USHMM Presentation

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USHMM Presentation

  1. 1. UNITED STATES HOLOCAUSTMEMORIAL MUSEUMNATIONAL POLLKEY FINDINGS
  2. 2. METHODOLGYBetween June 30th - July 10th, PSB conducted 1,000 telephone interviewsamong U.S. General Population Audience Sample Size Margin of Error U.S. General Population 1,000 +/- 3.1% Sample is demographically representative of the United States Census; it includes 750 interviews among landline respondents and 250 interviews among cell phone respondents. Respondents were contacted using a random phone dialing system and cell-phone dialing, meeting industry standards for reaching a representative sample of the U.S. General Population. 3
  3. 3. KEY FINDINGS Americans believe genocide is very possible but also 1 preventable Americans believe the U.S. has a strong role in 2 stopping genocide militarily and with proper education Americans’ biggest fear related to genocide is 3 state-sponsored mass killings Americans think the U.S. should get involved in Syria 4 – but with a coalition 4
  4. 4. NEARLY HALF KNOW THE CORRECTDEFINITION OF GENOCIDEYounger Americans most likely to identify the correct definition DEFINITION OF GENOCIDE Which of the following best describes genocide? Showing All 46 33 8 5 Destruction of a Mass killing of Widespread human Large scale war racial, ethnic, civilians rights abuses crimes religious or national group 55% 39% of Americans under 35 identified of Americans over 55 identified the correct definition the correct definition 5
  5. 5. HOLOCAUST, AFRICA AND HITLER TOP OFMIND ASSOCIATIONS WITH GENOCIDE TOP OF MIND ASSOCIATION What’s the first word that comes to mind when thinking of genocide? Showing AllWords removed: death, murder, mass murder, killing, mass killing, mass destruction, killing people, peoplebeing killed, killing innocent people, mass death, atrocities, unnecessary killing, ethnic cleansing, extinction ofrace, government killing people, racial or religious cleansing, assassination 6
  6. 6. YOUNGER AMERICANS ASSOCIATEGENOCIDE PRIMARILY WITH THEHOLOCAUST AND HITLER Q: What’s the first word that comes to mind when thinking of genocide? Under 35Words removed: death, murder, mass murder, killing, mass killing, mass destruction, killing people, peoplebeing killed, killing innocent people, mass death, atrocities, unnecessary killing, ethnic cleansing, extinction ofrace, government killing people, racial or religious cleansing, assassination 7
  7. 7. OLDER AMERICANS MORE LIKELY TOTHINK OF SPECIFIC RECENT EVENTS LIKERWANDA AND SYRIA Q: What’s the first word that comes to mind when thinking of genocide? Over 55Words removed: death, murder, mass murder, killing, mass killing, mass destruction, killing people, peoplebeing killed, killing innocent people, mass death, atrocities, unnecessary killing, ethnic cleansing, extinction ofrace, government killing people, racial or religious cleansing, assassination 8
  8. 8. 94% OF AMERICANS FEEL GENOCIDECAN STILL OCCUR TODAY Which of the following is closer to your view? Genocide is still very Genocide is a thing of much a concern and the past; it is unlikely to could occur today happen in current times All 94 2 4• 57% say genocides are more likely to occur during tough economic times 9
  9. 9. 2 IN 3 AMERICANS SAY GENOCIDE ISPREVENTABLE PREVENTABLE Do you think that genocide is preventable? Showing All 5 Yes 29 No 66 10
  10. 10. MAJORITY THINK GENOCIDE IS CAUSED BYPOWER AND POLITICS OR IGNORANCE CAUSES OF GENOCIDE In your opinion, what causes genocide? MULTIPLE RESPONSES PERMITTED. Showing All 52 50 45 36 12 Power and Ignorance Religious and/ or Intolerance Other politics ethnic differences 11
  11. 11. NEARLY 2 IN 3 SAY GENOCIDE IS DRIVEN BYPOLITICAL LEADERS MORE THAN HATEAMONG PEOPLE Which of the following is closer to your view? Genocide occurs mainly because ordinary Genocide occurs mainly because political people from different groups hate each or military leaders order or encourage other so much that they decide to kill people to kill each other All 63 6 31 12
  12. 12. CONCERN IS BECAUSE OF MORALREASONS MORE THAN ECONOMIC ORSECURITY REASONS REASONS PEOPLE BECOME CONCERNED Which of the following are reasons why you become concerned when you hear about genocide or mass atrocities? MULTIPLE RESPONSES PERMITTED. Showing All 75% Moral Principles 70% Sympathy for Victims 39% National Security 33% Economic implications 13
  13. 13. 69% THINK THE U.S. SHOULD PREVENT ORSTOP GENOCIDE FROM OCCURRING INOTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD U.S. PREVENTING OR STOPPING GENOCIDE Do you think the U.S. should prevent or stop genocide or mass atrocities from occurring in another part of the world? Showing All Yes 6 No 25 69 14
  14. 14. AMERICANS THINK INTERNATIONALBODIES HAVE THE MOST RESPONSIBILITYFOR STOPPING GENOCIDEOnly 8% think the United States is most responsible RESPONSIBILITY FOR STOPPING GENOCIDE When there is a risk of genocide or mass atrocities, who do you think is most responsible for preventing or stopping them? Showing All 43 31 10 8 1 International Countries directly Neighboring United States Non-governmental bodies involved in the countries to where organizations conflict the conflict is taking place 15
  15. 15. MORE THAN HALF FEEL THE INTERNATIONALCOMMUNITY IS NOT EFFECTIVE AT PROTECTINGCIVILIANS FROM GENOCIDEYounger Americans are more optimistic – 59% say theinternational community is effective EFFECTIVENESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY Respondents were read: Given this statement, how effective do you think the international community is at protecting civilians from “Responsibility to Protect” genocide or mass atrocities? Showing All is the United Nations’ doctrine that states that all nations have a responsibility to protect 43 Effective citizens from genocide, war 2 crimes, ethnic cleansing Not Effective and crimes against humanity 55 16
  16. 16. 34% THINK THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINALCOURT IS EFFECTIVE AT PREVENTINGGENOCIDEYoung Americans have more confidence in the ICC – 46% think it iseffective EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ICC Respondents were read: Do you think that having a court like the ICC is effective at The International Criminal preventing genocide? Showing All Court (ICC) is a permanent, treaty-based international criminal court established to help 16 charge perpetrators of Yes 34 the most serious crimes of concern to the No international community. 50 The ICC is an independent international organization and is not part of the United Nations system. 17
  17. 17. 77% ARE NOT FAMILIAR WITH UNITED NATIONS’“RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT” PLAN FAMILIARITY WITH PLAN Are you familiar with the “Responsibility to Protect” Initiative? Showing All Yes 2 21 No 77 18
  18. 18. AMERICANS MOST LIKELY TO THINK U.S. SHOULDENGAGE WHEN THERE ARE LARGE-SCALE HUMANRIGHTS ABUSES OR GOVERNMENT KILLINGS WHEN U.S. SHOULD ENGAGE Thinking generally about various acts against civilians, when should the U.S. engage in conflict? Showing All 28% large scale human rights abuses 25% government itself is responsible for mass civilians deaths 16% large numbers of members of a group killed 11% reasonable chance of success 19
  19. 19. MAJORITY OF AMERICANS THINKMULTINATIONAL ACTION IS THE MOSTEFFECTIVE MILITARY STRATEGY MOST EFFECTIVE MILITARY STRATEGIES In your opinion, which military strategies are most effective in stopping genocide or mass atrocities? MULTIPLE RESPONSES PERMITTED (UP TO 2). Showing All 53% Multilateral action 27% Military action facilitated by international bodies (e.g. U.N) 10% Unilateral action by U.S. 5% None of the above 20
  20. 20. 78% SUPPORT U.S. TAKING MILITARY ACTIONTO STOP GENOCIDE OR MASS ATROCITIES SUPPORT FOR U.S. MILITARY ACTION Do you support or oppose the U.S. taking military action to stop genocide or mass atrocities? Showing All Support 78 Oppose 4 18 21
  21. 21. 69% SAY THE PRESIDENT NEEDSCONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL TO TAKEMILITARY ACTION TO STOP GENOCIDEYoung are much more likely than older Americans to sayCongressional approval is needed CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL Do you think the President of the United States needs Congress’s approval to take military action in the event of genocide or mass atrocities? Showing All 3 Yes 28 No 69 22
  22. 22. AMERICANS DON’T CONSIDER SYRIA A TOP U.S. FOREIGN POLICY ISSUE TOP POLICY ISSUES In your opinion, what are the 2-3 most important U.S. foreign policy, global issues today? MULTIPLE RESPONSES PERMITTED (UP TO 3). Showing All 24 23 22 19 19 19 16 16 13 11 10 10 4Afghanistan EU Human Terrorism Middle China Iran Nuclear Genocide Trade Syria North Russia economy rights East Arms Korea 23
  23. 23. 55% THINK THE U.S. SHOULD TAKEMILITARY ACTION IN SYRIA SUPPORT FOR MILITARY ACTION Thinking about past and more recent international conflicts, how convinced are you that the U.S. should have taken military action in ….? Showing All Convinced U.S. should take Not Convinced U.S. should /should have taken action take/should have taken action 55 13 24 Syria 24
  24. 24. MORE THAN HALF SUPPORT U.S. BOOTS ONTHE GROUND IN SYRIA AND SUDAN – BUT ONLYAS PART OF AN INTERNATIONAL FORCEHumanitarian aid and economic sanctions have the most support SUPPORT FOR U.S. ACTIONS Which of the following actions by the U.S. government would Syria Sudan you support to stop atrocities in …? MULTIPLE RESPONSES PERMITTED. Showing All Helping refugees to flee the violence 63 61 Freezing trade except for food and medicine for the victims 59 57 Sending U.S. ground forces but only as part of an international 55 56 force Air strikes on government and military targets 44 40 Sending U.S. ground forces to protect civilians 38 38 Providing arms for rebels to defend themselves 32 27 No action 6 6 25
  25. 25. ABOUT 6 IN 10 AMERICANS BELIEVE THATUS SHOULD HAVE TAKEN MILITARY ACTIONIN PAST ATROCITIES SUPPORT FOR MILITARY ACTION Thinking about past and more recent international conflicts, how convinced are you that the U.S. should have taken military action in ….? Showing All Convinced U.S. should take Not Convinced U.S. should /should have taken action take/should have taken action 63 62 60 59 13 13 12 8 24 24 28 33 Bosnia Rwanda Darfur, Sudan Libya 26
  26. 26. MAJORITY OF AMERICANS ARE FAMILIARWITH CASES OF GENOCIDES• Older Americans are slightly more familiar than younger – on average, 76% of Americans over 55 are familiar with these events, compared to 60% of Americans under 35• Awareness of the Holocaust is high among all ages FAMILIARITY WITH CASES OF GENOCIDE How familiar are you with the following cases of mass atrocities? Showing All, Total Familiar 91 73 70 69 67 65 62 29 Holocaust Syria Rwanda Bosnia Libya Darfur, Sudan Cambodia Armenia 27
  27. 27. AMERICANS THINK RELIGIOUS GROUPS ORETHNIC GROUPS ARE THE LIKELIESTVICTIMS MOST LIKELY VICTIMS OF GENOCIDES Which of the following kinds of groups are most likely to be victims of genocide or mass atrocities ? MULTIPLE RESPONSES PERMITTED (UP TO THREE) Showing All 59 53 45 23 21 19 11Religious Ethnic Racial Political Gay/ Economic Physically groups groups groups groups homosexual classes or mentally groups disabled groups 28
  28. 28. MILITARY INTERVENTION, TOLERANCE EDUCATION ANDARRESTS ARE SEEN AS MOST EFFECTIVE INPREVENTING OR STOPPING GENOCIDE EDUCATION ABOUT GENOCIDEIn your opinion, what methods or Do you think that education about the history of genocideefforts would be most effective in can help prevent future atrocities? Showing Allpreventing and/or stopping genocide Allor mass atrocities? MULTIPLERESPONSES PERMITTED (UP TO 2)Military intervention 33 3Education of populace in tolerance 31 Yes 21Arresting perpetrators 30 NoDiplomatic negotiations 21Economic sanctions 21 76Humanitarian relief 14Development assistance 11None of the above 3 29
  29. 29. RECAPAmericans believe genocide is very possible but alsopreventable• 94% of Americans believe that genocide is still very much a concern and could occur today• 66% of Americans believe that it is preventableAmericans believe the U.S. has a strong role in stoppinggenocide militarily and with proper education• 78% support the U.S. taking military action to stop genocide or mass atrocities• 53% say multilateral action is the most effective military strategy, while 10% say unilateral action by the U.S. is most effective• 76% believe that education about the history of genocide can help prevent future atrocities 30
  30. 30. RECAPAmericans’ biggest fear related to genocide is state-sponsored mass killings• 63% believe genocide occurs mainly because political or military leaders order or encourage people to kill• They are most likely to say the U.S. should engage in cases of large- scale human rights abuses or when a government itself is responsible for mass civilian deathsAmericans think the U.S. should get involved in Syria – butwith a coalition• 55% believe that the U.S. should take military action in Syria• 55% support sending U.S. ground forces, but only as part of an international force 31
  31. 31. 33

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