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  • 1. Industrial Food-Grade Lubricants Guide[Type the company name] White Paper Sponsored by: [Type the company address] Clarion Lubricants 1293 Eldridge Parkway[Type the phone number] Houston, TX 77077 [Pick the date] Phone: 832-486-4375 Fax: 832-486-1865 Email: info@clarionlubricants.com
  • 2. Industrial Food-Grade Lubricants GuideBy Jim C. Fitch, Martin Williamson and Sabrin Gebarin, Noria Corporation1. IntroductionThe food processing industry presents unique challenges to lubricant formulation engineers, lubricant marketers, plantlubrication engineers, equipment designers and builders. While it is never desirable for lubricants to be allowed tocontaminate raw materials, work-in-progress or finished product, the consequences of a lubricant-contaminated productis rarely more acute than in the food processing industry. As such, lubricants used in this industry have requirements,protocols and performance expectations that go well beyond typical industrial lubricants.This paper provides a general overview of the unique challenges associated with food-grade lubricants, including recentrevisions of the regulatory environment. The terminology commonly used by suppliers and clients of food-gradeproducts will also be defined and discussed. So, too, will be machine applications common to certain sectors of the foodprocessing industry and their unique requirements for food-grade lubricants.2. The Food Processing IndustryFood-grade lubricants are significant in scope and application when you consider the size of the food processingindustry. In the United States, food manufacturers represent a significant percentage of total manufacturing. Accordingto the 1997 United States Census, approximately $485 billion in sales revenue was generated (about the same amountgenerated in the transportation manufacturing industry). This represents almost 13 percent of all manufacturing in theU.S. In 1997, approximately 28,000 manufacturing facilities employed 1.6 billion employees and produced 233 billiondollars in goods [1].3. Current Registration PracticesHistorically, the two U.S. government agencies primarily involved in food processing were the United States Departmentof Agriculture (USDA), which regulates meat, poultry and plants; and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA),which monitors other food and pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.3.1. U.S. Regulations Prior to 1998Prior to 1998, approval and compliance of food-grade lubricants was the responsibility of the USDA. The Food Safetyand Inspection Services (FSIS), headed by the USDA, reviewed the formulations of maintenance and operatingchemicals. FSIS required meat and poultry facilities to use only non-food compounds that were pre-approved by theUSDA authorization program. However, these programs spread to other food market sectors such as fisheries and retailfood operations [2].To gain USDA approval, lubricant manufacturers had to prove that all of the ingredients in the formulation wereallowable substances. Allowable substances, in this instance, are those listed by the FDA in accordance with theGuidelines of Security Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21, §178.3570. This did not include lubricant testing;rather, the approval was based primarily on a review of the formulation ingredients of the lubricant [2].3.2. Changes in Food-Grade Lubrication Standards After 1998Starting in February 1998, the FSIS significantly altered its program by implementing a system established by HazardAnalysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) requiring the manufacturer to assess risk at each point in the operationwhere contamination might occur. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) originally developed theHACCP system in the 1960s to prevent astronauts from receiving any food-borne illnesses. It established measures likeminimum cooking temperatures for each control point and instituted procedures to monitor these measures and alsoprovides corrective actions if critical limits are not met [3]. In essence, the manufacturer became responsible forreviewing and approving the chemical compositions of lubricants to decide whether they were safe or not as food-gradelubricants. 2
  • 3. 3.3. Third-Party CertificationsIn response to the change in the approval process, several commercial organizations developed external certificationprograms. Three such organizations were the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF), Underwriters Laboratory (UL) anda joint effort by three recognized industry professional associations: the National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI),the European Lubricating Grease Institute (ELGI) and the European Hygienic Equipment Design Group (EHEDG).NSF has developed a lubricant evaluation program that essentially mirrors the FSIS program by evaluating the candidatelubricant formulations to verify compliance with the various FDA Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Each componentin the formulation is submitted to NSF by the lubricant manufacturer along with other supporting documentation. Thisis then reviewed to verify it is within the FDA list of permitted substances [4]. NSFs Web site provides food processingmanufacturers with a continually updated list of approved lubricants at www.nsfwhitebook.org (Figure 1). Figure 1. NSF’s search engine of approved lubricants in H1, H2 and H3 applications.UL is another organization that began third-party certification of food-grade lubricants but no longer is doing so. Whilethey have not been as active as NSF in the area of food-grade lubricants, in the past, UL organized several informationalmeetings, inviting lubricant and chemical manufacturers to attend [5].The NLGI / ELGI/ EHEDG Joint Food-grade Lubricants Working Group has been active in drafting an authorizationprogram for food-grade lubricants. This group’s program is also based on the former USDA/FSIS authorizationprogram and CFR policies. Its plan is to develop a DIN standard in Germany and use the DIN standard to later developan ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standard [5].Not all countries use third-party certifications. Canada, New Zealand, Australia and Japan are some of the countries thatfederally regulate food-grade lubricants [1]. However the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is working on afood-grade lubricants approval system, and NSF will help with the CFIA review process. Also, the AustralianQuarantine Inspection Service has approved approximately 50 food-grade lubricants based on NSF registration [6]. 3
  • 4. 4. Challenges Facing Food-Grade LubricantsAgricultural and animal substances go through a number of processes in a manufacturing plant, such as cleansing,sterilizing, blending, mixing, cooking, freezing, cutting, packaging, canning or bottling. Large-scale food processingrequires machinery such as pumps, mixers, tanks, hoses and pipes, chain drives, and conveyor belts. Machinery used infood processing facilities face many of the same tribological and lubrication challenges found in other non-foodprocessing plants. In that sense, lubricants must offer similar protection of internal surfaces to control friction, wear,corrosion, heat and deposits. They must also offer good pumpability, oxidation stability, hydrolytic stability and thermalstability where the application so requires. Many of the raw materials used to formulate lubricants that effectively addressthese challenges in conventional industrial applications are not permissible in food applications for safety reasons.In addition, certain applications within the food and drug manufacturing facilities demand that lubricants resistdegradation and impaired performance when in contact with food products, certain process chemicals, water (includingsteam) and bacteria. They must also exhibit neutral behavior toward plastics and elastomers and have the ability todissolve sugars. In general, these lubricants must comply with food/health and safety regulations, as well as bephysiologically inert, tasteless, odorless and internationally approved [7].Lubricants in many food processing plants can be subjected to ingression and contend with an assortment ofenvironmental contaminants. For instance, a corn-milling environment generates significant dust. Although not as hardas silica-based terrain dust, it still presents a problem for filtration. A meat plant requires stringent steam cleaning at alltimes, so the risk of water contamination is high. Water contamination in gear oils routinely exceeds 15 percent in someplants.Another aspect of lubrication contamination that poses unique risk to food-grade lubricants is the growth ofmicroorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi. While these can also be challenging to conventional industriallubricants, the opportunity for microbial contamination in the food-production industry is considerably greater.5. Food-Grade Lubricants Defined by CategoryFood-grade lubricants are either compounded or uncompounded products acceptable for use in meat, poultry and otherfood processing equipment, applications and plants. The lubricant types in food-grade applications are broken intocategories based on the likelihood they will contact food. The USDA created the original food-grade designations H1,H2 and H3. The approval and registration of a new lubricant into one of these categories depends on the ingredientsused in the formulation. The three designations are described as follows [2]:H1 lubricants are food-grade lubricants used in food processing environments where there is some possibility ofincidental food contact. Lubricant formulations must be composed of one or more approved basestocks, additives andthickeners (if grease) listed in 21 CFR 178.3750. Only the minimum amount of lubricant required should be used on theequipment.H2 lubricants are lubricants used on equipment and machine parts in locations where there is no possibility that thelubricant or lubricated surface contacts food. Because there is not a risk of contacting food, H2 lubricants do not have adefined list of acceptable ingredients. They cannot, however, contain intentionally heavy metals such as antimony,arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury or selenium. Also, the ingredients must not include substances that are carcinogens,mutagens, teratogens or mineral acids [4]. Lubricant Type Regulations They Must Meet Edible oils (corn oils, cottonseed oil, soybean oil) 21 CFR 172.860 Certain mineral oils 21 CFR 172.878 Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) 21 CFR 182 or 21 CFR 184 Table 1. H-3 Soluble Oil Approved LubricantsH3 lubricants, also known as soluble or edible oil, are used to clean and prevent rust on hooks, trolleys and similarequipment. Equipment applied with H3 lubricants should be cleaned by washing or wiping the surface before puttingthe equipment in service. These lubricants can only consist of ingredients as shown in Table 1 [4]. 4
  • 5. Deciding whether there is a possibility of contact is tough, and many have erred on the side of safety with respect toselecting an H1 lubricant over an H2 lubricant.6. Approved Lubricant Formulations in H1 LubricantsAs previously mentioned, the USDA/FSIS approvals are based on the various FDA Codes in Title 21 that dictateapproval for ingredients used in lubricants that may have incidental contact with food. These are mentioned below: • 21.CFR 178.3570 – Allowed ingredients for the manufacture of H1 lubricants • 21.CFR 178.3620 – White mineral oil as a component of non-food articles intended for use in contact with food • 21.CFR 172.878 – USP mineral oil for direct contact with food • 21 CFR 172.882 – Synthetic isoparaffinic hydrocarbons • 21.CFR 182 – Substances generally recognized as safeBased on the Title 21 FDA regulations noted, the following paragraphs discuss the allowable basestocks, additives andthickeners in food-grade lubricants.6.1. Acceptable Food-Grade BasestocksDepending on whether the food-grade lubricant is H1 or H2, the list of approved basestocks will vary. H2 lubricantbasestock guidelines are less restrictive and, consequently, allow a broader variety of basestocks. Many products used inindustrial (non-food) plants are also used in food plants for H2 applications. H1 lubricants are much more limited sincethey are designed to allow for accidental exposure with the processed foods. The approved H1 lubricant basestocks canbe either mineral or synthetic:6.1.1. Petroleum-based lubricantsMineral oils used in H1 food-grade lubricants are either technical white mineral or USP-type white mineral oils. Whiteoils start as normal paraffinic petroleum stocks and are processed into pure branched paraffin stocks, stripped free of themajority of aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur and nitrogen contaminants. They are highly refined and are colorless, tasteless,odorless and non-staining. Technical white oils meet the regulations specified in 21 CFR 178.3620. Based on theAmerican Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) method D156-82, “Standard Test Method for Saybolt Color ofPetroleum Products (Saybolt Chromometer Method),” the Saybolt color must be 20 minimum to be considered atechnical white oil [8]. USP mineral oils are the purest of all white mineral oils and are the most oxidatively stable [5].Historically, white mineral oils were first listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) in 1926. Later, a paper on thegeneral principles of white oil manufacturing was written in 1935, followed by other papers [1].6.1.2. Synthetic lubricantsSynthetic H1 lubricants are mainly polyalphaolefins (PAO). They were first introduced in 1981 by Gulf Research andDevelopment Company [1]. Compared to white mineral oils, they have significantly greater oxidation stability and agreater range of operating temperatures. Another H1 synthetic lubricant used is polyalkylene glycols (PAG). Theselubricants are more increasingly used in high-temperature applications.Dimethylpolysiloxane (silicones) with a viscosity greater than 300 centistokes (cSt) [9] is also permitted for H1 lubricants.Sanction letters for the use of silicone fluids as defoaming agents show up as early as 1953. Silicones were not approveduntil soon after a petition filed by General Electric in 1965 [1]. Silicones have even higher thermal and oxidation stabilitythan PAO and PAG base oils.6.1.3. Differences among basestocksAlthough synthetics are more expensive than mineral oils, tests performed on H1 PAO and white mineral oils on drivechains show that the useful life of PAOs is almost twice that of white oils. Testing has shown PAG base oils have aservice life five times longer than white mineral oils [7]. In addition to longer service life, there is evidence that syntheticH1 oils do a better job of protecting metal surfaces from corrosion and wear and withstand greater temperatureextremes required around freezers or ovens. 5
  • 6. 6.2. Acceptable Food-Grade Additives and ThickenersOften, basestocks are not able to meet the severe demands required in food processing work environments. To improvethe performance characteristics of base oils, additives are blended into the formulation. The types of antioxidants,corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear, extreme-pressure additives and concentration are limited by 21 CFR 178.3570.Greases are lubricating oils that have a thickening agent added to the formulation. Approved grease thickeners includealuminum stearate, aluminum complex, organo clay and polyurea [10]. Aluminum complex is the most common H1food-grade grease thickener. They can withstand high temperatures and are water resistant, which are importantproperties for food processing applications. Greases with calcium sulfonate thickeners have not been explored forapproval by the USDA or FDA, but has been approved in Canada for incidental contact [11].The list of approved base oils, additives and thickeners for H1 incidental contact with food is available in Table 2. Table 2. Approved Substances for H1 Lubricants per 21 CFR 178.3570 Substance Limitations For use only as a thickening agent in mineral oil Aluminum stearoyl benzoyl hydroxide lubricants at a level not to exceed 10 percent by weight of the mineral oil. N,N-Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-ar-methyl-1H - benzotriazole-1- methanamine (CAS Reg. No. 94270-86-7) For use as a copper deactivator at a level not to exceed BHA 0.1 percent by weight of the lubricant. BHT [alpha]-Butyl-omega- hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) poly (oxypropylene) produced by random condensation of a 1:1 mixture by weight of ethylene oxide and propylene Addition to food not to exceed 10 parts per million. oxide with butanol; minimum molecular weight 1,500; Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 9038-95-3. [alpha]-Butyl-omega- hydroxypoly (oxypropylene); minimum molecular weight 1,500; Chemical Abstracts Addition to food not to exceed 10 parts per million. Service Registry No. 9003-13-8. Castor oil Addition to food not to exceed 10 parts per million. Castor oil, dehydrated Addition to food not to exceed 10 parts per million. Castor oil, partially dehydrated Addition to food not to exceed 10 parts per million. Dialkyldimethylammonium aluminum silicate (CAS Reg. No. 68953-58-2), weight 1, 6-hexanediol (CAS Reg. No. For use only as a gelling agent in mineral oil lubricants; by weight of the mineral oil. 629-11-8), where the alkyl may contain up to 7 percent by level not to exceed 15 groups are derived from hydrogenated tallow fatty acids percent. (C14-C18) and where the aluminum silicate is derived from bentonite. Dimethylpolysiloxane (viscosity greater than 300 Addition to food not to exceed 1 part per million. centistokes). For use only as an extreme-pressure antiwear adjuvant Di (n-octyl) phosphite (CAS Reg. No. 1809-14-9). at a level not to exceed 0.5 percent by weight of the lubricant. Disodium decanedioate (CAS Reg. No. 17265-14-4). For use only: 1. As a corrosion inhibitor or rust preventative in mineral oil-bentonite lubricants at a level not to exceed 2 percent by weight of the grease. 6
  • 7. 2. As a corrosion inhibitor or rust preventative only in greases at a level not to exceed 2 percent by weight of the grease. For use only as a chelating agent and sequestrant at aDisodium EDTA (CAS Reg. No. 139-33-3. level not to exceed 0.06 percent by weight of lubricant at final use dilution.Ethoxylated resin phosphate ester mixture consisting ofthe following compounds:1. Poly(methylene-p-tert-butyl phenoxy)poly(oxyethylene) mixture of dihydrogen phosphate andmonohydrogen phosphate esters (0 to 40 percent of themixture). The resin is formed by condensation of 1 moleof p-tert-butylphenol with 2 to 4 moles of formaldehydeand subsequent ethoxylation with 4 to 12 moles ofethylene oxide. For use only as a surfactant to improve lubricity in lubricating fluids complying with this section at a level2. Poly(methylene-p-nonylphenoxy) poly(oxyethylene) not to exceed 5 percent by weight of the lubricatingmixture of dihydrogen phosphate and monohydrogen fluid.phosphate esters (0 -40 percent of the mixture). The resinis formed by condensation of 1 mole of p-nonylphenolwith 2 to 4 moles of formaldehyde and subsequentethoxylation with 4 to 12 moles of ethylene oxide.3. n-Tridecyl alcohol mixture of dihydrogen phosphateand monohydrogen phosphate esters (40 to 80 percent ofthe mixture; CAS Reg. No. 56831-62-0).Fatty acids derived from animal or vegetable sources, andthe hydrogenated forms of such fatty acids.2-(8-Heptadecenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H- For use at levels not to exceed 0.5 percent by weight ofimidazole-1-ethanol (CAS Reg. No. 95-38-5). the lubricant.Hexamethylenebis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4- For use as an antioxidant at levels not to exceed 0.5hydroxyhydrocinnamate) (CAS Reg. No. percent by weight of the lubricant.35074-77-2).[alpha]-Hydro-omega-hydroxypoly (oxyethylene) Addition to food not to exceed 10 parts per million.poly(oxypropylene) produced by random condensationof mixtures of ethylene oxide and propylene oxidecontaining 25 to 75 percent by weight of ethylene oxide;minimum molecular weight 1,500; Chemical AbstractsService Registry No. 9003-11-6.12-Hydroxystearic acid For use only as an adjuvant (to improve lubricity) inIsopropyloleate mineral oil lubricants. For use only as an adjuvant in mineral oil lubricants at aMagnesium ricinoleate. level not to exceed 10 percent by weight of the mineral oil.Mineral oil Addition to food not to exceed 10 parts per million.N-Methyl-N-(1-oxo-9-octadecenyl) glycine (CAS Reg. For use as a corrosion inhibitor at levels not to exceedNo. 110-25-8). 0.5 percent by weight of the lubricant. 7
  • 8. For use only as an antioxidant at levels not to exceed 0.5N-phenylbenzenamine, reaction products with 2, 4, 4- percent by weight of the lubricant.trimethylpentene (CAS Reg. No. 68411-46-1). Complying with Sec. 178.3700. Addition to food not toPetrolatum exceed 10 parts per million. For use only, singly or in combination, as an antioxidantPhenyl-[alpha]-and/or phenyl [beta]-naphthylamine. in mineral oil lubricants at a level not to exceed a total of 1 percent by weight of the mineral oil.Phosphoric acid, mono- and dihexyl esters, compounds For use only as an adjuvant at levels not to exceed 0.5with tetramethylnonylamines and C11-14 alkylamines. percent by weight of the lubricant.Phosphoric acid, mono- and diisooctyl esters, reacted For use only as a corrosion inhibitor or rustwith tert-alkyl and (C12-C14) primary amines (CAS Reg. preventative in lubricants at a level not to exceed 0.5No.68187-67-7). percent by weight of the lubricant. For use only as an extreme-pressure antiwear adjuvantPhosphorothioic acid, O, O, O-triphenyl ester, tert-butyl at a level not to exceed 0.5 percent by weight of thederivatives (CAS Reg. No. 192268-65-8). lubricant.Polyurea, having a nitrogen content of 9 to 14 percent For use only as an adjuvant in percent level not tobased on the dry polyurea weight, produced by reacting exceed 10 mineral oil lubricants at a by weight of thetolylene diisocyanate with tall oil fatty acid (C16 and C18) mineral oil.amine and ethylene diamine in a 2:2:1 molar ratio.Polybutene (minimum average molecular weight 80,000). Addition to food not to exceed 10 parts per million.Polybutene, hydrogenated; complying with the identity Addition to food not to exceed 10 parts per million.prescribed under Sec. 178.3740.Polyethylene Addition to food not to exceed 10 parts per million.Polyisobutylene (average molecular weight 35,000- For use only as a thickening agent in mineral oil140,000 [Flory]). lubricants. Use only as a rust preventive in mineral oil lubricants atSodium nitrite a level not to exceed 3 percent by weight of the mineral oil.Tetrakis [methylene(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4- hydroxyhydro- For use only as an antioxidant in lubricants at a level notcinnamate)] methane (CAS Reg. No. 6683-19-8). to exceed 0.5 percent by weight of the lubricant.Thiodiethylenebis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4- For use as an antioxidant at levels not to exceed 0.5hydroxyhydrocinnamate) (CAS Reg. No. 41484-35-9). percent by weight of the lubricant. For use only as an extreme-pressure antiwear adjuvantTri[2(or 4)-C9-10-branched alkylphenyl]phosphorothioate at levels not to exceed 0.5 percent by weight of the(CAS Reg. No. 126019-82-7). lubricant.Triphenyl phosphorothionate (CAS Reg. For use as an adjuvant in lubricants herein listed at a level not to exceed 0.5 percent by weight of theNo. 597-82-0). lubricant.Tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite For use only as a stabilizer at levels not to exceed 0.5(CAS Reg. NO. 31570-04-4). percent by weight of the lubricant.Thiodiethylenebis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4- hydroxy-hydro- For use as an antioxidant at levels not to exceed 0.5cinnamate) (CAS Reg. No. 41484-35-9). percent by weight of the lubricant. For use at levels not to exceed 10 percent by weight ofZinc sulfide the lubricant. 8
  • 9. Source: 21 CFR 3570 – Lubricants with incidental food contact. Retrieved online atwww.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr.index.asp.7. Selecting What Machines Require Food-Grade LubricantsSelecting whether to use an H1 or H2 lubricant can be challenging. As previously mentioned, H1 lubricants arepermitted where incidental contact might be possible, while an H2 lubricant is only permitted where there is no possiblecontact with the food product. For example, a lubricant used on a conveyor system running over a food line must be anH1 category oil, while a conveyor system running underneath a food line may use either an H1 or H2 lubricant. BecauseH1 lubricants are limited by types of additives and in the past only used mineral oil basestocks, H1 lubricants in certaininstances provided less protection and shorter lubricant life. Now that synthetics are used, some H1 lubricantperformance can exceed non-food-grade lubricants. This is highly significant in allowing consolidation and avoidingaccidentally cross-contamination of H1 and H2 oils, and contamination of H2 oils with food [7].8. Selecting an H1 Food-Grade Supplier [13]Finding the right lubricant supplier is as important as selecting the right lubricant. It is important to find a food-gradelubricant supplier that understands specific applications and requirements. Important qualities of a lubricant supplier areproduct consolidation, oil analysis, on-time delivery, speedy response to questions and an ability to tailor products toclient needs.9. Religious Organizations’ Influence in Food-Grade LubricantsThe Muslim and Jewish religions further restrict the formulation of food-grade lubricants. Today, there areapproximately 14 million Jews and 1.3 billion Muslims worldwide [14]. Both religions have rules covering aspects offood processing.“Kosher for Pareve,” or Kosher, is the term used to describe Jewish dietary laws. Kosher law is approved by severalrabbinic orders. In the United States, the Orthodox Union and the Organized Kashrus Laboratories are major approvalorganizations active in the approval of food-grade lubricants. Kosher law outlaws the use of pork and pork by-products.Kosher law also prohibits any mixing of meats and dairy and eggs. Any equipment must be properly cleaned and left idlefor 24 hours before and after making kosher foods [1].Under Islamic law, “Halal” (meaning lawful or permitted in Arabic) laws are imposed on their food products. In theUnited States, the Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America issues Halal certificates. Similar to Kosher laws, Halalfoods exclude the use of pork and pork by-products. Also, Halal excludes the use of alcohol in its products, whichpotentially limits some of the additives used in food-grade lubricants [1].10. ConclusionsThe food and beverage processing industries with respect to food-grade lubricants have changed dramatically within thelast few years. Understanding the differences between H1, H2 and H3 lubricants and making the proper lubricantselection is critical to food safety and machine reliability. As an additional source, NSFs Web site provides lubricantrequirements for food-grade products and gives a free access listing of certified food-grade lubricants on their site atwww.nsfwhitebook.org.This paper was reproduced from a more complete text published within the Handbook of Lubrication and Tribology: VolumeI Application and Maintenance, Second Edition, George E. Totten, Portland State University, Oregon, USA , CRC Press, ISBN9780849320958.References 1. Raab, Michael J, Anderol, “Food-grade lubricants: A new world order”. NLGI Spokesman, 66, 2, 2002. 2. Williamson, M., Noria UK Ltd., “Understanding food-grade lubricants”. Machinery Lubrication magazine, 64, 2003. 9
  • 10. 3. Hodson, D., Shell Cassida, “Food-grade lubricants reduce contamination threats for food and beverage manufacturers”. Machinery Lubrication magazine, 24, 2004. 4. NSF International Registration Guidelines (July 2003) Version 3.3, Retrieved October 2004 from http://www.nsf.org/business/nonfood_compounds/guidelines.pdf. 5. Girard, J., Lubriplate Lubricants Division, Fiske Brothers Refining Company, “The continuing evolution of food-grade lubricants”. Machinery Lubrication magazine, 20, 2002. 6. E-mail correspondence with Dr. Kenji Yano, program manager for NSF International Non-food Compounds Registration Program. 7. Lauer, D.A., Kluber Lubrication, “Special lubricants for the food-processing and pharmaceutical industries”. Lubrication Excellence 2003 Conference Proceedings, 439, 2003. 8. 21 CFR 178.3620 – Technical White Mineral Oil as a Component of Non-food Articles Intended For The Use of Contact with Food. Retrieved November 2004 at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/index.html. 9. 21 CFR 178.3570 – Lubricants with Incidental Food Contact. Retrieved November 2004 at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/index.html. 10. Food-grade lubricants, Machinery Lubrication seminar, Noria Corporation, 209, 2004. 11. Mackwood, W., Muir, R., “Calcium sulfonate complex grease: The next-generation food machinery grease”. NLGI Spokesman, 17, 2003. 12. Food Processing Industry. Lubricant Selector Guide. Lubrication Engineers Inc. (no date). 13. Lesinski, D.J., and Raab, M.J., Anderol, “Brand insurance: Using the right food lubricant to protect your company”. Machinery Lubrication magazine, 54, 2003. 14. Retrieved from Adherents Web site December 2004 at http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html, last updated September 2002.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------About UsClean and clear, pure and simple. Clarion® Food Grade lubricants meet the most stringent standards of purity andperformance for food processing applications. We continue to improve them and they keep performing beyondexpectations.Clarion lubes and greases – made with white mineral oils of the highest quality – can be classified in two majorcategories, non-formulated and formulated. We offer products in both categories to fit your requirements.Non-formulated white mineral oils contain no additives and are used for a wide range of applications where the purity ofthe oil is paramount due to possible direct contact with food for human consumption.Formulated white mineral oils are used for processing and packaging machinery where the possibility of incidentalcontact with food product exists. They are refined and stabilized with Vitamin E oxidation inhibitors.With over 40 years of experience in the white oil industry, Clarion is the lubricants brand you can trust, with theexpertise and surety of supply to provide you with the products your business needs and the service your reputationdemands. 10
  • 11. Clarion Lubricants1293 Eldridge ParkwayHouston, TX 77077Phone: 832-486-4375Fax: 832-486-1865Email: info@clarionlubricants.com 11

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