Youtube Uzay Laboratuvarı Yarışması-Biyoloji Rehberi
Biological Experiment GuidelinesIntroductionLife Sciences or biology is the study of living organisms and matter like plants, animals, and humanbeings. For millions of years organisms have evolved on Earth in the presence of gravity. It is suchan ingrained aspect of all organisms that often times, scientists are not able to determine whataspect of a physiological process is gravity dependent. For example, when a butterfly emergesfrom her chrysalis, she typically “falls” out of the end of the chrysalis that points toward the ground.What happens when gravity is removed and there is not falling? Gravity on the ISS is effectivelycounterbalanced by the centripetal acceleration of the orbiting space station creating a weightlessenvironment. So, with the invention of space travel, living organisms can be studied minus the oneever present variable on Earth – gravity – for the first time in human history!Your ExperimentIf you come up with a biological experiment and it wins the competition, it will be performed byastronauts on board the International Space Station. Remember, youre not being asked to actuallydo the experiment -- youre being asked to explain your experiment idea and how it would work(although any prototypes or designs or diagrams that you show in your video might help peopleunderstand your experiment better). The biological experiment will be conducted in a fully self-contained piece of space flight certified hardware called a habitat (known as a Commercial GenericBioprocessing Apparatus or CGBA for short). Unlike many physics experiments that might use aone-time, concerted effort by an astronaut, many biological experiments involve long periods ofgrowth and observation (from days to weeks). During this time, the habitat controls the experimentdetermined environmental conditions (including temperature control, lighting, food, media, water,growth environment, and humidity) and records stills and video of the experiment while it is beingconducted. The astronauts are only able to manipulate the experiment using the built-in interfaceslike plungers and valve handles (described for each habitat later). The winning entry will be adaptedfor space flight and tested on the ground by experts to check it is safe for space flight. Howeverfor an entrant or team to successfully design a biological experiment that is feasible and safe, itmust take into account the following guidelines and be appropriate for one of the four space flight-certified habitats that are available to support biological experiments for this contest.GuidelinesMicrogravityRemember that, because the ISS is far away from Earth and orbiting very fast, gravity is effectivelycancelled out on the space station. Things that seem “easy” on the ground are not necessarily easy
in space. There is no “up” or “down” and cultures will float freely within a container. Insects thatattempt to fly often tumble when they move their wings.Life-SupportDuring transportation: The habitat will provide everything your experiment requires to thrive. Fromthe time your experiment is loaded into the space flight habitat, launched, transported to the ISSand installed 10-14 days may have passed, so it may help to design a biological experiment thatcan remain “dormant” during transportation to the ISS. Many biological experiments can be flownin stasis or a slow-growth condition and activated by the introduction of food/media or both. Ifinvestigating higher organisms (i.e. insects), it may be possible to keep the organism in a containedspace within the habitat until it is released so that the initial behavior or adaptation in microgravitythat is being studied can be seen on video. The astronaut, for example, can open “doors” to releasethe organism into the primary portion of the habitat just before video and imaging begins.Onboard the ISS: The habitats cannot be opened at any time once on board the ISS. Thus it isimportant that you have some idea of how the needs of your proposed biological experiment couldbe delivered or provided. Here are some questions to ask yourself when designing a biologicalexperiment: What is required to successfully support the organism, culture or sample I amstudying? How long does it need to live? Does it need to be fed, if so how often? Does it requirefresh media at different time intervals?Temperature ControlDuring launch and transport to the ISS (which can take between 10-14 days) the experiment willremain at ambient temperature between +16°C and +26°C depending upon location within thelaunch vehicle. Once the experiment is installed on board the ISS, the temperature can be chosento be any temperature between 4°C to 37°C and may even be changed during the course of theexperiment. For example, it might be set to 25°C during the growth phase and then cooled torefrigeration temperatures (4°C) to extend organism, culture or sample life.Biosafety LevelsMany biological organisms are given what is called a Biosafety Level (BSL) rating. Only biologicalsubstances and organisms with a rating of BSL 2 or lower may be flown. To be safe, a good rule tofollow is try to utilize non-hazardous cultures, organisms or samples for your experiment. Examplesof non-hazardous substances/organisms include: water, sugar water (nectar), Agar, Phytagel,caterpillar food, fruit fly food, baby food, seeds, guar gum, plant cells, any invertebrate that is notpoisonous, non-toxic or cannot cause disease in humans or animals, tissue cultures, yeast, somebacterial cultures. Some examples of low-hazard or low BSL materials are some bacteria andviruses including Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, as well as some cell cultures and non-infectious bacteria.Organism, samples and cultures 1. Anything considered poisonous, toxic or dangerous to human health is prohibited from use on the space station. 2. The organisms, culture or sample being proposed for study must be available between January and May when the testing will happen before the launch. 3. The organism needs to be able to be transported from the USA (where it will be tested) to Japan (where the launch happens). 4. How long can the organism, culture or sample survive and will that meet the experiment objectives? And when does the experiment end?Length of experimentThe experiment can go on for a few days to a number of weeks depending on how long it needs to
collect results for. Where outside interaction is needed for longer experiments, the astronauts timeshould be considered - for example, 10 to 20 minutes a week would be reasonable.Prototypes, Mock-Ups, Pictures & DiagramsMany ideas shine as concepts until they are proven impossible or infeasible with prototypes.For this reason, it is optional but encouraged that contestants build and demonstrate mock-upsor prototypes of the devices needed to perform the experiment. This will make your entry moreclear to the judges and voting community and to the developer of the habitat if your experiment ischosen. It is important for you to clearly understand the biological process or behavior of what youare proposing to study. You should be explicit on how to keep the organism, culture, sample alivefor the necessary time. Experts will adapt the concept you demonstrate into hardware that meetsall the requirements for space flight. Explanatory pictures, diagrams, and schematics that help toillustrate the experiment concept are also encouraged.Data collectionSince the biological experiment will not be returned to Earth, high resolution digital video recordingsand still images will be used to analyze the experiment. Still images are automatically taken asoften as every five minutes, 24 hours a day, or can be taken more regularly for short periods. Videoimaging can also occur throughout the day for extended periods.Be aware that some organisms may leave residue on the viewing windows of the experimenthabitats, which can make the experiment very hard to see. For instance, fruit fly larvae drag theirwet sticky food with them as they move around. On a previous experiment, fruit fly larvae were keptin separate chambers when they were young and messy and only let out into the primary portion ofthe habitat as adults for better viewing.HabitatsOverviewThe following is a description of the four space flight certified habitats that can be utilized for abiological experiment. Your experiments do not need to be limited to the ways they have beenused before. Think of each habitat in terms of its capabilities and ability to support your proposedbiological experiment. For instance, do not think of habitat 1 as an insect habitat, rather it is avented box with lights and a plunger system for manual opening and closing of a smaller spacewithin the larger primary habitat space. As long as the box itself is kept sealed and intact, theplunger and small container system within the primary habitat can be used for a variety of activities.Just use your imagination!ModificationsThe habitats may be slightly modified to better support a proposed experiment but modificationsare not recommended because of the complexity they may add before the experiments are due togo to space. Consider proposed changes carefully against how essential it is for the experiment tosucceed.Habitat 1 – “Butterfly” HabitatSummaryThe “butterfly” habitat shown in figure 1 is a sealed box that has been used in previous biological
experiments to house different types of invertebrates such as caterpillars, spiders, fruit flies, andbutterflies. It is essentially just a lit box with a clear front, so it is the most versatile of the availableplatforms. The clear front window allows video imaging of almost all of its contents. Up to fourplungers that are controlled manually can be used to open or close 4 smaller containers insidethe sealed habitat. The plunger system can also be used to inject fluid or start and stop anothermechanical system. In the past, this plunger system was used to expose food for butterfly larvae,release fruit flies into the primary habitat for spiders, expose a water container for the primaryinhabitants of the habitat and/or confine the insect being studied until it was installed on the ISS.Lighting for imaging is provided via white and infrared (IR) light-emitting diodes (LED). The whitelights can also be programmed to turn on and off to simulate a day/night cycle, and the infraredLEDs enable imaging during the "night" phase. Six water-proof vents allow the box to “breath”while sealing in liquids. The vents allow gas transfer to support aerobic metabolism and to equalizepressure during changes in cabin pressure. The habitat body provides one level of containment.Example Experiments1. ButterfliesThree butterfly habitats containing two different species of butterfly larvae flew to the ISS. Thehardware setup was the same for both species with the only difference being the caterpillar’s food.In each case, small caterpillars were loaded, launched and grown until they formed chrysalises andlater emerged as butterflies.The caterpillar food tray (figure 2) was loaded with food in the exposed wells (on the left side) andthe covered wells (on the right side). The habitat was launched on a space shuttle and transferredto ISS approximately four days after being handed over to NASA personnel. When the astronautinstalled the habitats into CGBA for temperature control and imaging, she also pulled up the foodplunger to expose the fresher food in the covered wells (on the right side of figure 2).The nectar feeder (figure 3) was filled with sugar water for the butterflies to eat after they emergedfrom their chrysalises. The feeder started in a “closed” position to keep it from evaporating. Shortlybefore the butterflies emerged, the astronaut pulled the nectar feeder plunger up to align the holein the slider and expose the nectar for the butterflies to eat. Figure 4 shows the butterfly habitatloaded for launch to the ISS with Monarch caterpillars.
2. Spiders and Fruit Flies The "Butterfly" habitats also flew orb weaving spiders and fruit flies to the ISS. When the butterflyhabitat flew in the configuration to hold spiders, four smaller units within the habitat (see figure5) held fruit flies along with the appropriate fly food and water in a separate chamber. The waterchamber also provided a safe yet contained space to launch the spider so that she was unable tospin webs until she was released into the primary chamber of the habitat box once on board theISS.Alternate Configuration Ideas While it is important that the plunger system mechanism remains the same on this habitat,changes may be made to what the plunger movement does (the smaller containers inside thebutterfly habitat). For example, instead of the plunger system opening a smaller compartment toexpose fresh food within the primary habitat, it could open a small compartment to expose a cleanliving space for the habitat inhabitants or it could “activate” a syringe pump. A biological experimentcould use 1, 2, 3 or 4 plungers.Specifications Dimensions: (3.5 x 5.0 x 7.0 inch) Levels of Containment: One
Video/Imaging: Almost the entire habitat is imaged. The front half of the “top” is omitted in order to avoid glare from the LEDs. Materials: 5 sides are anodized aluminum. The front window is clear polycarbonate. The mini hab and food and water trays are made from several materials including: polycarbonate, Ultem, stainless steel, PTFE Types of experiments: Invertebrates, crystal growth, plant growth.Habitat 2 – OptiCell Processing ModuleSummaryThe OptiCell Processing Module (figure 6) is a closed culturing system that is based on an off-the-shelf culture chamber called an OptiCellTM. It is well suited for biological liquid cultures and cangrow things like bacteria, yeast, and very small organisms like nematodes. The syringe and valveallow fluid to be drawn from one of the three OptiCells and injected into another. This feature canbe used to extend the period of growth by growing the culture in each chamber sequentially. TheOptiCellTM chamber consists of two durable, thin plastic films held 2mm apart by a rectangularframe. They were designed to support cell cultures, but they have also been shown to work well forbacteria, yeast, and nematodes. The clear plastic sides are good for imaging and are permeable tooxygen and CO2. This gas exchange lets the culture “breathe” through the film.Example ExperimentIn preparation for a yeast experiment, all three OptiCellsTM chambers were loaded with yeastmedia and the first was inoculated with yeast. It was immediately installed into a smart incubatorwhich cooled them to 4°C (refrigeration) in order to keep the yeast cold enough that it would notgrow much. A couple of days after arriving in space, an astronaut set the incubator to warm theexperiment up to 22°C (room temperature). At this temperature, the yeast started to grow actively.After a few days, the yeast had filled chamber number 1 and used up most of the nutrients in thechamber. At that point, the astronaut pulled a small amount of the culture from chamber 1 andinjected it into chamber 2. This inoculum started a new culture in chamber 2 which grew until itsaturated chamber 2 and the astronaut pulled some from it to start number 3. When the yeast hadgrown to fill chamber 3, the incubator was set to cool again to preserve the culture for analysis.Specifications Dimensions: 3 x 11 x 12cm ( 1.2 x 4.5 x 5.0 inch ) Volumes: OptiCell – 10mL Syringe – 3mL Video: The two outside OptiCellsTM may be imaged. Types of experiments: Cell and tissue cultures, microbiology, small organisms, micro- organisms
Habitat 3 – Group Activation Pack (GAP) with 8 FluidProcessing Apparatus (FPA)SummaryThis space flight hardware platform was designed to house many different types of biologicalexperiments and allow for fluid mixing while providing three levels of containment. This meansthis hardware can house slightly more hazardous substances when compared to the previouslydescribed space flight hardware platforms. Each GAP hardware (see figure 7) contains 8 glasstubes (see figure 8) with moveable rubber septa and a gas permeable membrane that allowsmodest gas exchange, if needed. The septa allow the tube to keep 2 - 4 fluids separate within thetube and accomplish sequential mixing of these fluids at the appropriate times. Total liquid volumewithin each of the 8 tubes is 6.5ml. All 8 tubes within one GAP are activated at the same time.GAPs provide three levels of containment. A hand crank is used to manually move the septa to mixthe fluids.An example of each fluid is:1. A culture or organism in stasis.2. An initiating media or other fluid that starts growth.3. A fixative to terminate the experiment and preserve it for analysis upon return to Earth.Example ExperimentsThousands of glass barrels have flown in hundreds of GAPs over the last two decades. Supportingsmall plants/seed germination, small invertebrates, microorganisms, mammalian cells and tissues,viruses, bacteria, protein crystal growth and biomaterials. GAPs may house organisms with a BSLrating of 2 or less.Alternate Configuration IdeasThere can be minor modifications to the septa configuration within each glass barrel.Specifications Dimensions: ( 3.5 x 4.0 x 5.0 inch ) Levels of Containment: Three. The tubes are the first level. The doubly-sealed cylinder body and end caps are the second and third. Video: The GAPs are not imaged while in CGBA. Two of the eight tubes may be imaged at a time during experiment activation and/or termination. No close-up video can be captured during actuation. Materials: Glass tubes, silicone septa, anodized aluminum endcaps, polycarbonate cylinder body.Habitat 4 – Culture FlasksSummaryThree standard culture flasks at a time are placed in a bracket that holds and illuminates them forimaging (see figure 9). The flasks are typical off-the-shelf sterile polystyrene cell culture flasks.Culture flasks are typically used with liquid media in a biological lab, but only non-hazardous gel-
like substances such as agar are acceptable for microgravity use. This is because the vented lid ofthe flask is designed to allow gas exchange and it could become saturated and blocked if a liquidculture were to come into contact with it in microgravity. The culture flasks, also called cell-cultureflasks, can be obtained on the Internet in almost any country. They are specified to provide 25cm2of growth area when laid flat, and they hold approximately 50mL of fluid. White LEDs and infraredLEDs are both available for this hardware platform.Example ExperimentIn September 2011, a seed-germination and directional root growth experiment is slated to occurin this habitat. Its goal is to investigate the comparative effects of gravity, light, and touch on thedirection that roots grow. The flasks contain layers of an agar called PhytagelTM of a varyingdensities which test the “touch” sensitivity of the roots (thigmatropism). The plants are also grownwith and without light to investigate the effect of light on the direction of root growth (phototropism).Comparison of the flight experiment with its ground control counterpart distinguishes the directionaleffect of gravity (gravitropism). This habitat may hold organisms with a rating of BSL 1 or less.Alternate ConfigurationsMinor lighting changes could be accomplished.Specifications Dimensions: Flask (1.0x2.1x3.75 inch) Flasks in bracket (1.3 x 5.5 x 7.0 inch) Levels of Containment: One Video: All three flasks are imaged at once. White and/or infrared LEDs can be independently switched to shine in through the angled “shoulder” near the cap for illumination.