The CDC social marketing training has a case study threaded throughout each module. In like fashion, I have integrated the case study here as well. Throughout the training you will be asked to provide advice in response to questions or concerns raised by Rosa.
CNN reported on a study conducted at John Hopkins that if you have a 60% chance of dying within 10 years if you continue doing this behavior. CDC just broke news that there have been several new incidents of death in the past year for this behavior. If you do not discontinue this behavior, you will surely die with in 5 years. According the WHO, this behavior has reached epidemic proportions. You must discontinue this behavior---with no backsliding---otherwise your life expectancy is no longer than 1 year.
CNN reported on a study conducted at John Hopkins that if you have a 60% chance of dying within 10 years if you continue doing this behavior. CDC just broke news that there have been rise in the new incidents of death in the past year for this behavior. If you do not discontinue this behavior, you will surely die with in 5 years. According the WHO, this behavior has reached epidemic proportions. You must discontinue this behavior---with no backsliding---otherwise your life expectancy is no longer than 1 year. For those who sat, what motivated you to change your behavior (sit)? For those who remained standing, were you motivated to change your behavior Sometimes, knowing better does not always lead to doing better.
There are two schools of thought regarding the effectiveness of fear appeal. An appeal that only attempts to increase your perception of the severity and/or susceptibility is less effective (as in the example above). In contrast, a fear appeal that speaks to both, the perceived severity/susceptibility and has high self-efficacy is more effective (i.e. The bed with tons of other partners--- which is more effective---Unprotected sex is dangerous vs. Using a condom is safer?)
Information dissemination is one of the CSAP 6 prevention strategies.
Information dissemination, in and of itself, is not social marketing. However, social marketing often includes aspects of information dissemination. In fact, information dissemination is often necessary to prime communities for behavior change. Show of hands for different Readiness score: 2-denial/resistance 4-vague awareness 4-preplanning 5-preparation 6-initation Most of you (as providers) have been tilling the land by raising awareness in your high risk communities about the issues related to your goal. This primer will be useful as you encourage the community to go to the next level which is to TAKE ACTION.
Feedback: 1. This would be good advice . Showing that social marketing can be effective is an important selling point. Also, an effective program could lead to additional funding. 2. This would be good advice . Instead of increasing knowledge or awareness, social marketing attempts to change behavior, which has more of an effect on the health status of the target audience. 3. This would be poor advice . Social marketing can still be used effectively on a small budget. And, much of the work in early phases requires staff time and work, not necessarily a budget to get started. 4. This would be good advice . If Dr. Richards will allow you to spend some additional time planning this program, the program will likely have better results.
Primary target audience: Also called target audiences, a group of individuals whose behavior needs to change to positively impact the problem. They could be directly affected by the problem themselves, or those who can make policy or environmental changes (i.e., voting behavior, approval of policies). Secondary audience: A group of individuals who exert influence on the primary target audience's behavior . Formative research : Research conducted during the development of your program to help you choose and describe a target audience, understand the factors which influence their behavior, and determine best ways to reach them. Also called formative assessment, market research, consumer research, or audience research. Behavioral objective: A written description of the aim or goal you have for the specific behavior you want the target audience to take. It should be a clear, specific, measurable, and feasible action. Intervention strategy: A guiding plan of action for the social marketing program. The intervention strategy (also called market strategy) encompasses Specific target audience segment(s). Specific behavior change goal. Benefits of the desired behavior to promote. Costs and barriers to behavior change that will be minimized. The marketing mix (product, price, place, and promotion). Activities that will influence or support behavior change.
Sometimes determining who the primary and secondary audience can be somewhat confusing. Typically if you are trying to change the behavior of youth, you will need to intervene with the parties who can influence the behavior of youth. Let’s look at the examples in your workbook. Consider the behavior and the potential audiences.
“ upstream” social marketing refers to efforts that seeks to change the environment or policies (i.e. vote a certain way, make a policy change, draft legislation) Examples Scenario 1 – influence delayed onset of alcohol; potential audience – 9 th graders – secondary school board. Alternative – behavior is to get the school board to adopt the prevention curriculum (refer to Early Choices); audience – school board; secondary – parents Scenario 2 – influence voting practices; reduce underage access to alcohol at parties; audience – city council; second – constituents, parents, etc. Scenario 3 – influence law enforcement practices (more sobriety check points to reduce drinking and driving); audience – law enforcement; second – MADD, SADD
Audience segmentation can also be considered as homogenous subgroups---grouping people with strong similarities together. Heterogeneous groups tend to be diverse. There is a challenge when trying to create a message for diverse groups (bring in the bullets)
Feedback: 1. This would be poor advice . While Rosa’s department may have a lot of information about the population’s behaviors, they don’t have any information about what specific audience groups know and believe. A successful program must be built around the audience’s needs and wants, not the expert’s. 2. This would be good advice . It’s crucial to test the ’why’ assumptions with your target audience before you start planning. 3. This would be good advice . The more specific you can get with your audience, the more likely your program will address their particular needs (and therefore help to change their behaviors). 4. This would be poor advice . Even with more money to reach a broader audience, you’re still less likely to be successful than if you target your program to a specific group. Trying to blanket a large population with the same message is not likely to be effective.
Ask group to give examples of what they learned from the NA about their high need communities.
For many involved in prevention, the discussion about promoting gradual behavior change, otherwise known as harm reduction is uncomfortable. Yet, as we can see from the personal risk behavior activity, it can/may be difficult to expect an absolute change from a particular risk behavior.
Example – You are trying to get people to drink water and to reduce soda intake---- what are the competing behaviors to drinking water?
Seek examples from a few volunteers Perceived Benefits – good for your health; good for your body, skin, etc--- Perceived Costs – Soft drinks/sodas are more expensive; may increase weight gain or acne; etc
Feedback: 1. This would be poor advice . People can be overwhelmed if asked to make changes that are not feasible for them. Asking them to do the gold standard might turn them off altogether. 2. This would be poor advice . While behavioral change is the first–and ultimate–goal, it is most likely to be achieved step-by-step through smaller, incremental goals. 3. This would be good advice . A readily achieved result will give your audience positive reinforcement and put you in a position to make more changes that will eventually lead to the ultimate health goal 4. This would be good advice . By appealing to literature and evidence, you have a stronger case for supporting small behavior changes.
The 4 P’s together create the exchange offered to the target audience.
Talk about Ninetindo and the Wii
Financial – monetary Emotional – embarrassment Psychological – embarrassment Time relate – takes additional time to do
Financial – monetary Emotional – embarrassment Psychological – embarrassment Time relate – takes additional time to do
If time permits, have the participants use a newsprint to process and think about the marketing mix for reducing access to alcohol for underage youth.
Feedback: 1. This would be poor advice . Just communicating all the facts may expose more people to the information, but it won’t achieve the desired results. 2. This would be poor advice . You don’t know whether the audience cares about these benefits or not. You should promote the benefits that they care about, not the ones that you are most concerned about. 3. This would be good advice . Using an audience mindset to identify benefits to promote is a sign that you’re thinking like a social marketer!
Other resources that you can engage in this process are university students.
What is the goal? What are the IV? What are the CFs? Thoughts about the cost factor?
Updated day 2 part 1 -social marketing basics training slides
Day 1 ReviewDay 1 Review1
RECALL REVIEWRECALL REVIEWCHALLENGECHALLENGE Participants at each table will work together to listas many substantive things from the Day 1training. After 3 minutes, each table will rotate calling off 1item from their list. As things are read off, if the item is on their list, theremaining tables will place a check mark toindicate the item has been read. Using a process of elimination, the table with themost items, wins the challenge!Day 1 ReviewActivity adapted from the CDC Fundamentals of HIV Prevention Counseling Training Curriculum2
April 30 – May 3, 2013Macon, GATiffiany Cummings Aholou, PhD, MSWSocial MarketingSocial Marketing3
AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements The contents of this training come primarily fromthe CDC Social Marketing – Nutrition and PhysicalActivity module series. It has been adapted forthe Georgia Strategic Prevention System – AlcoholPrevention Initiative. Other sources referenced willbe cited accordingly. The examples used to illustrate the differentconcepts covered in this training will include ATODas well as other public health issues.4
Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives 1. Participants will be able to distinguishbetween social marketing and otherinformation dissemination approaches aswell as describe when and why to useeach approach. 2. Participants will be exposed toexamples of social marketing campaignsused as an ES.5
Seeking your help…Seeking your help… Rosa: "Hello! Im soglad youll begiving me somefeedback on thecommunityintervention wevebeen trying to puttogether.Meet Rosa6
What’s Your Motivation?What’s Your Motivation? Review the list of risk-taking behaviors Make a mental note of at least one risky behavior thatmay have the most serious potential consequences onyour health and well-being. DO NOT REVEAL With the identified health risk in mind, everyone willstand as I proceed to motivate you to change yourbehavior. Process the activityActivityActivity adapted from the CDC Fundamentals of HIV Prevention Counseling Training Curriculum8
Here is a list of common risk-taking behaviors:Smoking cigarettesUsing alcohol or other substances unwiselyDriving more than 15 miles per hour above the speedlimitDriving without a seat beltTalking on the cell phone while drivingText messaging or sending an email while drivingBeing more than 25lbs overweightFailing to engage in cardiovascular exercise three timesa week for at least 20 minutes per sessionFailing to conduct regular breast examsBeing late for a Pap smear, mammogram, or prostatescreeningFailing to follow medical adviceRiding a bicycle or motorcycle without a helmetEating a high sodium dietActivity9
Define Social MarketingSocial Marketing “the application of commercialmarketing technologies to the analysis,planning, execution, and evaluation ofprograms designed to influence voluntarybehavior of target audiences in order toimprove their personal welfare and that ofsociety.”10
Tenets of Social MarketingTenets of Social Marketing 1) a well-defined audience; 2) a clear call to action; and 3) measurable objectives.11SAMHSA - http://www.samhsa.gov/children/value-social.asp
Social Marketing…Social Marketing… Sells a behavior change to a targetedgroup of individuals by asking them to-- -Accept a new behavior -Reject a potential behavior -Modify a current behavior -Abandon an old behavior12
Social Marketing…Social Marketing…Can be thought as: Systematic andstrategic planningprocess Social and behaviorchange strategy Mindset foraddressing problemsIs not: Just advertising orcommunication A media campaign Reaching everyone A fast process A theory13
A clever slogan/A clever slogan/messaging strategymessaging strategy14 Social Marketing is NOT
An Organizational AgendaAn Organizational AgendaImage taken from the Florida Social Marketing Training slide set by Amnity ChandlerSocial Marketing is NOT15
A Scare TacticA Scare TacticImage taken from the Florida Social Marketing Training slide set by Amnity ChandlerSocial Marketing is NOT16
Define InformationInformationDisseminationDissemination According to CSAP,“information disseminated is informationabout the nature and prevalence ofsubstance abuse and addiction and thepsychological and social effects of substanceabuse.”Understanding Substance Abuse Prevention – Toward the 21stCentury: A Primer on Effective Programs, pp.58-5917
When to Use…?When to Use…?SocialMarketingVoluntary (notcoerced)Behavior change(not increasingawareness orknowledge)Influenceenvironmental andpolicy changeWITH TARGETAUDIENCEInformationDissemination Raise awareness Increaseknowledge Change attitudesabout a particularissue (i.e. substanceabuse) COMMUNITYREADINESS18
You be the judge…You be the judge…Based on the definitions discussed,determine which are considered: Social Marketing Information DisseminationActivity19
Activity1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8AoQtxkjjbM2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h-8PBx7isoM3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8DGC5C5eXvs4. http://www.clocc.net/partners/54321Go/54321Go.mp3• Review the following images and clips• At your table, determine which best meets thedefinition for Information Dissemination or SocialMarketing.20
Seeking your help…Seeking your help… Review Scenario 1 inyour ParticipantWorkbook. At your table, discussthe four possibleresponses as group. Determine whichresponse(s) areconsidered good orpoor advice. Which would youselect?Scenario 123
24Feedback:1. This would be good advice. Showing that social marketingcan be effective is an important selling point. Also, an effectiveprogram could lead to additional funding.2. This would be good advice. Instead of increasing knowledgeor awareness, social marketing attempts to change behavior,which has more of an effect on the health status of the targetaudience.3. This would be poor advice. Social marketing can still be usedeffectively on a small budget. And, much of the work in earlyphases requires staff time and work, not necessarily a budgetto get started.4. This would be good advice. If Dr. Richards will allow you tospend some additional time planning this program, theprogram will likely have better results.
What Makes SocialWhat Makes SocialMarketing Different?Marketing Different?The Six Core Elements25
Key Terms used in SocialKey Terms used in SocialMarketingMarketing Primary target audience -A group of individualswhose behavior needs tochange to positivelyimpact the problem. Secondary audience -Individuals who exertinfluence on the primarytarget audiencesbehavior. Formative research –Research conducted atonset to help youdescribe, understand,and determine the bestway to influencebehavior change. Behavioral objective – Ameasurable descriptionof the specific behavioryou want the targetaudience to change. Intervention strategy - Aguiding plan of action forthe social marketingprogram.26
Who Is Your Audience?Who Is Your Audience?Read each scenario below. Pair up with someone todetermine:•The behavior that you are trying to influence•The possible primary audience•The potential secondary audience?Activity28
Who Is Your Audience?Who Is Your Audience?SCENARIO Behavior PrimaryAudiencePotentialSecondaryAudienceEXAMPLEWant children to get more physicalactivity by walking to school each day.Lack of physicalactivityChildren Parents1. Trying to get the school board toadopt an alcohol preventioncurriculum for all 9thgraders.2. Trying to get the city council to passlegislation on a social host liability bill.3. Trying to get law enforcement toincrease sobriety checkpoints.Read each scenario below. Pair up with someone todetermine:•The behavior that you are trying to influence•The possible primary audience•The potential secondary audience?Primary - a group of individuals whose behavior needs tochange to positively impact the problem.Secondary - individuals who exert influence on the primarytarget audiences behavior.
Audience OrientationAudience Orientation Created from theperspective of theaudience Needs assessmentdata will be agood starting point Entails taking thetime to learn whatyour audience: Knows Believes Does If you think youknow, must bewilling to test yourassumptions.Core 130
Audience SegmentationAudience SegmentationCore 2Research shows that audiencesegmentation is the key to beingstrategic.One message does not apply to allaudiences! A 9 yo is not the same as a 13 yoand 13yo is not a 17 yo Underage drinkers differ fromdrinkers of legal age (i.e. 18-25) A parent of a 5thgrader is not aparent of a 12thgrader Race/ethnicity and gender arealso important considerationswhen for segmentation.31
Seeking your help…Seeking your help… Review Scenario 2 inyour ParticipantWorkbook. At your table, discussthe four possibleresponses as group. Determine whichresponse(s) areconsidered good orpoor advice. Which would youselect?Scenario 232
33Feedback:1. This would be poor advice. While Rosa’s department may have alot of information about the population’s behaviors, they don’thave any information about what specific audience groups knowand believe. A successful program must be built around theaudience’s needs and wants, not the expert’s.2. This would be good advice. It’s crucial to test the ’why’assumptions with your target audience before you start planning.3. This would be good advice. The more specific you can get withyour audience, the more likely your program will address theirparticular needs (and therefore help to change their behaviors).4. This would be poor advice. Even with more money to reach abroader audience, you’re still less likely to be successful than if youtarget your program to a specific group. Trying to blanket a largepopulation with the same message is not likely to be effective.
Influencing BehaviorInfluencing Behavior The goal of social marketing is toinfluence behavior: To do this, you will need to understand: Current behaviors of your audience Ideal behaviors Reasonable steps to move the audience What determines their behavior?Core 334
• Research shows that only a percentage of the target audience willbe ready to act. Therefore be realistic in your expectations.1• Sometimes its necessary to ask participants to make smaller changesthat will lead to them to adopt the ideal behavior.EXAMPLEEXAMPLECurrent Behavior: Drinks approximately 5beers per dayRecommended behavior: Drink two or fewerdrinks per dayPossible behavior change: Reduce one beerper day (immediate behavior change thatwill move the audience toward the idealbehavior.)The Basics of Social Marketing by Turning Point35
Name the ChangeName the ChangeDirections: Read each message below. Decidewhat type of behavior change is being promoted.Activity36
Name the ChangeName the ChangeAccept a New BehaviorReject a Potential BehaviorMessage Type of Behavior Change1. Exercise to prevent heart disease.2. Drink > 8 Glasses of Water Daily .3. Don’t text and drive.4. Fasten your seat belt before starting thecar.5. Eat more fruit & veggies.6. Get a mammogram.7. Pull over to talk on your cell phone.8. Don’t liter.9. Take the steps instead of the elevator.10. Stop putting salt on your French Fries.Modify a Current BehaviorAbandon an Old Behavior
CompetitionCompetition “The behaviors and related benefits thatthe target audience is accustomed to—ormay prefer—to the behavior you arepromoting.”Why does the audience prefer thecompeting behavior over the behavior youwant to promote?Does the environment support yourbehavior or the competition?Core 438http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfxB5ut-KTs#aid=P70vCdbHtaA
ExchangeExchangeEvery choice, entails an exchange—give up or dosomething in return for something else. Increase theperceived benefitsof the targetbehavior andminimize its costs. Increase theperceived costs ofthe competingbehaviors andminimize theirbenefits.Core 539
Exchange Example –Exchange Example –Get an HIV Antibody TestingGet an HIV Antibody TestingYou Give Me (Cost) 20 minutes Embarrassment DiscomfortYou Get (Exchange) -PEACE P – protect yourself andothers E – equipped to makewiser decisions in yourintimate relationships A – act responsibly C – conquer the fear ofthe unknown E – empowered to takecontrol of your healthand your destinyExample pulled from Ladies First HIV Faith-basedPrevention Curriculum40
Seeking your help…Seeking your help… Review Scenario 3 inyour ParticipantWorkbook. At your table, discussthe four possibleresponses as group. Determine whichresponse(s) areconsidered good orpoor advice. Which would youselect?Scenario 341
42Feedback:1. This would be poor advice. People can be overwhelmed ifasked to make changes that are not feasible for them. Askingthem to do the gold standard might turn them off altogether.2. This would be poor advice. While behavioral change is thefirst–and ultimate–goal, it is most likely to be achieved step-by-step through smaller, incremental goals.3. This would be good advice. A readily achieved result will giveyour audience positive reinforcement and put you in a positionto make more changes that will eventually lead to the ultimatehealth goal.4. This would be good advice. By appealing to literature andevidence, you have a stronger case for supporting smallbehavior changes.
Four P’s of Marketing Product – Desired behavior you are asking youraudience to do. Product also entails the benefits, services, andtangible items that will result in the targetaudience adopting the desired behavior.44
Four P’s of Marketing Price = Cost or barriers to adopting the behavior.Cost includes financial, emotional, psychological,and time. Social marketing seeks to: Minimize or reduce the barriers OR Increase the cost of the competing behavior45
Four P’s of Marketing Place includes where and when the audience: Performs the desired behavior, therefore likely to act Will access the product or services Located or gathers Thinks or hears about the health issue or behavior46
Four P’s of Marketing Promotion stands for communication messages,materials, channels and activities that willeffectively reach your audience.Florida Social Marketing Training by Amnity ChandlerPromote in a manner that:•is memorable•stands-out from competing messages•is repeated again, and again, and again•has a “call to action”•respects culture•is in a place and at a time they will notice47
Seeking your help…Seeking your help… Review Scenario 4 inyour ParticipantWorkbook. At your table, discussthe four possibleresponses as group. Determine whichresponse(s) areconsidered good orpoor advice. Which would youselect?Scenario 448
49Feedback:1. This would be poor advice. Just communicatingall the facts may expose more people to theinformation, but it won’t achieve the desired results.2. This would be poor advice. You don’t knowwhether the audience cares about these benefitsor not. You should promote the benefits that theycare about, not the ones that you are mostconcerned about.3. This would be good advice. Using an audiencemindset to identify benefits to promote is asign that you’re thinking like a social marketer!
Formative ResearchFormative ResearchA Critical Component of Social Marketing50
The Importance of FormativeThe Importance of FormativeResearchResearch Formative research is necessary tohelp you better understand youraudience to strategically create aintervention plan to supportbehavior change. Make decisions with an audience-focused mindset. Refine your social marketing planto ensure success of your program.CDC Social Marketing – Phase 2: Formative Research51
Formative Research can beFormative Research can beused to understand…used to understand… What determines theirbehavior? What are the barriersto change? What would make iteasier to adopt abehavior? What will motivatechange? Where/When mightpeople think about ourissue/problem? Where might they bein right frame of mind? Where/When can weput information orservice? Where does ouraudience alreadygather?52
Formative ResearchFormative ResearchConsiderationsConsiderationsMessage TestingFocus groups – Do your friends XXX? Whataffects your decision to XXX?Intercept interviews – Have you seen thisad? Is this message believable?Questionnaires – Any form of questionsReadability testing – for reading level skillsFlorida Social Marketing Training slide set by Amnity Chandler53
Social MarketingSocial MarketingPlanning ProcessPlanning ProcessSix Phases54
55Image taken from SAMHSA System of Care Expansion Planning: Core Value Tip Sheet: Social Marketing
Six Phases1. Problem description2. Formative research3. Strategy development4. Intervention design5. Evaluation6. implementationThe first 5 phasesinvolve:•Design & creation ofthe intervention plan•Design of theevaluation56
Engage your CPAWEngage your CPAW The recommended skill sets best suited fora social marketing team parallel with themake up of your CPAW: Research design and analysis Epidemiology Behavior theory Program planning Evaluation57
Main ComponentsMain ComponentsImage from CDC Social Marketing Basics59
Social MarketingSocial MarketingIts worth the effort!The Case of 1% or Lesshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E0EoHM12Rhg60
Helpful ResourcesHelpful Resources For a more in depth look at each the six phases and to follow Rosa’s process,please view the remaining CDC modules. On this site, you will find a plethoraof other useful social marketing resources as well.http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/socialmarketing/training/resources.htm Article regarding the 1% or Less Campaignhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9769765 Article specific to social marketing campaigns that address various publichealth topicshttp://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/docs/18_01_08.pdf Not a minor problem Toolkithttp://www.oasas.ny.gov/ud/OASAS_TOOLKIT/instructions.htm Most of Us – Positive Social Norms - http://www.mostofus.org/about-us/what-is-the-positive-community-norms-framework/ Be The Wallhttp://www.bethewall.org/#/HOME/ Underage Drinking – Case Study: Whose Kid Is It? – Danvers CARES – EngagingParentshttp://www.danverscares.org/downloads/SocialMarkeing_CaseStudy_CADCA2011.pdf61