1. Module No. 15 - Active and Passive Voice<br />Objectives: <br />To identify sentences in active voice and passive voice<br />To construct sentences in active voice and passive voice in different tenses<br />Instructions<br /><ul><li>Read the content selection thoroughly.
2. To have a broader knowledge of the topic at hand, surf the internet and do some readings.
3. Do the activities at the end of this module.</li></ul>Learning Content:<br /><ul><li>An idea can be expressed in two different ways:by using a verb to indicate whether the subject performs an action (active voice) or by using a verb to indicate whether the subject receives the action (passive voice).What is voice?In English grammar, voice doesn't mean the sound you make when you speak. It shows whether the subject of a sentence is doing the action, or having the action done to it.ACTIVE VOICEThe verb is in the active voice when the subject does the action.Example: A cat ate the fish. (Subject: cat / Verb: ate / Object: fish)Here, the doer of the action is a cat and the verb "ate" is in the active voice. PASSIVE VOICEWhen action is done to the subject, the verb is in the passive voice. The previous object (fish) is now used as the subject.Example: The fish was eaten by a cat. (Verb: eaten / Subject: fish)Here, action is done to the subject and the verb "was eaten" is in the passive voice. Use of the Passive VoiceWe use the active voice whenever we can. We use the passive when:we want to make the active object more importantwe do not know the active subjectwe prefer not naming subjectverbobjectgive importance to active object President Kennedywas killedby Lee Harvey Oswald.active subject unknownMy wallethas been stolen.?when we choose not to name the one who performs the actionThe workwas done poorly.?Note that we always use by to introduce the passive object Example: Fish are eaten by cats. We use 'by' only when we have to.</li></ul>VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS<br />A verb can have two objects – a person and a thing. Such a verb can have two possible passive voices.Example 1:Active: The salesman shows Nick a new computer. / The salesman shows a new computer to Nick.Passive: Nick is shown a new computer. / A new computer is shown to Nick.Example: 2:Active: We lent Bob some money. / We lent some money to Bob.Passive: Bob was lent some money. / Some money was lent to Bob.<br />CHANGING ACTIVE TO PASSIVE<br />In changing a sentence from active voice to one in the passive voice, we make the object of the active voice sentence the subject of the passive voice sentence. <br />The verb used in a passive voice sentence is formed by adding the past participle to "to be" (am, is, are, was, were, has been, have been, will be, etc.) <br />Passive verbs have the same tenses (simple present tense, present continuous tense, present perfect tense, etc.) as active verbs.<br />Only verbs which take on an object can be changed to the passive. <br />Example: He runs away. (This sentence has no object, so it's not possible to turn it into a passive sentence.)<br />Here are examples of sentences in active voice and passive voice in the present tense.<br />Present TenseActivePassivePresent SimpleWe make butter from milk.Somebody cleans these rooms every day.People never invite me to parties.How do they make butter? Butter is made from milk.These rooms are cleaned every day.I am never invited to parties.How is butter made?Present ContinuousThey are building a new airport at the moment. (= it isn’t finished)They are building some new houses near the river.A new airport is being built at the moment.Some new houses are being built near the river.Present PerfectLook! They have painted the door.These shirts are clean. Somebody has washed them.Somebody has stolen my car.Look! The door has been painted.These shirts are clean. They have been washed.My car has been stolen.<br />Examples of sentences in active voice and their equivalent sentence in the passive voice in the past tense are shown in this table.<br />Past TenseActivePassivePast SimpleSomebody stole my car last week.Somebody stole my keys yesterday.They didn’t invite me to the party.When did they build these houses?My car was stolen last week.My keys were stolen yesterday.I wasn’t invited to the party.When were these houses built?Past ContinuousWhen I was here a few years ago, they were building a new airport. (= it wasn’t finished at that time)When I was here a few years ago, a new airport was being built.Past PerfectAnn said that somebody had stolen her car.Ann said that her car had been stolen.<br />MODALS AND INFINITIVE<br />Will/Can/Must/Have to etc. + be + past participle<br />ActivePassiveSomebody will clean the room tomorrow.The room will be cleaned tomorrow.Somebody must clean the office.The office must be cleaned.I think they’ll invite you to the party.I think you’ll be invited to the party.They can’t repair my watch.My watch can’t be repaired.You should wash this sweater by hand.This sweater should be washed.They are going to build a new airport.A new airport is going to be built.Somebody has to wash these clothes.These clothes have to be washed.They had to take the injured man to hospital.The injured man had to be taken to hospital.<br /><ul><li>Desired Response:
4. For the following tenses, construct 3 sentences in the active voice and write beside each the equivalent sentence in passive voice.
5. Present Simple Tense
6. Present Perfect Tense
7. Past Simple Tense
8. Past Continuous Tense
9. Using “will”
10. Using “Have to”
11. Construct 2 sentences having verbs with 2 objects in the active voice. Write the 2 possible active voices and the 2 equivalent passive voices. Refer to the content on VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS.
12. Complete the table with sentences in the active and passive voice using the original sentence in the present simple tense.</li></ul>TenseActivePassivePresent SimpleShe writes the letter.Present ContinuousPresent PerfectPast SimplePast ContinuousPast PerfectWillMustShouldHave to<br />References:<br />Essential Grammar in Use 2nd ed. by Raymond Murphy<br />http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-voice_passive.htm<br />http://www.myenglishgrammar.com/lesson-15-active-and-passive-voice<br />http://www.towson.edu/ows/activepass.htm<br />http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/voicetext.htm<br />