems: licensing, sharing is discouraged, can only rent, not purchase content Consider the future: What will a book look like? A database? A journal? What new forms of information may develop?
Kevin McCaney “ Whether it comes in hardcover, paperback or an LCD screen framed by high-grade plastic, you still can’t judge a book by its cover.” http://gcn.com/Blogs/Tech-Blog/2010/02/Ebooks-message-readers-comments.aspx Kerrie Smith: http://blogs.educationau.edu.au/ksmith/2008/12/19/the-e-book-re-visited Carmel Egan: http://www.theage.com.au/national/students-to-dump-textbooks-for-ebooks-20090815-elsu.html Is the iPhone the ultimate e-book reader? http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/is_the_iphone_the_ultimate_ebook_reader.php The distinction between journal, article, book etc and the container is not relevant in digital world Libraries lending Kindles: http://ireaderreview.com/2009/06/16/libraries-lending-kindle - recommend once you have transfered your content that you unregisterthe device through the settings menu on the Kindle. This is because once the device is registered you may make purchases to the default card on the account with out having to log in, and thus preventing a patron from making an accidental purchase on your account.
Librarian in Black, http://www.flickr.com/photos/librarianinblack/3613111410 We need to change some language and some thinking. It’s not black and white/either – or, but it is broader than our current mindset Accessing as well as borrowing Content as well as container Organising for access as well as shelving Visits/downloads/analytics as well as circulation Accessibility, just in time, on demand as well as ownership Open access as well as copyright 24/7 access as well as opening hours Reading/learning/enjoying as well as studying Overabundance as well as scarcity The community as well as the individual Relevance as well as rules Fluency as well as information literacy
The library provides an amazing array of material but the only people who seem to be able to find anything they want are the library staff. The searching system that is available for students is very poor. Library of Congress report says “Library users will continue to bypass catalogs in favor of search engines. Some studies have found that over three-quarters of library users start with a search engine and not the online catalog” Education organisations – integrate with Learning Management system/repository http://www.loc.gov/catdir/calhoun-report-final.pdf. We don’t yet know what the optimum resource discovery infrastructure of the future will be, but we can start trialling options and investigating what works. Some things can be predicted from current user behaviour. For example, stand alone databases are often under-used (Kim 2006) unless access to them is seamless from wherever the user is. This will no doubt be the same with user generated content and social bookmarking. To be useful the search interface has to be wherever the user is, whether that be the learning management system, the library catalogue or a search engine. There is also a strong indication that connections with other people will become as important in resource discovery as resource collections themselves, and while the role of the library in this new scenario is still evolving. Farmer (2007, p. xi) provides a simple way to judge the impact of the library in supporting this world of connections. If the librarian impedes the connection then a disservice has been done. If however, the librarian facilitates the connection, then a value-added service has occurred.
Gapminder deals with statistical literacy, display of large amounts of data. Watch the videos. Try it out yourself
We can use visualisation with words/text also. This is a job description put into Wordle.net
Checking Out the Future: Perspectives from the Library Community on Information Technology and 21st-Century Libraries http://www.ala.org/ala/aboutala/offices/oitp/publications/policybriefs/ala_checking_out_the.pdf
On the horizon 2010
School libraries on the horizon 2010 Pru Mitchell
What’s inside? <ul><li>Brainstorm the emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching and learning at your place in the next 5 years . </li></ul>28 Original image: ' Brainstorm ‘ by: Víctor Hugo Hernández CC-by-nc 05 15
Horizon reports http://wp.nmc.org Horizon 2009 ANZ Horizon 2010 K-12 Horizon 2010 1 year or less Mobile internet devices Cloud computing Mobile computing Private clouds Collaborative environments Open content 2 – 3 years Open content Game-based learning Electronic books Virtual, augmented, and alternate realities Mobiles Simple augmented reality 4 - 5 years Location-based learning Augmented reality Gesture-based computing Smart objects and devices Flexible displays Visual Data analysis
Application to libraries <ul><li>mobile internet </li></ul><ul><li>open content </li></ul><ul><li>e-books </li></ul><ul><li>visual data </li></ul>
Always on Wherever there’s wifi there’s me Kim Flintoff 2010
Always off in school SlidetoLearn.info School rules
Open Education Revolution <ul><li>www.capetowndeclaration.org </li></ul>Educators worldwide are developing a vast pool of educational resources on the Internet, open and free for all to use.
Why is open important? <ul><li>able to republish material in new formats </li></ul><ul><li>able to publish online </li></ul><ul><li>able to reuse material </li></ul><ul><li>promote innovation </li></ul><ul><li>promote equity & accessibility </li></ul>
support.creativecommons.org/videos#wwt 21 st century copyright
Attribution skills Original Chart: Cogdogblog (Flickr) Made available under Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution Licence: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 Available at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/cogdog/817669 Original Chart: Cogdogblog CC-by 2.0
the sum of all human knowledge Wikimedia Commons
Creating vs consuming if we want children to develop as creative thinkers, we need to provide them with more opportunities to create Mitch Resnick (2007)
The sharing economy <ul><li>In the 20th century you were identified by what you owned </li></ul><ul><li>In the 21st century we will also be defined by how we share and what we give away </li></ul>Charles Leadbeater, 2008
It’s all about the reading <ul><li>You can’t judge a book by its cover </li></ul>e-books revisited XO-3 concept Kindle
groups.edna.edu.au/course/view.php?id=2497 Not about the device
Borrowing vs accessing Overdrive Digital Bookmobile