Topic 2. Mixtures Activities

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Topic 2. Mixtures Activities

  1. 1. Name……………………………………………. Date……………………………. TOPIC 2 ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES ACTIVITIES Mixtures are absolutely everywhere you look. Mixtures are the form for most things in nature. Rocks, air, or the ocean, they are just about anything you find. They are substances held together by physical forces, not chemical. A mixture is a combination of substances in which the individual substances keep their own properties. If you put sand into a glass of water, it is considered to be a mixture. You can always tell a mixture because each of the substances can be separated from the group in different physical ways. You can always get the sand out of the water by filtering the water away. There are two different types of mixtures. Chemists use the terms heterogeneous and homogeneous. Homogeneous mixtures have one phase and uniform composition. Solutions are great examples of homogeneous mixtures; a solution is a mixture of solute and solvent. The solute is the substance that dissolves; the solvent is the substance that does the dissolving. Heterogeneous mixtures used to describe substances in which you can see more than one colour or type of matter. Heterogeneous substances have more than one phase and a no uniform composition. Mixing sand and iron filings might create a heterogeneous mixture. A pure substance contains only one substance and nothing else, distilled water is an example. That fact means that there are just water molecules in the liquid. A pure substance is a form of matter that has a definite composition and specific properties. Any pure substance that contains only one kind of an atom is known as an element: Fe(s), N2(g) ; a compound is formed when two or more elements are chemically joined. Salt (NaCl), and sugar are examples of compounds. Physical processes separate mixtures of different compounds. Simple physical separation might use the process of filtration, such as removing sand from water; you can also use different boiling points and distillation. Evaporation is used to obtain the solute from a solution and chromatography is used to separate out one colour from a mixture of colours. Chemical methods are used to change the atomic composition of compounds. When chemical methods are used, you change the original ingredients and the entire mixture changes. Adapted from http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_mixture.htm Felisa Pinilla Practical work in Chemistry 1
  2. 2. Name……………………………………………. Date……………………………. 1. Work in pairs. In the spaces provided, describe the distinguishing characteristics of the major categories of matter. MIXTURES HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES SOLUTIONS ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS Felisa Pinilla Practical work in Chemistry 2
  3. 3. Name……………………………………………. Date……………………………. 2. Complete the diagram with the following words: salt (NaCl), matter, solution, iron (Fe), homogeneous, pure substance, oil+vinegar, air, heterogeneous, compound, element. 3. Classify each of the following substances as; an element, a compound, a solution, or a heterogeneous mixture. 1. Sand 2. Salt 3. Pure Water 4. Soil 5. Soda 6. Pure Air 7. Carbon Dioxide 8. Gold 9. Bronze 10. Oxygen 11. Salad Dressing 12. Salt Water 4. Complete the table with different processes to separate mixtures PROCESS What it is used for Examples Used for separating a solid from a liquid Separating SAND from water. Used to obtain the solute from a solution for obtaining SALT from salty water Used to obtain the solvent from a solution for obtaining pure water from sea water Used to separate out one colour from a mixture of colours for separating out the colours in black ink HOMEWORK ON THE INTERNET Felisa Pinilla Practical work in Chemistry 3
  4. 4. Name……………………………………………. Date……………………………. 1. Welcome to the mixtures lab! Once you separate a mixture use the chart to record your findings. http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/mixture/mixture.html Mixtures Separation mechanism Physical properties that allow separation Sand and iron filings Salad Salt and water Muddy water Dust in air 2. Go to http://www.chem4kids.com/extras/quiz_mattermix/index.html Answer questions from the quiz on mixtures, remember that you have to justify your answer. The first one is done as an example. Question 1: Mixtures are always combinations of the same compounds that are at different states False. You can make mixtures out of compounds that are different states of matter and you can also make mixture out of compounds that are the same state of matter Question 2: You can separate all mixtures by filtration. …………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………. Question 4: All mixtures are defined as "heterogeneous." ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… Question 5: Mixtures are generally separated by what methods? Felisa Pinilla Practical work in Chemistry 4
  5. 5. Name……………………………………………. Date……………………………. Chemical Physical ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… Question 6: Only specific compounds can be combined to form mixtures. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… Question 7: All solutions are mixtures, but not all mixtures are solutions ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… Question 9: Which of these is not a mixture? Solution Alloy Amalgam These are all mixtures ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………. Question 10: Which of these is not a mixture? Oil and water Sand and water Coca Cola All are mixtures ………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. COMPLEMENTARY ACTIVITIES Felisa Pinilla Practical work in Chemistry 5
  6. 6. Name……………………………………………. Date……………………………. www.science-teachers.com/physical.htm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Across 5 He (6) 6 Ca (7) 8 O (6) 9 Fe (4) 10 Cu (6) 12 K (9) 15 Na (6) 16 Au (4) 18 H (8) 19 Be (9) 24 Cl (8) 25 S (7) 26 Ne (4) Down 1 N (8) 2 Ni (6) 3 Al (9) 4 As (7) 7 Zn (4) 11 P (10) 12 Pu (9) 13 Ar (5) 14 Si (7) 17 F (8) 19 B (5) 20 Pb (4) 21 Hg (7) 22 Ag (6) 23 C (6) Felisa Pinilla Practical work in Chemistry 6
  7. 7. Name……………………………………………. Date……………………………. www.science-teachers.com/physical.htm Across 1 Isotope of hydrogen with one neutron. (9) 6 When two atoms of different elements combine chemically, what does it produce? (7) 7 The lightest element. (8) 8 Elements that lend electrons in chemical reactions. (5) 9 A nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of two atoms combine to form one nucleus. (6) 11 Helium, neon, argon, or krypton. (5,3) 13 Where electrons reside in the atom. (5) 15 The most common isotope of carbon. (6,6) 16 The isotope of carbon that is used for dating things in archeology. (6,8) 17 Elements that borrow electrons in chemical reactions. (8) Down 2 An atom of an element with a different number of neutrons in the nucleus. (7) 3 Unstable. (11) 4 Positively charged particle in the nucleus. (6) 5 The center of an atom. (7) 9 A nuclear reaction in which an atom's nucleus splits to form two new atoms. (7) 10 Negatively charged particle. (8) 12 Isotope of hydrogen with two neutrons. (7) 14 Particle with no charge. (7) Felisa Pinilla Practical work in Chemistry 7
  8. 8. Name……………………………………………. Date……………………………. Periodic Table of the Elements Quiz www.science-teachers.com/physical.htm Fill in the blanks with the atomic symbols of the first 20 elements. And then write the element names in the blanks below. Key: element name atomic number symbol atomic weight scandium 21 Sc 44.95591 titanium 22 Ti 47.867 vanadium 23 V 50.9415 chromium 24 Cr 51.9961 manganese 25 Mn 54.93805 iron 26 Fe 55.845 cobalt 27 Co 58.9332 nickel 28 Ni 58.6934 copper 29 Cu 63.546 zinc 30 Zn 65.409 gallium 31 Ga 69.723 germanium 32 Ge 72.64 arsenic 33 As 74.9216 selenium 34 Se 78.96 bromine 35 Br 79.904 krypton 36 Kr 83.798 rubidium 37 Rb 85.4678 strontium 38 Sr 87.62 yttrium 39 Y 88.90585 zirconium 40 Zr 91.225 niobium 41 Nb 92.90638 molybdenu m 42 Mo 95.94 technetium 43 Tc [98] ruthenium 44 Ru 101.07 rhodium 45 Rh 102.9055 palladium 46 Pd 106.42 silver 47 Ag 107.8682 cadmium 48 Cd 112.411 indium 49 In 114.818 tin 50 Sn 118.710 antimony 51 Sb 121.760 tellurium 52 Te 127.60 iodine 53 I 126.9045 xenon 54 Xe 131.293 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Hint: Al, Ar, B, Be, C, Ca, Cl, F, H, He, K, Li, Mg, N, Na, Ne, O, P, S, Si, Felisa Pinilla Practical work in Chemistry 8
  9. 9. Name……………………………………………. Date……………………………. Periodic Table of the Elements www.science-teachers.com/physical.htm hydrogen 1 H 1.00794 Key: helium 2 He 4.002602 lithium 3 Li 6.941 beryllium 4 Be 9.012182 element name atomic number symbol atomic weight boron 5 B 10.811 carbon 6 C 12.0107 nitrogen 7 N 14.00674 oxygen 8 O 15.9994 fluorine 9 F 18.9984 neon 10 Ne 20.1797 sodium 11 Na 22.98977 magnesium 12 Mg 24.3050 aluminium 13 Al 26.981538 silicon 14 Si 28.0855 phosphorus 15 P 30.97376 sulphur 16 S 32.065 chlorine 17 Cl 35.453 argon 18 Ar 39.984 potassium 19 K 39.0983 calcium 20 Ca 40.078 scandium 21 Sc 44.95591 titanium 22 Ti 47.867 vanadium 23 V 50.9415 chromium 24 Cr 51.9961 manganese 25 Mn 54.93805 iron 26 Fe 55.845 cobalt 27 Co 58.9332 nickel 28 Ni 58.6934 copper 29 Cu 63.546 zinc 30 Zn 65.409 gallium 31 Ga 69.723 germanium 32 Ge 72.64 arsenic 33 As 74.9216 selenium 34 Se 78.96 bromine 35 Br 79.904 krypton 36 Kr 83.798 rubidium 37 Rb 85.4678 strontium 38 Sr 87.62 yttrium 39 Y 88.90585 zirconium 40 Zr 91.225 niobium 41 Nb 92.90638 molybdenu m 42 Mo 95.94 technetium 43 Tc [98] ruthenium 44 Ru 101.07 rhodium 45 Rh 102.9055 palladium 46 Pd 106.42 silver 47 Ag 107.8682 cadmium 48 Cd 112.411 indium 49 In 114.818 tin 50 Sn 118.710 antimony 51 Sb 121.760 tellurium 52 Te 127.60 iodine 53 I 126.9045 xenon 54 Xe 131.293 caesium 55 Cs 132.90545 barium 56 Ba 137.327 lutetium 71 Lu 174.967 hafnium 72 Hf 178.49 tantalum 73 Ta 180.9479 tungsten 74 W 183.84 rhenium 75 Re 186.207 osmium 76 Os 190.23 iridium 77 Ir 192.217 platinum 78 Pt 195.078 gold 79 Au 196.96655 mercury 80 Hg 200.59 thallium 81 Tl 204.3833 lead 82 Pb 207.2 bismuth 83 Bi 208.980 polonium 84 Po [209] astatine 85 At [210] radon 86 Rn [222] francium 87 Fr [223] radium 88 Ra [226] lawrencium 103 Lr [262] rutherfordium 104 Rf [261] dubnium 105 Db [262] seaborgium 106 Sg [266] bohrium 107 Bh [264] hassium 108 Hs [269] meitnerium 109 Mt [268] darmstadtium 110 Ds [271] roentgenium 111 Rg [272] ununbium 112 Uub [285] ununquadiu m 114 Uuq [289] lanthanum 57 La 138.9055 cerium 58 Ce 140.116 praseodymiu m 59 Pr 140.90765 neodymium 60 Nd 144.24 promethium 61 Pm [145] samarium 62 Sm 150.36 europium 63 Eu 151.964 gadolinium 64 Gd 157.25 terbium 65 Tb 158.9253 dysprosium 66 Dy 162.50 holmium 67 Ho 164.930 erbium 68 Er 167.259 thulium 69 Tm 168.934 ytterbium 70 Yb 173.04 Felisa Pinilla Practical work in Chemistry 9
  10. 10. Name……………………………………………. Date……………………………. actinium 89 Ac [227] thorium 90 Th 232.038 protactinium 91 Pa 231.0359 uranium 92 U 238.0289 neptunium 93 Np [237] plutonium 94 Pu [244] americium 95 Am [243] curium 96 Cm [247] berkelium 97 Bk [247] californium 98 Cf [251] einsteinium 99 Es [252] fermium 100 Fm [257] mendelev 101 Md [258] nobelium 102 No [259] Felisa Pinilla Practical work in Chemistry 10
  11. 11. Name……………………………………………. Date……………………………. Felisa Pinilla Practical work in Chemistry 11

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