complex context, fragility and the art of building               bergen School of architecture / master course 2010       ...
complex context, fragility,and the art of building.master course at bergen School of architecture, norway.                ...
personal introductionas mentioned in the foreword, this mastercourse wasinitiated by researching for and composing an essa...
table of contentsforeword                                   2personal introduction                      3table of contents...
the limitations of architectureare We free architects, Should We be free?i´ve learnt that throughout history of architectu...
on the latter category – i pictured that ludwig mies Vander rohe, le corbusier, the steel and concrete structuralinnovatio...
the modern era of architecture has certainly a visuallypleasing appeal. Just imagine being in and around thepavillion in b...
Well, first the book was originally called ”de architectura    Vitruvius also devised the intercolumnation or spacinglibri...
then this important guy called Sebastiano Serlio published                                                                ...
the 5 classical orders also had specific use, specificbuildings. this was one of the conventions that were to bechallenged...
leon battista alberti did in a pretty important manner turn    through this work and diverse built projects in and aroundt...
to sum up - the radical thing palladio did, was to interpretand enhance the principles underlying the renaissance andalso ...
the inventions of structural systems to carry domes forchurches or the modular plans and coherent facadesolutions was only...
the language of classical architecture is very strong.as mentioned, i have it all around me - and you do to!not only the b...
modernism we all appreciate as something light and flexible,right?i aknowledge that the built structures that adhere to th...
le corbusier also came with a new system of proportions.he based it on the work of alberti and palladio, butincluded body ...
When i was compiling my notes before starting writing onthis essay - i came to think about the alternating periodsthrougho...
the building that eiler-rasmussen devotes a certainamount of concentration regarding this theme is the“palazzo ducale” in ...
What is indeed intriguing with these limits and methods, is      and i sincerely believe that architects could and should ...
permacultural principles are really simple - andstraightforward.take what you have, and make the most of it.if you have an...
3 weekstudytripthroughitaly
italy,                         24th of September-                    15th of October   study trip through the heritage of ...
verona  generally, a somewhat small northern  italian city - still had its gems to show.  we experienced the castelvecchio...
vicenzavicenza was the playground of legendary architect and author andreapalladio. it is evident that this small city has...
venicein venice we did radically opposite things.we studied the classic buildings connected to the piazzasan marco and the...
naples  in naples, the pizza city - we dived into the traditional  density of naples in the historic core. this core is  c...
capriat the island of capri, we all got sunburnt.and we also walked quite a lot on the nice pathways on theeastern side of...
pompeiiin the legendary and very important destinationpompeii we experienced how urbanism have avery long history in the m...
palermoafter 2 weeks and some days we arrived in palermo, ourfinal destination. we had acquired lots of tools andknowledge...
romei decided to take a personal detour to rome.it is nicknamed the eternal city and probably has the status of apilgrim d...
a neW layer of KalSa
palermo has many layershistory of palermo is closely tied with the history of europe, southern europe.the area has traces ...
the area close to the port of palermo, the area close to the railway connecting to the italian mainland since1886 - that v...
the Kalsa area was as i wrote earlier - initiated by the Sicilian emirate.la Kalsa has for centuries been in the center of...
roman empire and later history made its mark on palermo, the romans verystrong with their decumanus and cardo streets. the...
the site is framed by the east- and west-bound traffic on the roads connecting to the     ring road and the decumanus. thi...
the site is clearly divided into 2 zones, one more extroverted and one more internal and closed off.the internal zone is f...
my program for the project in la Kalsa of palermo takes in consideration facts from the near and the far history of the ci...
puppet theatre was fiercely challenged by the advent of television and videorecorders. people got used to see massproduced...
1) the outdoor play area i imagine could be equipped with cushioning surfaces or vegetation, that will for sure facilitate...
STRATEGY of cave-in                                                          STRATEGY of layeringNEGOTIATED ITEM for the p...
determined of KEEPING SOME OF THE RUIN for the project
the process of digital modelling was divided between the 2 strategies of1   - hugging the football field adjacent to the p...
2   - puncturing the surface covering and hovering as a new layer of the site,         respecting grid and not respecting ...
a neW layer of KalSa
_be someoneSOME KID, SOME MOTHER             PLAYSOME                           as mentioned earlier, the kids of kalsa ne...
_be specificCLIMATICACOUSTICFANTASTICPLASTIC       every archite                              cture has to             the...
OPEN FORM                 _be formalBORDERING FORM
_actingGRID RESPECTINGGRID IDENTIFYING   CONTRASTING, means of Inclusive Design
Concrete shell construction- thickness at base from 400 mmto 100 mm at canopies.- flooring at property in concrete       B...
_entering
_sheltering, using
_from west
_from east + rendered northeast
_from south
_from north
_rendered interior, from northeast
_rendered interiors, from south
_interior, from north
_from northeastern entrance
_from west
_from southwest
_scheming for a complex contextFormForm   Concept       Concept           Space Demands                         Space Dema...
_authoring             by: harald brynlund-lima, architect student at the bergen School of architecture 2010-2011         ...
A New Layer of Kalsa
A New Layer of Kalsa
A New Layer of Kalsa
A New Layer of Kalsa
A New Layer of Kalsa
A New Layer of Kalsa
A New Layer of Kalsa
A New Layer of Kalsa
A New Layer of Kalsa
A New Layer of Kalsa
A New Layer of Kalsa
A New Layer of Kalsa
A New Layer of Kalsa
A New Layer of Kalsa
A New Layer of Kalsa
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A presentation of the mastercourse on architecture in a complex context, namely Palermo in Italy.

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A New Layer of Kalsa

  1. 1. complex context, fragility and the art of building bergen School of architecture / master course 2010 harald brynlund-lima
  2. 2. complex context, fragility,and the art of building.master course at bergen School of architecture, norway. this book includes essays, study trip reports and the main architec- tural projects from palermo.complex context, fragility and the art of building concerned the fol-lowing issues: fragility, historical layers and the art of building in a the work of the architects andrea palladio, carlo Scarpa, Viaplanacomplex urban setting. and torres, inger and Johannes exner, Sigurd lewerentz, takaharu tezuka and rene mancilla has been studied. We have also beenthe project started at bergen School of architecture with a series inspired by the work of the photographer iwan bahn, and the bookof short tasks including writing a short essay. the significant and “experiencing architecture” written by Steen eiler rasmussen.intensive part of the course was connected to a study trip to italy. atrip that stretched 3 weeks starting in Verona and gradually movedthrough the italian landscapes, villages and towns. the excursion the teachers attending to the course was:ended in palermo on Sicily where we found sites for developing the arild Wåge, professor appmain project in the course. andre fontes, professor app camilla ryhl, professor app / uu.fragility, historical layers and the art of building in a complex ur- Kalle grude, professor daVban setting were the main themes for the travel. urban conditionsfor children and young people was also a major issue discussed andobserved. the main working method was communicated through ac-curate registrations and analytic drawings. in palermo we stated a ne-gotiated item which contained and explained the crucial intentions forthe final project. the negotiated item followed all stages of the project.palermo is one of europe’s most dense cities. culturally and his-torically this city has a complex and multilayered fabric which weanalyzed and performed in as architects. Studies of carlo Scarpasmuseums works, located in Verona and palermo, was a special issueof interest.
  3. 3. personal introductionas mentioned in the foreword, this mastercourse wasinitiated by researching for and composing an essay text.being an avid reader and writer myselves, i was reallyintrigued by the somewhat untraditional start to a master-course.it was a refreshing entry to thinking about architecture.also, literate students of architecture are not so verycommon - so that we get some treats, are certainlyappreciated.We were asked to focus on 2 architects, for me it wasintriguing to aim at the very classical foundation ofcontemporary architecture. i will of course further elaborate as our class progressed further south, the tasks developedon this in the essay text. into more connected entries of our own project process.following the rather relaxed essay phase, was a 3 week one thing i will almost certain re-use, is the set of rulesgrand tour of italy. the trip was great, it was truly an we were introduced for: “how to tackle a complex context”.amazing experience. these rules are stated in the book as well.concluding this was a travel report, which is also included i have made chapters ordered after chronology, betweenin this book. What was especially nice with the tasks during early September 2010 and homing in on the last strenousthe stay, was that they gradually increased in relevance to days of January 2011. please be seated..the project task back home.
  4. 4. table of contentsforeword 2personal introduction 3table of contents 4the limitations of architecture, essay 5travel report, 3 weeks in italy 23introduction, project site in palermo 41process of architecture project 52presentation, final architecture project 60method for complex contexts, attached 78
  5. 5. the limitations of architectureare We free architects, Should We be free?i´ve learnt that throughout history of architecture as we knowit – there is always an order, a grammar – yes, a language!Something that dictates the sketching architect, the therebythinking architect.but in this essay i want to pursue and understand the ori-gins of architectural limits and then somehow examine thevalid limits in contemporary architecture. how to limitcontemporary architecture?to be frank, i often have dismissed the classical orhistorical language of architecture into the dichotomy ofheavy and old pre-modern architecture and the simple, yetelegant modernist era of architecture.the first one in my opinion was inhabited by seriously big,fat churches in continental europe and other stone piecesin important styles that ended with the letters ”ism” or ”ic”.of course i did realize and appreciate the artistic andhistoric value of the carvings in marble on the florentinechurches and the scary impressions of the cathedral ofcologne, but i really didn´t put it on to my personalepistemological radar.perhaps i was a not-so-bright student?
  6. 6. on the latter category – i pictured that ludwig mies Vander rohe, le corbusier, the steel and concrete structuralinnovation fostered the basis of architecture today.but, i certainly and quickly realized when i startedreading up in the books of eiler-rasmussen and JohnSummerson, that classical architecture has a legacy that isstated vividly in both the urban and suburban physicalsurroundings of today.actually, the detailing on the cafe i`m sitting on right now,and the details of the ceiling or window frame at home – bring traces from the classic era of renaissancetreatises, great cathedrals and palazzos.
  7. 7. the modern era of architecture has certainly a visuallypleasing appeal. Just imagine being in and around thepavillion in barcelona designed by ludwig mies Van derrohe or under the magnificent canopy or roofing of theolympiapark in munich. i think that the pleasing gestures ofmodern architecture somehow could be described asopposite of the heavy baroque, gothic or renaissancepieces of architecture.frameworks or theories of architecture here in the Westoften originate in the treatise called ”the ten books ofarchitecture” by the architect now known as Vitruvius. inthis piece, the roman architect described lots of knowledgein how to build, why to build and more of the contemporaryand then roman context.according to John Summersons book ”the classicallanguage of architecture” this book was rediscovered andtreated theoretically in the dawn of renaissance in northernitaly. Summerson elaborates on how different capabilitiesrevised the ”ten books..” and made their mark on theimportant buildings of their time.the most original ones, namely michelangelo buanarottiand andrea palladio – went on and actually reinterpretedthe legacy of Vitruvius. how is that chronology?
  8. 8. Well, first the book was originally called ”de architectura Vitruvius also devised the intercolumnation or spacinglibri decem”. between elements in buildings. his measurements called pycnostyle, Systyle, eustyle, diastyle, araerostyle (fromthis book was actually not known for a very, very long time. smallest diameter to widest diameter).it is believed to be written around 25 bc and when it wasrediscovered and published in 1414 by this guy called Several architecture theorist in the ages after this connectspoggio bracciolini. it had been kept at diverse this to music and the tempiis of classical music. Johnmonasteries and cloisters in france and neighbouring Summerson points at how stupid this is – and mentions thatcountries. many books that we now call ”classical” owe their the romans initially wanted to convey a harmony and apresent existence to the skilled writers connected to mood with the buildings and their certain spacing betweenmonasteries in scriptoriums. the carolingian revolution is the columns.thought to have the honor of keeping and also transcribingimportant books and illustrations from the roman times to in the early renaissance, architects and other artists lookedmanuscripts that got rediscovered in the eve of the for some genuine and universal principles of architecture.renaissance period. they searched for knowledge about the golden age of theVitruvius legacy in form of the ”ten books..”/ roman empire. it was found in ”ten books..”. architect”de architectura..” can be categorized into several aspects donato bramante designed wonderfully in rome andof contemporary societies, also architecture. architect leon battista alberti launched ”on the art of architecture” on the basis of ”ten books..” in 1452.for the interest of this essay – i want to convey someprinciples of what Vitruvius thought of as important of a With this treatise and the church of St andrea in mantua hestructure. showed how to utilize the principles of roman architecture. a breakthrough in italy for Serlio - and together withfirst, what was the key goals as architect with a project? bramante, filippo brunelleschi and michelozzi michelozzohe listed 3 core principles.a structure had to have firmitas, we can reckon them as founding fathers of renaissancebeing built solid and to convey solidness. furthermore a architecture.structure had to be useful, utilitas and a structure had to bebeautiful, venustas. these concepts summoned up statesof building processes, technology and appearance. and thislaid the basis for all building in roman times.
  9. 9. then this important guy called Sebastiano Serlio published a catalogue of 5 different column systems and their use – the architects now had a common set of tools to express themselves. between alberti and Serlios treatises architects in general explored the orders and proportions of ancient roman architecture as described in ”ten books..” as well as on-site measurements at ruins of roman buildings. but when Serlio gave a catalogue of the use of classical orders, the language of renaissance architecture was established. the classical orders were in ”ten books..” connected status of building and geographical locations, but as i understand Serlio actually did not further the geography aspect. instead, the system posed as a universal feature or framework for all architecture. later giacomo barozzi da Vignola published a practical use of the 5 orders of architecture in 1562. he also made use of them in several churches in and around rome, furthermore spreading these classical principles from Vitruvius, albertii learnt through the structures of the early renaissance and Serlio.architects like brunelleschi and alberti that order was a keycomponent in the architecture. as Summerson says: What was the 5 classical orders? as a student of”to them orders were architecture”. architecture – or probably any literate person, you´ve probably heard about tuscan, corinthian, doric, ionic andafter the principles of Vitruvius, built structure had to composite order. these principles are connected to andconvey and to show a certain order. derived from similar orders in the ”ten books..” and wasfurthermore – i understand that this order was very strict, pioneered into architecture by donato bramante, alberti andit was clearly a language in which to communicate and be followers.taken seriously.in order to refine or break the orders and be radically new- there were only 2 ways of doing this. and actually twoepochs. before and after 1537.
  10. 10. the 5 classical orders also had specific use, specificbuildings. this was one of the conventions that were to bechallenged. but in order to challenge something – it shouldbe established.in several decades the use of proportions derived from thetreatises of Serlio and Vignola stayed around as thegeneral rule. but architects also enhanced and developedthe framework of renaissance architecture or classicalarchitecture into more detailed and elaborated visual effects.i´ll go throught the most important turning points in thedeveloping of the new architectural language.filippo brunelleschi did an important piece of work whenhe developed a modular plan system with proportions forchurches. actually, the transformation of church architecturefrom gothic to renaissance was to be fulfilled by hissuccessor, alberti.
  11. 11. leon battista alberti did in a pretty important manner turn through this work and diverse built projects in and aroundthe idea of the old roman triumphal archs into the the Veneto region in northern italy – the certain principles ofarchitectural logic of churches - other figures followed his proportions came to use also in residential and commercialexample and made breakthrough structures in how to use settings.this new architectural language. With the book ”the four books of architecture” of 1570,alberti stood on the shoulders of brunelleschi, and palladio renaissance insights of roman architecture and itspursued this field and clearly defined the connections principles – were developed to also be valid for houses.between plan solution and facade expressions. hence, astronger connection between inside and outside. the plans and sections for his Villa rotunda is famous for its balance, symmetry and harmony both on the inside andthis is what we nowadays nickname as palladian the outside. also the other buildings display the grace andarchitecture, the clear expression of harmonious balance that he preached in the ”four books..”.proportions and a obvious connection between the outsideand the inside of a building. palladio has a lasting influence on contemporary architecture, one feature is the “piano nobile”, the elevatedestablishing the renaissance architecture to other buildings first floor.than churches were basically done by andrea palladio. What is also interesting with palladio, is his radical newalthough several architects from italy contributed to the approach to materials. he often designated cheapercontinental influence of renaissance – the influence on materials. he chose often to use stucco-covered brick wallseurope was before palladio only connected to churches. instead of more lavish facades with lots of marble.palladio further developed the systems and catalogues by of course, this trick helped him mediate the principles heSerlio and Vignola, the works of bramante and brunelleschi advocated into other social groups, that could not afford toand actually surveyed like an archaelogist on sites and build in marble. this meant that the wealthy familiesremnants in rome. connected to commerce now could show off. earlier, the church was more privileged to build in certain standards. now palladio altered this. perhaps i could claim that the root of palladian architecture also is connected to the rise of the independent city states in northern italy? politic architecture?
  12. 12. to sum up - the radical thing palladio did, was to interpretand enhance the principles underlying the renaissance andalso classical architecture.by doing this and publishing his treatise “four books onarchitecture” he managed to spread the knowledge andstyles connected to italian renaissance to the europeancontinent. Several of the features of “four books..” and hisbuildings design - are so strong, that they are even evidenttoday.i mentioned the “piano nobile”. basically, every first floor orground floor that is somewhat elevated from the buildingsphysical ground, it is derived from the “piano nobile”concept.What we aknowledge as the heritage from the classical,renaissance and “palladian” architecture today - what isthat?it is foremost the rules of proportions, symmetry andharmony. the principles of proportions, palladio took frompythagoras and the ancient concept of “the golden section”.“the golden section” is evident even in modern buildings.the british architecture theorist colin rowe have shown thatle corbusiers villa at charges actually has a modular gridof piloti columns that serve as a structure for the villa.the le corbusier villa although do no show anyinfluence under the “golden section” when we look at it fromthe outside..
  13. 13. the inventions of structural systems to carry domes forchurches or the modular plans and coherent facadesolutions was only one of the important legacies left us fromthe renaissance. there were also other breakthroughs.Specially when we move on to the late phases of thishistoric period, the art historians call it “high renaissance”and “mannerism”.architects like michelozzo michelozzi and our friend albertidesigned buildings that featured different shading and depthexperiments. and actually, michelozzi did not respect thecolumn orders of classical architecture and aimed at usingbasically rusticated stones, that was the fashion in florenceat that time. the use of different textures on the materials,the use of depths in relation to other elements - this wasdeveloped by several architects after alberti and palladio.donato bramante, raphael Sanzio da urbino, antonio daSangallo the younger, baldassare peruzzi, giulioromano, giacoma della porta and of course the knowngenius of michelangelo buanarotti were the representives ofthe other side of renaissance architecture, the more poeticand sometimes gentle articulation of small proportions andmateriality.then i believe we can put the renaissance architects into2 groups, the more theoretical and systematic ones in theearly phase - and the more gentle, poetic and perhapsrythmical architects of the latter phase, nicknamedmannerism. the 2 pictures show the difference of raphael(upper) and michelangelo, when they solved the issue of awindow frame.
  14. 14. the language of classical architecture is very strong.as mentioned, i have it all around me - and you do to!not only the blatantly obvious, in details on ceilings, doorand window frames - but also in proportions. many of theteachings on how to do architecture developed in the timebetween the 1400s to the late 1500s actually survived for along time.to put it in short - classical principles got revived sometimes after the renaissance. Specially in the 3 periods called“classisism”, “new classicism” and “historism”. furthermore,with the advent of the industrial revolution, its new materialstructures, concept of labor and redistributing of capital -the foundations for much of the society changed.and then came modernism. or, then came steel.this also had implications for the contemporary architectureof this time, the late 1800s and into the early 1900s.diverse movements like “arts and crafts”, “de Stijl”, “ciam”,“deutsche Werbund”, “bauhaus” and more - was injected asvitamins into the contemporary art and architecture scene.these cultural currents translated into what we today callthe modernism. of course there were deviating currentsfrom the mainstream modernism (namely historicallyconservative architects, like lutyens and others), but for thesake of the argument - they can be quiet now.
  15. 15. modernism we all appreciate as something light and flexible,right?i aknowledge that the built structures that adhere to the tag“modernism” often follows a radical new construction rules.these rules, how did they come about?i believe that the new generation of materials, connected tothe more efficient and basically streamlined productionfacilities made it possible to alter the construction ofbuildings into more modular phases of architecture.not only did the new materials alter the constructionlogics, it made it easier to cover greater spans of space andinternal rooms with fewer materials - but radical solutions asmies Van der rohe and le corbusier came with trulyfacilitated the shift to another architecture.i am thinking specially on the idea le corbusier had withthe “5 points.”here he laid the ground for some radical new architecture,for instance the point he had on the free facade and thefree plan. also i could include the pavillion and several ofthe buildings designed by ludwig mies Van der rohe andhis colleagues following the international Style or the credo“less is more”.
  16. 16. le corbusier also came with a new system of proportions.he based it on the work of alberti and palladio, butincluded body proportions and the socalled fibonaccinumbers. this system was called le modulor.With these innovations and the new structural andconceptual program of architecture - a new language ofarchitecture developed.
  17. 17. When i was compiling my notes before starting writing onthis essay - i came to think about the alternating periodsthroughout architecture history as heavy and light.namely, that renaissance could be tagged as heavy,mannerism or high renaissance as somewhat lighter, thenthe baroque as something more heavy - and then theregional styles as french empire/british regency/germanbiedermeyer as again more lightly appearing structures.this was a thought without a lot of arguments, basically justa gut feeling.it is in this train-of-thought that i classify modernism assomething lighter than the previous period. how do youthink? do you agree?Surely, modernism could also appear heavy - because itsstructures are also often bigger than buildings from earlierperiods of archtecture history.Steen eiler-rasmussen elaborates on this in his brilliantbook called “experiencing architecture”. in several contextshe describes how the different tools and methods ofarchitectural detailing have certain visual properties, andhence they make a building appear lighter than it is.
  18. 18. the building that eiler-rasmussen devotes a certainamount of concentration regarding this theme is the“palazzo ducale” in Venice. here, the architect filippocalendario used certain detailings in the bricks used forthe upper facade, and then it renders almost as a textile- and comes out like light material.this is two certain ways of conceiving built structures aslight. le corbusier and his mentioned 5 points for thenew architecture and the architect of the “palazzoducale” in the early 1300s in Venice.take a look at the two pictures, first the interiors of thecathedral in cologne, germany - and here the palazzoducale in Venice, italy. pretty different, right?
  19. 19. What is indeed intriguing with these limits and methods, is and i sincerely believe that architects could and should findthat architecture can be as best as possible. new nutrients, new challenges and interesting perspectives in the permacultural principles.one of the aims behind le corbusiers urban plans was thecrowded and disastrous situations for new habitantsconnected to the industrial revolution in major europeancities. and of course, architecture should be served at topquality at all times. but what is top quality?perhaps i can claim that the renaissance thinkers concievetheir methods and their orders as universal and closest tonature and the advocates behind modernism orinternational Style seek to alter architecture away from itshistorical legacy.historical legacy - well, the value of it could be argued.yes. and it should. but do you agree on arguing with thephysical surroundings that we all are a part of?inititally, i headed of with this text explaining the hows andwhys of classical architecture. its all around us. also themodern pieces are around us nowadays, we buy a piece ofmodernism every week i think.this essay concerns the limits of architecture. i understandthat architecture needs limits! also in these high-tech timesof ours. our time is high-tech, but its actually pretty low onmoral. We all see, and we all understand how we are nottreating our physical and mental conditions for living in acertainly good way. it is nicknamed “not sustainable”. right!thats wrong, we need to fix that! one of the means in myopinion - to connect the old buildings and complicatedcontext is to induce a brand new and sustainable way ofthinking.
  20. 20. permacultural principles are really simple - andstraightforward.take what you have, and make the most of it.if you have an old building, take it as a poetic, psychologicand economic challenge to develop it into new standards.in a complex contexts, take challenge in the existingconditions - see the beauty in existing features andfacades.architecture should never be easy. its too important.
  21. 21. 3 weekstudytripthroughitaly
  22. 22. italy, 24th of September- 15th of October study trip through the heritage of Palladio and his contemporaries, Italian urban spaces and general landmarks of the architectural history 1 the Veneto Region, with Verona, Vicenza and Venice 2 Naples, Capri and the important Pompeii 3 Palermo generally and the site in La Kalsa, southeast centre 4 Rome, personal detour
  23. 23. verona generally, a somewhat small northern italian city - still had its gems to show. we experienced the castelvecchio and banco popolare pieces by carlo scarpa, the verona arena and the classical roman heritage in the city with the piazza erbe and its cardo and decumanus crossing here. all the time we sketched and photographed like crazy, and these are the keywords of what we experienced and learnt: es,Roman structur urban structures ,flexibl e and traditional showing and structures,arena typologies a poetry, al legacy, Scarpan d using historic k tasks practicing quic
  24. 24. vicenzavicenza was the playground of legendary architect and author andreapalladio. it is evident that this small city has many testaments to thetradition that we call palladianism and the renaissance of romanprinciples on architecture used on private residences.we experienced how palladio connected 3 different houses with acentral courtyard and a throughgoing colonnade. but the architecture ofpalladio was also studied at the palazzo chiericati, the excellent basilicapalladiana, the next-door loggia, some other villas in other contexts andthe major teatro olimpico (fulfilled by scamozzi).personally, i liked when palladio tackled the narrow properties, how hedealt with the constraints the urban lots could produce. chitecture, es in Palladio ar Roman principl structural econ omy, the origin of indoor theatre, aissance settin g d- and-new in a Ren play-of-light, ol
  25. 25. venicein venice we did radically opposite things.we studied the classic buildings connected to the piazzasan marco and the seaside at grand canal. buildings welooked into and at were the palazzo ducale, the churchof san marco and the exterior of the carlo scarpa mu-seum. we also visited the important biennale of archi-tecture, this year curated by kazuyo sejima. out- o “sta f-scale rchi d and tect icussio t s”, u n aest ourism, rban on toyo h s p i trad etics, v tudio m rinciple to and ition enic umb s, flo al w e ealth history ai and a oding , ven rt ice isan
  26. 26. naples in naples, the pizza city - we dived into the traditional density of naples in the historic core. this core is characterized with long narrow streets with a high degree of multiuse and public use. but these are also enriched by small piazzas that break up the linear structure. in naples we also further used the principles for designing introduced in the quick-tasks we did in verona. priv a histo te-publi c in st ric quar in the n reet tersprac s, ve , fre arrow s ticin rt sh tre g wi ical com smell o ets in th q uick munica f clean task tion sh s on fa eets cade s,
  27. 27. capriat the island of capri, we all got sunburnt.and we also walked quite a lot on the nice pathways on theeastern side of the island, connecting the very beautiful villamalaparte and the rests of an old roman villa. we did severalsketches and quick tasks on the nature of the path constructionand the villa malaparte. capr i lizar -blue, p d a inte s, car-f thways rp re a vern retatio e socie nd the l acul n of t a ar a land y, hous ndscap rchi s e e, tect cape, i as a ure talia n
  28. 28. pompeiiin the legendary and very important destinationpompeii we experienced how urbanism have avery long history in the mediterrean region.the urban residences did not only havecommercial features towards the street, but alsocontained zones for agriculture and indivdualrelaxing. advan cecomm d urbanism, er fragricu cial zones w escoes, day lture ithin u l rban v ight, atriums illas, u , rban
  29. 29. palermoafter 2 weeks and some days we arrived in palermo, ourfinal destination. we had acquired lots of tools andknowledge throughout the other destinations and nowwe were about to get to know a new city and also decideon 2 sites for doing a project on. arab-e ur urban opean style pl m theatr anning, Ball ix, Roman st e cultu aro an re, WW d Vucc ructures, 2 dest ir ruction ia markets, s
  30. 30. romei decided to take a personal detour to rome.it is nicknamed the eternal city and probably has the status of apilgrim destination among architects.i wanted to focus on the urbanism canons in rome (when inrome, do as the romans..), so i went to campidoglio, spanishsteps and st peters square - but also piazza navona and the campofiore. urban traarchite ditions and c conveelegan ture, relaxin nt ce g, prop ions, icons o ortion f s and
  31. 31. a neW layer of KalSa
  32. 32. palermo has many layershistory of palermo is closely tied with the history of europe, southern europe.the area has traces of settlement already from 8000 bc.the island of Sicily has long been at the center of the attention for the earlytribes, the empires looking for colonies and this is obviously connected to itsgood port and excellent position in the middle of the mediterranean sea.Sicily has a history of 2 strategic settlements, palermo on the hidden or shel-tered northcoast and Syracuse on the easily connected eastern coast.palermo was founded in 736 bc by phoenicians from present-day tunisiaand later developed into a very important harbour and trading port for both asa greek colony, carthagian port, normannian city, seat of the arab Sicilianemirate, roman empire, Sicilian kingdoms, italian kingdom and now servingas the 5th biggest city in present-day italy.the population of roughly 1,2 millions started in the two clusters named ne-apolis and palepolis between two mountains were 2 rivers ended in the eastin the mediterreanan seas.the city of palermo has followed 2 trails in its development, the both an-cient and present roads roman cardo and decumanus. the decumanus wasinitially a trail developed parallell to the rivers, and probably got strengthenedwith the founding of the arab Sicilian emirate, with its seat at la Kalsa.these historic paths and roads meet in the historic center of the city, theQuattro canti and divide the city in 4 parts - on of these is la Kalsa, in thesoutheastern part of city centre. our site is in the middle ofla Kalsa. the part of palermo that houses our site and future project is actu-ally one the very seats of the arab reign in Southern europe. palermo takesits name partly from the greek word “panormus” meaning “all port” and thearab “balarm” which was its name when it was comparable with cordoba andcairo.now, some important moments in history of la Kalsa.
  33. 33. the area close to the port of palermo, the area close to the railway connecting to the italian mainland since1886 - that very area is la Kalsa. and in the WW2 the allied forces bombed this site extensively.Sadly, the area did not get attention and did not get properly rebuilt, so as for large areas of palermo. inthe aftermath of the war, the need for housing was desperate - so large green areas outside the city centrewas developed to house large amount of people. la Kalsa did not gain any attention, and as far as iunderstand - not until mother teresa put up a mission here, this helped raise the awareness of la Kalsaand its population. now there is actually several european union-logos onbuilding projects.the rebuilding process of palermo and Sicily is sometimes nicknamed “Sack of palermo” and “scempio”,and it is apopular belief that this process helped the informal economy and organized crime to its powertoday.in present-day la Kalsa, there are several apartment projects and refurbishment projects underway. this ispretty strong indicators on an ongoing gentrifying process of the area. hence, the market fixes everything?is it so easy?la Kalsa is now in a poor state. as visiting students we recognize this place with lots of potential. asarchitect students - we can organize the activities, we can contribute to other forms of services, enhancethe public facilities - but we also learn that the area is under severe influence from several italianinstitutions.first we see the churches. i counted 4 churches and we have registered some convents connected tothem. many pedestrians and drivers passing the main church at piazza la Kalsa, cross themselves. Wealso understood the importance of informal economy, probably organized crime. in addition to this thereis the municipalities and the investors behind apartment projects. i heard that people in rome are buyingproperty in palermo city centre..in my project i want to emphasize the arabic heritage of palermo and specifically la Kalsa. i understandthat the arabic era and also the normannian era of palermo the historic core of the cityflourished and later made vivid stains. these stains are what we architects and others truly appreciate.in order to regain some proper conditions for the people of la Kalsa, i find it important to know the rootsof its origin. its origin is arabic and this is not notably present for us today. of course, this is a evident ofmodern history - that left it without touch of its origins. the arabic heritage can give me inspiration - butalso give the inhabitants a certain pride and connection to their past and then stand stronger in the inevita-ble turbulent process of gentrifying.
  34. 34. the Kalsa area was as i wrote earlier - initiated by the Sicilian emirate.la Kalsa has for centuries been in the center of attention in european history.the emirate having its seat in palermo and in la Kalsa. the la Kalsa comes from arabic name “al khalisa”, meaning “the purest”.this is probably connected to the seaside location and the bay here is named “cala”.it was established here with a castle in 652 ad. the chiefs of Sicily actually varied between arab, byzantine, normannian and other tribes inthe next centuries - but the arab influence and rule was tolerant and fruitful for business, so the city of balarm/palermo thrived.it was actually recognized just as important as cordoba and cairo in its time as the biggest city in europe, in 1050 it had 350 000 as popula-tion, then only second to cordoba but some decades later passed it.
  35. 35. roman empire and later history made its mark on palermo, the romans verystrong with their decumanus and cardo streets. the east-west bounddecumanus probably was already established by the predescessors and thestrongest connection, but the last century with the bombings and invading underthe WW2 strengthen the role of the cardo, the north-south connection.the modern city now centres north from the historical core we are studying andfocusing on.now the city has no strong connection with the sea, perhaps the connection ismore industrialized and mechanized with the port facilities in the northeast of thecity centre.Strong roads block of the central palermo from sea access, but when you reachit, it is nice.but where are the ancient rivers? Where are the ancient east-west connection?
  36. 36. the site is framed by the east- and west-bound traffic on the roads connecting to the ring road and the decumanus. this in two levels. 1) in north the Via Vittorio emmanuele is fencing the connection to neighbouring Vucciria and the Via lincoln is dividing the Kalsa from the botanical gardens on the southside. furthermore, the ancient connection to cala bay and the mediterranean sea is blocked by the 4-lane foro umberto, but as mentioned a genereous seaside promenade awaits the pedestrians.2) the Via Spasimo and the Via alloro are also framing our site with itsfrequency of scooters and small fiat cars.generally the north-south roads seems to be more quiet and the areais getting more and more exposed to traffic, noise and public life in thesouthwestern corner. this is probably connected to the more intimatenature of the public space in the northern and upper part of the site, andthe more predominant traffic and parking areas in the lower, southern areasof the site.
  37. 37. the site is clearly divided into 2 zones, one more extroverted and one more internal and closed off.the internal zone is filtered through a ruin of an apartment building which is currently on-hold in a demolition process.this ruin is interesting as a piece of public or common ground for the local community.
  38. 38. my program for the project in la Kalsa of palermo takes in consideration facts from the near and the far history of the city and Sicilyin general. i recognize that all persons of a certain age need a “3rd place”.as far as i understand, this often is covered by services like restaurants and churches. but in la Kalsa, the kids do not have enough“3rd places”. that is what i register as a need for the kids in la Kalsa. at the football fields that are available in the general surroundings,younger kids toss small rocks at the older kids using the football field. also, small girls are not seen as often as boys playing outside.this last fact might be understood with cultural aspects, but that do not hide the fact that every kid needs to run around and play also in awider area. this is connected both to development in physiological and psycological abilities for the young person.the intention behind the project is to create more areas at groundlevel for kids to play at and to offer a possibility to focus, to study.in order to house my intentions, the activities for my project will be located at the ruins east for the existing football field.i want to pursue a split approach:1) designated area for outdoor play2) a puppet doll workshop and an upstairs reading room. the puppet doll workshop will revive a tradition i la Kalsa and at Sicily in general.
  39. 39. puppet theatre was fiercely challenged by the advent of television and videorecorders. people got used to see massproduced and repeatedactions, instead of the play and life of manually controlled and handmade puppet dolls in a satirical and sometimes political piece.When introducing the puppet theatre in la Kalsa, it is as mentioned - reviving a Sicilian tradition. this tradition is connected to the “cantistori”and general culture of Sicily. the “cantistori” is singing stories and the rythm and presentation means might be connected to the nordic “stev”or “saga”. in present-day Sicily and palermo, it is alive in several areas. la Kalsa had its puppet theatre also, but it closed down in the 1970s.a puppet theatre and cantistori program of the project will perhaps also contribute in bringing the young girls of the area more into the public,and detach them from their somewhat private and secluded appearance as far as we registered. this will not only bring positive aspects to theindividual girls, but also to the local community in general. a large share of the family fathers are involved in informal economy - and hence,the male rolemodels are sometimes not there, but in imprisoned.
  40. 40. 1) the outdoor play area i imagine could be equipped with cushioning surfaces or vegetation, that will for sure facilitate movement and playfor the kids in the area. i also sincerely believe that this part of the project should not be to thoroughly planned, i believe it is not so nice toplan the process of play.-2) the space requirements for a puppet theatre workshop is flexible, after a talk with puppetmaker in the capo district i understand that thereis basically only a need for a proper workshop that can house some facilities connected to the materials they work with making puppets andscenography. the mostly work with wood (mahogny, heavy woods), metal (brass, copper and silver-alloys) and textile (cotton etc.).also the shows can be hosted in an ad-hoc manner, and my project will not cater for a scene - but only a workshop.i think the upstairs volume of the existing ruin could serve as reading rooms, or focus rooms. i have thought of moving the reading room facilityto above the restaurant in a neighbouring building, but came to that this will have a negative impact on the overall concept and form.
  41. 41. STRATEGY of cave-in STRATEGY of layeringNEGOTIATED ITEM for the project, piece of Kalsa in Bergen, at students desk..
  42. 42. determined of KEEPING SOME OF THE RUIN for the project
  43. 43. the process of digital modelling was divided between the 2 strategies of1 - hugging the football field adjacent to the project site
  44. 44. 2 - puncturing the surface covering and hovering as a new layer of the site, respecting grid and not respecting grid
  45. 45. a neW layer of KalSa
  46. 46. _be someoneSOME KID, SOME MOTHER PLAYSOME as mentioned earlier, the kids of kalsa need more space. we´ve been witnessing boys shooting rocks at each other and few girls wander away from apartment entrances. to be someone means that the architecture around you is LONESOME scaled for you, open for you, flexible for you and big enough for the two of us and for all of us READING SOME TWOSOME
  47. 47. _be specificCLIMATICACOUSTICFANTASTICPLASTIC every archite cture has to the architectu relate to the re of this pro place, the ge shelter for sc ject relates to nus loc horching mid the local clim i. as in all of it summer sun ate, giving aly, serving light, facilita people a bre acoustic nich ting outdoor athing space es that perha lifeHAPTIC ps could giv e
  48. 48. OPEN FORM _be formalBORDERING FORM
  49. 49. _actingGRID RESPECTINGGRID IDENTIFYING CONTRASTING, means of Inclusive Design
  50. 50. Concrete shell construction- thickness at base from 400 mmto 100 mm at canopies.- flooring at property in concrete Brick construction, existing and refurbished. Puppet workshop erected in reclaimed bricks. Steel beams and columns. - columns support concrete canopy where needed - beams strengthen existing bld _building
  51. 51. _entering
  52. 52. _sheltering, using
  53. 53. _from west
  54. 54. _from east + rendered northeast
  55. 55. _from south
  56. 56. _from north
  57. 57. _rendered interior, from northeast
  58. 58. _rendered interiors, from south
  59. 59. _interior, from north
  60. 60. _from northeastern entrance
  61. 61. _from west
  62. 62. _from southwest
  63. 63. _scheming for a complex contextFormForm Concept Concept Space Demands Space Demands Program Program Intention Intention Analysis Analysis information from Site information from Site A.P.P. in process (at studio) A.P.P. in process (at studio) 1 - Walk around 1 - Walk around 2 - Walk into 2 - Walk into 3 Sentences at Site 3 Sentences at Site 3 - Walk out of 3 - Walk out of 1 - Sketch plan and entrance 1 - Sketch plan and entrance areas areas 2 - Register movements, 2 - Register movements, connections and viewpoints at connections and viewpoints at area area 3 - What is important on inside 3 - What is important on inside of project (views/silhouettes). of project (views/silhouettes). 4 - Sequences of space, how is 4 - Sequences of space, how is it connected it connected 5 - Sections, (quick versions) 5 - Sections, (quick versions) Cross Course "Re-Enacting Stillness" "Re-Enacting Stillness" longitudinal + latitudinal longitudinal + latitudinal Cross Course 6 - Volumes, the negatives of 6 - Volumes, the negatives of D.A.V. and other D.A.V. and other "Negotiated item" - from site, "Negotiated item" - from site, space space Method of developing Method of developing explorations in art explorations in art 1:1 scale, item of inspiration, 1:1 scale, item of inspiration, Excursions on Site Excursions on Site projects when in a projects when in a guiding item, item of guiding item, item of remembrance 7 - Register Elements & 7 - Register Elements & complex and unknown complex and unknown remembrance Functions of Area Functions of Area A.P.P. and architectural setting setting A.P.P. and architectural History of area History of area 14 Points of Focus 14 Points of Focus methods of investigation and methods of investigation and A.P.P. on site A.P.P. on site 8 - Register Textures & 8 - Register Textures & project development project development Complex Context Complex Context K.T.F. reading and Materials of Area K.T.F. reading and Geography of area Geography of area Materials of Area master course @ BAS master course @ BAS understanding background understanding background information information 9 - Sketch the Facades 9 - Sketch the Facades Obtaining basic information Obtaining basic information surrounding and constituting surrounding and constituting about site, maps, facts etc. about site, maps, facts etc. the Area the Area 10 - Decompose the Facades 10 - Decompose the Facades and their grammar. and their grammar. Diagrammize their elements Diagrammize their elements and their rythm and frequence and their rythm and frequence 11 - Register Types of Space, 11 - Register Types of Space, public/common/private public/common/private 12 - Borders between Types of 12 - Borders between Types of Space Space 13 - Functions of Space 13 - Functions of Space 14 - Qualities of Space 14 - Qualities of Space Manual Manual Fullscale Sketching at Site Fullscale Sketching at Site Modelling Modelling Digital Digital
  64. 64. _authoring by: harald brynlund-lima, architect student at the bergen School of architecture 2010-2011 +47 986 42 556 / harald@bassbanan.no / www.bassbanan.no / cc free to use

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