The genus Physalaemus is currently placed in the family Leiperidae. The most relevant literature about the family Leiuperidae. Grant and colleages removed the family from the synonym of Leptodactylidae based on molecular data.
The taxa sampled by those authors were Pseudopaludicola, Physalaemus, Pleurodema and Edalorhina. The family is the sister taxon of a clade composed by the family Bufonidae and Hylodidae, and other Dendrobatoidea. There is no morphological synapomorphy for the family.
The genus Physalaemus comprises currently 46 species, divuded into 7 species groups. The species goups within the genus Physalaemus were reviewed recently by Nascimento and colleages, who removed from the genera Engystomops and Eupemphix fom its synonym. Despite some criticism, their arrangement has been folowed by several authors. The diagnosis og the genus is fully based on adult traits
There are several ecomorphological guilds among tadpoles. They are partially represented here. Carnivores, school of suspension feeder, macrophagus, arboreal, nektonic and benthic (Bufo or Rhinella)
All tadpole of the family Leiuperide present a “pond-type” tadpoles, lentic: benthic. Not so much variation in the body shape.
Chondrocrania of Physlaemus larvae and their relatives
CHONDROCRANIUM FEATURES OF FROG LARVAE OF THE GENUS PHYSALAEMUS (Anura: Leiuperidae) AND THEIR RELATIVES Diogo B. Provete UNESP-São Paulo, Brazil Punta del Este July 2010
Introduction <ul><li>The Family Leiuperidae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylogenetic position, relationships, diagnosis </li></ul></ul>
Introduction <ul><li>The genus Physalaemus and other related genera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eupemphix , Engystomops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleurodema , Pseudopaludicola , Edalorhina , Somuncuria </li></ul></ul>
Aim <ul><li>To make a character survey concerning chondrocrania of Physalaemus larvae in a way that allows it to be further included in the diagnosis of the genus </li></ul>
Material and Methods <ul><li>Species analyzed: Physalaemus jordanensis, P. olfersii, P. latestriga, P. barrioi, P. cuvieri, P. centralis, P. marmoratus, P. moreirae, P. henseli, P. riograndensis, P. atlanticus, P. gracilis , Eupemphix nattereri , Pseudopaludicola sp. (aff. falcipes ) </li></ul><ul><li>Data from the literature: Physalaemus fernandezae , P. santafecinus, P. cuqui , P. biligonigerus, Pleurodema tucumana, P. borellii </li></ul><ul><li>Clear and stained following Taylor & Van Dyke (1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Material anayzed: DZSJRP-Tadpoles, CFBH </li></ul>
Results P. santafecinus P. fernandezae Vera Candioti, 2007 Alcalde et al. , 2006
Results Fabrezi & Vera, 1997 P. cuqui P. biligonigerus
Results Fabrezi & Vera, 1997 P. tucumana P. borelli
Discussion <ul><li>General features of chondrocranium of Physalaemus : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) suprarostral bearing a V- or U-shaped corpora, which is dorsally connected to the alae, the alae always bear a precessus anterioris; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) basihyal absent; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) basibranchial with short processus urobranchial; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(4) processus anterior branchialis absent; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(5) cornua trabeculae long and uniformily wide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(6) The neurocranium usually longer than wide and depressed. </li></ul></ul>
Discussion <ul><li>General features of chondrocranium of Engystomops and Pleurodema : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the corpus of the suprarostral is fused ventrally to the alae; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The processus branchialis is only common in Pleurodema </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Eupemphix larvae, this character is similar to the Physalaemus condition. </li></ul>
Discussion <ul><li>Comparison among leiuperid tadpoles </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison with Leptodactylus </li></ul><ul><li>Less variation => all pond-type tadpoles, differently from Leptodactylus </li></ul>
Larson & De Sá, 1998 Leptodactylus Carnivorous (e.g., L. pentadactylus ) Lentic-benthic (e.g., L. fuscus ) Nidicolous (e.g., L. gr. marmoratus ) Semiterrestrial Physalaemus Lentic-benthic
Conclusion <ul><li>Its utility in phylogenetic reconstruction => among genera and families </li></ul><ul><li>Leiuperidae=> chondrocranium => morphological synapomorphy </li></ul>
Acknowledgements <ul><li>Lilian Franco Belussi => photos, along with continuous support and suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Denise de C. Rossa-Feres => chemicals, work space, and access to collection </li></ul>Grant # 011/2010
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