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CPSC 125 Ch 2 Sec 4

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Recursion

Recursion

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  • 1. Proofs, Recursion and Analysis of Algorithms Mathematical Structures for Computer Science Chapter 2 Copyright © 2006 W.H. Freeman & Co. and modified by David Hyland-Wood, UMW 2010 Proofs, Recursion and Analysis of Algorithms Wednesday, February 10, 2010
  • 2. Recursive Sequences ● Definition: A sequence is defined recursively by explicitly naming the first value (or the first few values) in the sequence and then defining later values in the sequence in terms of earlier values. ● Examples: S(1) = 2 ■ S(n) = 2S(n-1) for n ≥ 2 ■ • Sequence S ⇒ 2, 4, 8, 16, 32,…. ■ T(1) = 1 ■ T(n) = T(n-1) + 3 for n ≥ 2 • Sequence T ⇒ 1, 4, 7, 10, 13,…. ■ Fibonaci Sequence ■ F(1) = 1 ■ F(2) = 1 ■ F(n) = F(n-1) + F(n-2) for n > 2 • Sequence F ⇒ 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13,…. Section 2.4 Recursive Definitions 2 Wednesday, February 10, 2010
  • 3. Fibonaci Sequence ● Related mathematically to fractals ■ …and thus to computer graphics. Section 2.4 Recursive Definitions 3 Wednesday, February 10, 2010 Thanks to http://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/2216914220/
  • 4. Recursive function ● Ackermann function n+1 m=0 A(m,n) = A(m-1, 1) for m > 0 and n = 0 A(m-1, A(m,n-1)) for m > 0 and n > 0 ■ Find the terms A(1,1), A(2,1), A(1,2) A(1,1) = A(0, A(1,0)) = A(0, A(0,1)) = A(0,2) = 3 A(1,2) = A(0, A(1,1)) = A(0, 3) = 4 A(2,1) = A(1, A(2,0)) = A(1, A(1,1)) = A(1, 3) = A(0, A(1,2)) = A(0, 4) = 5 Using induction it can be shown that A(1,n) = n + 2 for n = 0,1,2… A(2,n) = 2n + 3 for n = 0,1,2… Section 2.4 Recursive Definitions 4 Wednesday, February 10, 2010
  • 5. Recursively defined operations ● Exponential operation ■ a0 = 1 ■ an = aan-1 for n ≥ 1 ● Multiplication operation ■ m(1) = m ■ m(n) = m(n-1) + m for n ≥ 2 ● Factorial Operation ■ F(0) = 1 ■ F(n) = nF(n-1) for n ≥ 1 Section 2.4 Recursive Definitions 5 Wednesday, February 10, 2010
  • 6. Backus–Naur Form ● A recursive symbolic notation for strings, used to define computer programming language syntax ● e.g. Section 2.4 Recursive Definitions 6 Wednesday, February 10, 2010 Originally used to define the syntax for Algol The example is from IETF RFC 2616, HTTP 1.1
  • 7. Recursively defined algorithms ● If a recurrence relation exists for an operation, the algorithm for such a relation can be written either iteratively or recursively ● Example: Factorial, multiplication etc. S(1) = 1 S(n) = 2S(n-1) for n ≥ 2 S(integer n) //function that iteratively computes the value S(n) Local variables: integer i ;//loop index CurrentValue ; S(integer n) //recursively calculates S(n) if n =1 then if n =1 then //base case output 2 output 2 j=2 else CurrentValue = 2 return (2*S(n-1)) while j ≤ n end if CurrentValue = CurrentValue *2 end function S j = j+1 end while return CurrentValue end if Section 2.4 Recursive Definitions 7 Wednesday, February 10, 2010
  • 8. Why Write Recursive Functions? ● Because CPU operations are cheap … and getting cheaper, ● But code is expensive to maintain. Section 2.4 Recursive Definitions 8 Wednesday, February 10, 2010 “Several measures of digital technology are improving at exponential rates related to Moore's law, including the size, cost, density and speed of components.” Thanks to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Transistor_Count_and_Moore%27s_Law_-_2008.svg
  • 9. Recursive algorithm for selection sort ● Algorithm to sort recursively a sequence of numbers in increasing or decreasing order Function sort(List s,Integer n) //This function sorts in increasing order if n =1 then output “sequence is sorted” //base case end if max_index = n //assume sn is the largest for j = 2 to n do if s[j] > s[max_index] then max_index = j //found larger, so update end if end for exchange/swap s[n] and s[max_index] //move largest to the end return(sort(s,n-1)) end function sort Section 2.4 Recursive Definitions 9 Wednesday, February 10, 2010 Fixed max_index definition to correct algorithm
  • 10. Selection Sort Example ● Sequence S to be sorted: ■ S: 23, 12, 9, –3, 89, 54 ● After 1st recursive call, the sequence is: Swap 89 and 54 ■ S: 23, 12, 9, -3, 54, 89 ■ ● After 2nd recursive call: ■ Nothing is swapped as elements happen to be in increasing order. ● After 3rd recursive call, the sequence is: Swap -3 and 23 ■ S: -3, 12, 9, 23, 54, 89 ■ ● After 4th recursive call: ■ Swap 12 and 9 ■ S: -3, 9, 12, 23, 54, 89 ● After 5th recursive call, the sequence is: ■ Nothing is swapped as elements happen to be in increasing order. ● Final sorted array S: -3, 9, 12, 23, 54, 89 Section 2.4 Recursive Definitions 10 Wednesday, February 10, 2010 Fixed run of algorithm to be correct
  • 11. Recursive algorithm for binary search ● Looks for a value in an increasing sequence and returns the index of the value if it is found or 0 otherwise. Function binary_search(s, j, k, key) if j > k then //not found return 0 end if m = (j+k)/2 if key = sk then // base case return (m) end if if key < sk then k = m-1 else j = m+1 end if return(binary_search(s,j,k,key)) end binary_search Section 2.4 Recursive Definitions 11 Wednesday, February 10, 2010
  • 12. Binary Search Example ● Search for 81 in the sequence 3, 6, 18, 37, 76, 81, 92 ■ Sequence has 7 elements. ■ Calculate middle point: (1 + 7)/2 = 4. ■ Compares 81 to 37 (4th sequence element): no match. ■ Search in the lower half since 81 > 37 ■ New sequence for search: 76 81 92 ■ Calculate midpoint: (5 + 7)/2 = 6 ■ 6th Element: 81 Compares 81 to 81: perfect match ■ Element 81 found as the 6th element of the sequence Section 2.4 Recursive Definitions 12 Wednesday, February 10, 2010
  • 13. Class exercise ● What does the following function calculate? Function mystery(integer n) if n = 1 then return 1 else return (mystery(n-1)+1) end if end function mystery ● Write the algorithm for the recursive definition of the following sequence ■ a, b, a+b, a+2b, 2a+3b, 3a+5b Section 2.4 Recursive Definitions 13 Wednesday, February 10, 2010