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V3 Nepc ProMENTE Powell Charleston Dedc

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Are minority students and teachers the strongest supporters of educational segregation? A multi-country study. Presentation: CIES Charleston, March 2009

Are minority students and teachers the strongest supporters of educational segregation? A multi-country study. Presentation: CIES Charleston, March 2009

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  • 1. Student support for segregation Are minority students and teachers the strongest supporters of educational segregation? A multi-country study 1 Steve Powell 1 proMENTE social research: member of NEPC Presentation: CIES Charleston, March 2009
  • 2. Student support for segregation This is a presentation of preliminary results from the Divided Education - Divided Citizens? multi-country research project conducted by: the Network of Education Policy Centers | www.edupolicy.net International Network of Education Policy Centers (NEPC) 20 members in countries from Poland and Latvia to Mongolia and Kazakhstan. Vision: to develop into a strong formally established network of leading education policy centers, a global actor with local and regional expertise in education policy that promotes the values of an open, democratic, multicultural, and pluralistic society.
  • 3. Student support for segregation Overview 1 Background 2 Results: mixed schools? 3 Results: predicting support 4 Results: school eects 5 Conclusions and a puzzle
  • 4. Student support for segregation Background Why we did this research Before transition, more unied education and civic enculturation Now .... Children growing up in segregated education systems ... what will happen?
  • 5. Student support for segregation Background Questions for this presentation Do pupils (and teachers?) want a segregated education system? If so, which pupils and why?
  • 6. Student support for segregation Background Sample of schoolchildren 1 Originally 5375 children in seven countries Sampling: schools drawn randomly from lists of schools in ethnic majority and minority areas in each country.
  • 7. Student support for segregation Background Sample of schoolchildren 2 country-maj MAJORITY MINORITY BOH 292 282 Estonia 363 319 Kazakhstan 0 0 Kosovo 0 0 Latvia 243 306 Slovakia 294 321 Tajikistan 0 0 Weighted to equalise sample size in each country. Removed About 2% of children who did not declare themselves as either minority or majority. Removed Kazakhstan, Kosovo and Tajikistan (school variable problem). Leaving 134 schools in the sample. Otherwise, results are similar for these two
  • 8. Student support for segregation Background Sample of schoolchildren 3 area x sex Urban area Rural area Male 714 494 Female 664 521 Final year of compulsory education, 14-15 years
  • 9. Student support for segregation Background Sample of teachers 949 teachers in the same schools in the four countries of the present study, 54% majority ethnicity.
  • 10. Student support for segregation Background Question Q Do you think that the fact that there are separate schools for MAJORITY and MINORITY students in our country is.. (Very bad =0, ... Very good = 4) Very concrete question, relevant to school children
  • 11. Student support for segregation Results: mixed schools? Do mixed schools solve the problem?
  • 12. Student support for segregation Results: mixed schools? Do mixed schools solve the problem? More minority schools with a few majority students. Mixed schools are less common in Estonia There are very few schools with more than 20% mixing. Mixed schools *also* support segregation!
  • 13. Student support for segregation Results: mixed schools? Do teachers support segregation?
  • 14. Student support for segregation Results: predicting support Which children support segregation? Model 1: minority*country Model 1 main predictors • minority status • country • interaction of country and minority status • NO eect: sex, age, .... - explains about 20% of variance teacher But support for segregation is even more strongly determined by their own ethnic status than for students: 38% of the variance is explained just by minority*country
  • 15. Student support for segregation Results: predicting support Model 2: inuence of teachers So do teachers directly aect the children? • ADD mean of teachers' pro-segregation attitudes in each school (students' minority status * mean teachers' minority status * country * teachers' mean support for segregation) - explains about 25% variance So although teachers are even more split than students, overall they do not inuence the students much.
  • 16. Student support for segregation Results: predicting support Model 4: inuence of context ONLY school mean for pro-segregation! nothing else! Explains about 34% variance None of the other variables are so determined by their school-level mean No other variables add much to this predicition
  • 17. Student support for segregation Results: school eects Inuence of local context on support for segregation?
  • 18. Student support for segregation Results: school eects What we can see... The relationship diers from country to country but remains strong Correlation coecients majority minority BOH 0.55 0.47 Slovakia 0.66 0.52 Latvia 0.40 0.43 Estonia 0.59 0.58 • There are minority schools in Estonia and Slovakia in which just about all the children are maximally in favour of segretation • Although in B&H there are frequent violent incidents in schools related to segregation the children are not such strong supporters of segregation If you are a minority child, you are almost certainly in a pro-segregation school
  • 19. Student support for segregation Results: school eects It's hard to predict support for segregation Does not correlate very strongly with other variables • age and sex • whether the school is muti-ethnic or not • number of friends of other ethnicity (r=.06)
  • 20. Student support for segregation Results: school eects A few good predictors • It is easy to understand the disappointment of MINORITY people with some political decisions in our country r=.28 • reasons for studying in minority school amongst minority children: to preserve our language 0.23 • it is easier to study in my mother tongue • 0.34 because everybody I know goes or went to a minority school • 0.12 • (Notice how support for segregation is not so high in B&H, where the languages are similar)
  • 21. Student support for segregation Conclusions and a puzzle Conclusions and a puzzle want Minority children segregation For many reasons, but most importantly language The situation diers radically from country to country and place to place ? Puzzle: why is there so little intra-school variation on support for segregation? a) Strong within-school group norms on this issue? b) Because all the children are reacting to specic, very local situation?
  • 22. Student support for segregation Conclusions and a puzzle Recommendations • If you want to understand segregated education in these countries, you have to understand that the minorities want it, and why they want it. • Solutions should take both political and pragmatic approaches • Explore local dierences