Data vs. InformationData A “given,” or fact; a number, a statement, or a picture Represents something in the real world The raw materials in the production of informationInformation Data that have meaning within a context Data in relationships Data after manipulation
1. Basic Concepts. • What is Data? • What is Database? • What is Database Management System?2. Purpose & Advantages of DBMS.3. Data Models.4. DBMS Architecture • Three Level Architecture • Overall Architecture5. Various Components of DBMS.
1. Basic Concepts :- What is Data? “Data is a collection of facts from which conclusion may be drawn.” In computer science, “data is anything in a form suitable for use with a computer.” Data is often distinguished from programs. A program is a set of instructions that detail a task for the computer to perform. In this sense, data is thus everything that is not program code. Cont….
What is Database?– “A database is a collection of data that is organized so that its contents can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.”– “A database is a collection of data, typically describing the activities of one or more related organizations.”– “Database is a structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer system.” Cont…
Why do we need a database?•Keep records of our: 1. Clients 2. Staff 3. Volunteers•To keep a record of activities andinterventions;•Keep sales records;•Develop reports;•Perform research•Longitudinal tracking
What is Database Management System?A Database Management System (DBMS), or simply aDatabase System (DBS) consist of : - A collection of interrelated and persistent data (usually referred to as the database (DB)). - A set of application programs used to access, update and manage that data (which form the data management system (MS)). The goal of a DBMS is to provide an environment that is both convenient and efficient to use in : -Retrieving information from the database. -Storing information into the database. Cont…
What is the ultimate purposeof a database management system? Is to transform Data Information Knowledge Action
History of DBMS• 1960 – First DBMS designed by Charles Bachman at GE. IBMs Information Management System (IMS)• 1970 – Coded introduced the RDBMS• 1980 – Relational model became popular and accepted as the main database paradigm. SQL, ANSI SQL, etc.• 1980 to 1990 – New data models, powerful query languages, etc. Popular vendors are Oracle, SQL Server, IBMs DB2, Informix, etc.
Selecting a Database Management System Database management systems (or DBMSs) can be divided into two categories -- desktop databases and server databases.• Generally speaking, desktop databases are oriented toward single-user applications and reside on standard personal computers (hence the term desktop).• Server databases contain mechanisms to ensure the reliability and consistency of data and are geared toward multi-user applications.
BENEFITS OF DATABASEAPPROACH Irregularity can be avoided Data can be shared Standards can be enforced Security limits can be applied Credit can be maintained Data independence can be provided Backup and Recovery Idleness can be reduced
Centralized Database Mainframe Terminal Shared file system (applications & data) Data access &Presentation processing, Cont rols
Distributed Database…. App. Server Database client Database Database server(s) App. client DBMS App. client Network(web browser)App. client (data) Web server App. client SharedWeb server Database client App. server database App. client
RDBMS Relational Databases Tabular data model: Simple, yet powerful A Standard easy-to-use query Language: SQL Mature Products with Reliable, Fault-Tolerant Operations available Good Performance -High number of transactions per second -Parallel operation for scalability (handle growth) Distributed and Replicated Data Bases -Interoperation, High availability
Relational Model: Tabular Data Account Name Address Balance Number 23456 H. Mehta Madhuli, Mumbai 40,000,000 23457 Bill Gates Microsoft Corp 9999,999,999 23458 S.Sudarshan C-148, IIT Powai 1,000 Account Date Acct Num Debit Credit Balance 1/4/99 23458 2000 3000 1/4/99 23456 2000 3000Transactions 4/4/99 23456 9000 12000 4/5/99 23456 200000 212000 4/5/99 23458 4000 7000
DATA WAREHOUSESAn integrated collectionof data extracted fromoperational, historical, and externaldatabase, andcleaned, transformed, and cataloged forrecovery andanalysis, to providebusiness intelligencefor business decisionmaking.
Data Warehouses Data Warehouses (continued(continued ...) ...) Data Marts• Data Marts –a a scaled-down versionaof a data warehousefocuses scaled-down version of data warehouse that that on a particularasubject areasubject area focuses on particular usually designed to support the unique business – usually designedof a specific department or requirements to support the unique business requirements of a specific department or business business process. Example : Marketing data process. Example : Marketing data mart mart –takes less time to build, costs less,less,less complex takes less time to build, costs and and less complex – the indiscriminate introduction of multiple data marts with no linkage to each other, or to an enterprise data the indiscriminate introduction of multiple data warehouse, will cause problems other, or to an marts with no linkage to each enterprise data warehouse, will cause problems
Data Warehouses(continued ...) Data Mining provides a means of extracting previously unknown, predictive information from the base of accessible data in data warehouses discovers hidden patterns, correlations, and relationships among organizational data predicts future trends and behaviors, allowing businesses to make proactive, knowledge-driven decisions functions of data mining classification » clustering » association sequencing » forecasting
DaData Miningta MiningDATA MINING
Types of Data Models ( Based on Logical Data Structuring ) Hierarchical Network Relational Object Oriented
THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL:The data is sorted hierarchically, using adownward tree. This model uses pointers tonavigate between stored data. It was the firstDBMS model. THE NETWORK MODEL: like the hierarchical model, this model uses pointers toward stored data. However, it does not necessarily use a downward tree structure.
THE RELATIONAL MODEL:-(RDBMS, Relational database managementsystem): The data is stored in two-dimensionaltables (rows and columns). The data ismanipulated based on the relational theory ofmathematics.THE OBJECT MODEL:-(ODBMS, object-oriented database managementsystem): the data is stored in the form ofobjects, which are structures called classes thatdisplay the data within. The fields are instances ofthese classes
Infrastructure• Infrastructure is the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function.
IT INFRASTRUCTUREINTRODUTION :A computer network is a group of computersthat are connected to each other for thepurpose of communication. A computer networkallows computers to communicate with manyother computers and to share resources andinformation.
EVOLUTION OF ITINFRASTUCTURE 1950-2005• General-purpose mainframe and minicomputer era: (1959 to present)• Personal computer era: (1981 to present)• Client/server era: (1983 to present)• Enterprise internet computing era: (1992 to present)• Cloud Computing era (2000 to present)
Eras in IT InfrastructureEvolution Figure 6-3
1) Mainframe & minicomputer Era (1959 to present): • IBM has made first ever computer in 1959 called mainframe computers. • After six more years IBM 360 series came into market for commercial use with a powerful operating system.
•The main frame era was a period of highlycentralized computing under the control ofprofessional programmers and systemsoperators.•Main computers are introduced in 1965 byDigital Equipment Corporation (DEC).•It has an advantage of small in size, lowerprices than IBM & customized to specific needsof individual department of business.
2) Personal Computer Era: (1981 to present): •Again, IBM has first introduced IBM PC in 1981. •Computer is using the DOS operating system, a text-based command language and later the MS windows operating system. •Explosion of PCs in the 1980s and early 1990s launched software tools – word processing, spreadsheets, electronic presentation and small data management programs.
3) Client/Server Era (1983 to Present): •The client is the user point of entry, where as the server typically processes and serves up web pages, or manages network activities. •The simplest client/ server network consists of a client computer networked to a server computer. •Web server & application server in corporations.
A Multitiered Client/Server Network (N-Tier)In a multitier client/server network, client requests for service are handled by different levels of servers.
4) Enterprise computing Era (1992 to Present): •As in early 1990s networking standards and software tools improved and internet develop into a trusted communications, Business firms began seriously using the Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) networking standard to tie their disparate networks together. •TCP establishes a connection between the computers and IP is responsible for the delivery of packets from one to another PC. •So, It helps an enterprise-wide network to flow freely all information across the organization. •It can link computer hardware, mobile phones, other devices like telephone systems & internet.
5) Cloud Computing Era (2000 to Present) – Cloud computing refers to a model of computing firms and individuals obtain computing power & software applications over the Internet. – Hardware firms IBM, HP & Dell are providing computing power, date storage and high speed internet connections as well as software firms such as Google, Microsoft, SAP, Oracle and salesforce.com provides software applications.
Information Technology Infrastructure Computer hardware softwaredata storage technology and networksproviding a portfolio of shared ITresources for the organization.
INFORMATION SYSTEMARCHITECTURE Information systems architecture provides a combine framework into which various people with different perspectives can organize and view the fundamental building blocks of information systems.