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CHONDROCRANIUM FEATURES OF FROG LARVAE OF THE GENUS  PHYSALAEMUS  (Anura: Leiuperidae) AND THEIR RELATIVES Diogo B. Provet...
Introduction <ul><li>The Family Leiuperidae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylogenetic position, relationships, diagnosis </li></u...
Grant  et al.  2006
Grant  et al.  2006
Introduction <ul><li>The genus  Physalaemus  and other related genera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eupemphix ,  Engystomops </li>...
McDiarmid & Altig, 1999
Engystomops  Physalaemus Pseudopaludicola Edalorhina Pleurodema Eupemphix
Aim <ul><li>To make a character survey concerning chondrocrania of  Physalaemus  larvae in a way that allows it to be furt...
Material and Methods <ul><li>Species analyzed:  Physalaemus jordanensis, P. olfersii, P. latestriga, P. barrioi, P. cuvier...
Results P. santafecinus P. fernandezae Vera Candioti, 2007 Alcalde  et al.  , 2006
Results Fabrezi & Vera, 1997 P. cuqui P. biligonigerus
Results Fabrezi & Vera, 1997 P. tucumana   P. borelli
Results P. moreirae
Results P. barrioi
Results P. jordanensis
Results P. centralis
Results P. marmoratus
Results P. olfersii
Results P. centralis
Results E. nattereri
Discussion <ul><li>General features of chondrocranium of  Physalaemus :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) suprarostral bearing a ...
Discussion <ul><li>General features of chondrocranium of  Engystomops  and  Pleurodema :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the corpus...
Discussion <ul><li>Comparison among leiuperid tadpoles </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison with  Leptodactylus </li></ul><ul><li>...
Larson & De Sá, 1998 Leptodactylus Carnivorous (e.g.,  L. pentadactylus ) Lentic-benthic (e.g.,  L. fuscus ) Nidicolous (e...
Conclusion <ul><li>Its utility in phylogenetic reconstruction => among genera and families </li></ul><ul><li>Leiuperidae=>...
Acknowledgements <ul><li>Lilian Franco Belussi => photos, along with continuous support and suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>...
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Chondrocrania of Physlaemus larvae and their relatives

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This was my oral presentation at the 9th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology

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  • The genus Physalaemus is currently placed in the family Leiperidae. The most relevant literature about the family Leiuperidae. Grant and colleages removed the family from the synonym of Leptodactylidae based on molecular data.
  • The taxa sampled by those authors were Pseudopaludicola, Physalaemus, Pleurodema and Edalorhina. The family is the sister taxon of a clade composed by the family Bufonidae and Hylodidae, and other Dendrobatoidea. There is no morphological synapomorphy for the family.
  • The genus Physalaemus comprises currently 46 species, divuded into 7 species groups. The species goups within the genus Physalaemus were reviewed recently by Nascimento and colleages, who removed from the genera Engystomops and Eupemphix fom its synonym. Despite some criticism, their arrangement has been folowed by several authors. The diagnosis og the genus is fully based on adult traits
  • There are several ecomorphological guilds among tadpoles. They are partially represented here. Carnivores, school of suspension feeder, macrophagus, arboreal, nektonic and benthic (Bufo or Rhinella)
  • All tadpole of the family Leiuperide present a “pond-type” tadpoles, lentic: benthic. Not so much variation in the body shape.
  • Transcript of "Chondrocrania of Physlaemus larvae and their relatives"

    1. 1. CHONDROCRANIUM FEATURES OF FROG LARVAE OF THE GENUS PHYSALAEMUS (Anura: Leiuperidae) AND THEIR RELATIVES Diogo B. Provete UNESP-São Paulo, Brazil Punta del Este July 2010
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The Family Leiuperidae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylogenetic position, relationships, diagnosis </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Grant et al. 2006
    4. 4. Grant et al. 2006
    5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>The genus Physalaemus and other related genera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eupemphix , Engystomops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleurodema , Pseudopaludicola , Edalorhina , Somuncuria </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. McDiarmid & Altig, 1999
    7. 7. Engystomops Physalaemus Pseudopaludicola Edalorhina Pleurodema Eupemphix
    8. 8. Aim <ul><li>To make a character survey concerning chondrocrania of Physalaemus larvae in a way that allows it to be further included in the diagnosis of the genus </li></ul>
    9. 9. Material and Methods <ul><li>Species analyzed: Physalaemus jordanensis, P. olfersii, P. latestriga, P. barrioi, P. cuvieri, P. centralis, P. marmoratus, P. moreirae, P. henseli, P. riograndensis, P. atlanticus, P. gracilis , Eupemphix nattereri , Pseudopaludicola sp. (aff. falcipes ) </li></ul><ul><li>Data from the literature: Physalaemus fernandezae , P. santafecinus, P. cuqui , P. biligonigerus, Pleurodema tucumana, P. borellii </li></ul><ul><li>Clear and stained following Taylor & Van Dyke (1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Material anayzed: DZSJRP-Tadpoles, CFBH </li></ul>
    10. 10. Results P. santafecinus P. fernandezae Vera Candioti, 2007 Alcalde et al. , 2006
    11. 11. Results Fabrezi & Vera, 1997 P. cuqui P. biligonigerus
    12. 12. Results Fabrezi & Vera, 1997 P. tucumana P. borelli
    13. 13. Results P. moreirae
    14. 14. Results P. barrioi
    15. 15. Results P. jordanensis
    16. 16. Results P. centralis
    17. 17. Results P. marmoratus
    18. 18. Results P. olfersii
    19. 19. Results P. centralis
    20. 20. Results E. nattereri
    21. 21. Discussion <ul><li>General features of chondrocranium of Physalaemus : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) suprarostral bearing a V- or U-shaped corpora, which is dorsally connected to the alae, the alae always bear a precessus anterioris; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) basihyal absent; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) basibranchial with short processus urobranchial; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(4) processus anterior branchialis absent; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(5) cornua trabeculae long and uniformily wide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(6) The neurocranium usually longer than wide and depressed. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Discussion <ul><li>General features of chondrocranium of Engystomops and Pleurodema : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the corpus of the suprarostral is fused ventrally to the alae; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The processus branchialis is only common in Pleurodema </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Eupemphix larvae, this character is similar to the Physalaemus condition. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Discussion <ul><li>Comparison among leiuperid tadpoles </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison with Leptodactylus </li></ul><ul><li>Less variation => all pond-type tadpoles, differently from Leptodactylus </li></ul>
    24. 24. Larson & De Sá, 1998 Leptodactylus Carnivorous (e.g., L. pentadactylus ) Lentic-benthic (e.g., L. fuscus ) Nidicolous (e.g., L. gr. marmoratus ) Semiterrestrial Physalaemus Lentic-benthic
    25. 25. Conclusion <ul><li>Its utility in phylogenetic reconstruction => among genera and families </li></ul><ul><li>Leiuperidae=> chondrocranium => morphological synapomorphy </li></ul>
    26. 26. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Lilian Franco Belussi => photos, along with continuous support and suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Denise de C. Rossa-Feres => chemicals, work space, and access to collection </li></ul>Grant # 011/2010
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