Direct to Indirect in 5 easy steps by Prosenjeet Dasgupta

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Direct to Indirect in 5 easy steps by Prosenjeet Dasgupta, Lucknow

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Direct to Indirect in 5 easy steps by Prosenjeet Dasgupta

  1. 1. Direct - Indirect In 5 easy steps Prosenjeet Dasgupta www.lucknowwebs.com
  2. 2. Neil said that he was feeling happy I am feeling happy Prosenjeet Dasgupta
  3. 3. YESTERDAY TODAY Prosenjeet Dasgupta
  4. 4. Direct – Indirect In 5 steps Prosenjeet Dasgupta
  5. 5. Reporting Speech Reporting speech are of two types: 1. Direct Speech 2. Indirect Speech Prosenjeet Dasgupta
  6. 6. Direct Speech . In direct speech we use the speaker’s own words. . We put the exact words spoken in inverted commas Helen said, “I am going home” Prosenjeet Dasgupta
  7. 7. Indirect Speech . In indirect speech is also called reported speech . We do not use the exact words of the speaker. . We report what was said. . We sometimes need to change pronouns and verb tenses. . We don’t use speech (“ “)marks. Helen said, “I am going home” Helen said that she was going home. Prosenjeet Dasgupta
  8. 8. Advantages of each speech type • Direct Speech can show what a character is like. • Direct speech can add variety to writing • Long speeches can be boring. • Too many speakers can confuse the reader. • Indirect Speech can be summarised briefly so that it does not slow down the pace of the action. • It can show a contrast between what a character is saying and what he or she is thinking. • Using too much of indirect speech can also be boring Prosenjeet Dasgupta
  9. 9. Direct to Indirect Ram said, “I am happy now” Five Changes from Direct to Indirect Direct  Indirect 1. Punctuations “_”  Goes 2. Change of inside tense am  was 3. Pronoun/Possessive Adj. change I  He 4. Comma becomes connective 5. List of changing words ,  now  Ram said that heDasgupta happy then was Prosenjeet that (not always) then
  10. 10. Connective He said to her, “I am reading a book.” (Assertive sentence) He told her that he was reading a book. He said to her, “Am I reading a book?” (Interrogative sentence) He asked her if he was reading a book. He said to her, “Read a book”(Imperative sentence: order/request/advice) He ordered/told her to read a book. (verb+comma = to+verb) He said to her, “What a book I am reading!” (Exclamatory sentence) He exclaimed to her that he was reading a fantastic book. Prosenjeet Dasgupta
  11. 11. Connective SENTENCE TYPE INTERROGATIVE ASSRETIVE IMPERATIVE EXCLAMATORY He said to her, … EXAMPLE AND ANSWER Is Nitin an old man? Nitin is an old man (YOU) + V + O Expressing strong feeling or emotion …………………! RULES Is Nitin an old man? (Y/N)  “When are they eating?”  He asked her when they were eating  “Are they eating?” (Y/N)  He asked her if they were eating Asked + Listener + If/whether wh Nitin is an old man  “They are eating”  He told her that they were eating - Told+listener (if there is a listener) - Said that (if no listener) (You) Kill Nitin (You) Don’t injure him “Please eat your food” He requested her to eat her food Ordered/requested/told /adviced + Listener + Infinitive. (to+verb) “How fast you eat!” He exclaimed to her that she ate very fast Prosenjeet Dasgupta Exclaimed that…
  12. 12. Direct to Indirect Ram said, “I am happy now” Five Changes from Direct to Indirect Direct  Indirect 1. Punctuations “_”  Goes 2. Change of inside tense am  was 3. Pronoun/Possessive Adj. change I  He 4. Comma becomes connective 5. List of changing words ,  now  Ram said that heDasgupta happy then was Prosenjeet that (not always) then
  13. 13. Change of Reported Verb CHANGE IN RULES EXAMPLE & ANSWER REPORTED TENSE If outside tense is past change the inside tense He will say to her, “you seem tired.” He will tell her that she seems tired. Present Past She said to him, “I spent your cash.” She told him that she had spent his cash. Past Past Perfect Am, Is and Are Was, Were Have and Has Had May The students said, “Arti is dead.” The students that Arti was dead Might Can Could Will Would Shall Had gone Must Had to Tense of Proverbs, Habitual Actions, Universal Truths Akshay said, “The Earth is round” Akshay said that the Earth is round Should Went Sunita said, “I cannot swim” Sunita said that she could not swim No change No change No change She said, “ I went to a movie” She said that she had gone to a movie. Prosenjeet Dasgupta
  14. 14. Practice Anand said, “ I am writing a book on dieting” (said = past, change inside tense) Anand said that he WAS writing a book on dieting. Anil said to Maya, “I have been trying to dance since years”(said = past, change inside tense) Anil said to Maya that he HAD been trying to dance since years Mother said to her daughter, “Time and tide wait for no man” (said = past) (proverb hence no change of tense) Mother told her daughter that Time and tide WAIT for no one Neil said, “I must finish this for tomorrow” Neil said that he HAD TO finish this for tomorrow. Prosenjeet Dasgupta
  15. 15. Direct to Indirect Ram said, “I am happy now” Five Changes from Direct to Indirect Direct  Indirect 1. Punctuations “_”  Goes 2. Change of inside tense am  was 3. Pronoun/Possessive Adj. change I  He 4. Comma becomes connective 5. List of changing words ,  now  Ram said that heDasgupta happy then was Prosenjeet that (not always) then
  16. 16. Change of Pronoun/Possessive Adj. CHANGE IN RULES EXAMPLE & ANSWER PRONOUN/ POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE OBJECT = Noun or pronoun before the verb SUBJECT = Noun or Pronoun after the verb 1ST PERSON = I, we, me, mine, myself, ourselves, we, our 2ND PERSON = you, your, yourself, yourselves, 3RD PERSON = Neither I nor You He said to her, “I gave them to you” RULES 1ST PERSON  SUBJECT 2ND PERSON  OBJECT LEAVE 3RD PERSON AS SUCH Prosenjeet Dasgupta He told her that he had given them to her
  17. 17. Direct to Indirect Ram said, “I am happy now” Five Changes from Direct to Indirect Direct  Indirect 1. Punctuations “_”  Goes 2. Change of inside tense am  was 3. Pronoun/Possessive Adj. change I  He 4. Comma becomes connective 5. List of changing words ,  now  Ram said that heDasgupta happy then was Prosenjeet that (not always) then
  18. 18. List of changing words DIRECT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Now This Ago Today Tonight Yesterday Here These Come Tomorrow Last night Said, “sorry” Said, “Thank You” Said, “Good Bye” Said, “Hello” Said, “Good Morning” Said, “Yes” Said, “No” INDIRECT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Then That Before That day That night The day before/previous day There Those Go The next/following day The night before/previous night Apologised Thanked Bade goodbye Greeted Wished a good morning Replied in the affirmative Replied in the negative Prosenjeet Dasgupta 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. The next day That day That night Go Replied in the affirmative That The night before Replied in the negative Then The day before Before Apologised Thanked Greeted Wished a Good morning Bade good bye There Those
  19. 19. Examples 1. He said, “Good evening, I have come to see if you have a room just for one night” He wished her a Good evening and said that he had come to see if she had a room for just one night. 2. He said, “I am going to see my mother tomorrow” He said that he was going to see his mother the next day. 3. She said, “ I went to a movie yesterday” She said that she had gone to a movie the previous day. 4. Tom said, “ I have an important meeting tonight.” Tom said that he had an important meeting that night. 5. Mom said, “I'm tired and its getting late. I think I’ll go to bed.” Mom said that she was tired and it was getting late and hence she thought she would go to bed. Prosenjeet Dasgupta
  20. 20. Thank you! Prosenjeet Dasgupta
  21. 21. Practice Hand out 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Fatima says, “she does not like old films.” Arshid said. “I will play.” The old man said, “the earth revolves round the sun.” Rahim said to me, “I cannot help you in your work.” Rahim said to Abdul, “Have you finished your work?” The beggar said to me, “May you live long!” My mother says, “ You will always remain an idiot.” The shopkeeper said to Mr. Patel, “Sir, I have always been fair to my customers in my dealings.” The teacher said to Angela, “ How did you guess the correct answer?” I said to my friend, “Please help me arrange these books on the shelf. “ “What a kick!” said one of the spectators My friends say, “He is very handsome” My granny will say, “You need to eat well” You said, “I want to consult my parents” “Where do you live?” she asked me She said, “Do you want to come with me?” She said, “The lesson had already started” She said, “May I open a new browser?” “We will be here tomorrow”, they promised He said that, “Its time we began planning our holidays.” Prosenjeet Dasgupta

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