Cristina  Sabbioni Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,  National Research Council, Italy VULNERABILITY OF CULTU...
ENEMIES OF CULTURAL HERITAGE Water (precipitation, relative humidity) Temperature Wind  Pollution Prague,  2002 Tel č,  Cz...
Cultural heritage is a non-renewable resource to be transmitted to future generations NOVEL RESEARCH SECTORS The Noah’s Ar...
Climate change impact on the cultural heritage  May become a more important factor a central part of the EC project NOAH’S...
<ul><li>HOW ? </li></ul><ul><li>-  Selection of  the critical climate parameters affecting CH   </li></ul><ul><li>Data out...
Area and periods selected <ul><li>Area:   European window </li></ul><ul><li>HadCM3 </li></ul><ul><li>Latitude: 33.75W – 67...
Impact of climatic change  on deterioration of building materials <ul><li>Stone/Masonry Materials: </li></ul><ul><li>Marbl...
Methodological approach CRUCIAL PARAMETERS   selection for the damage on the build cultural heritage Construction of a Eur...
DATABASE TEMPERATURE DERIVED  PARAMETERS Temperature range Freeze-thaw cycles Thermal shock WIND DERIVED PARAMETERS Wind  ...
Maps Produced CLIMATE MAPS DAMAGE MAPS THEMATIC PAGES HERITAGE CLIMATE MAPS RISK MAPS  C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, I...
Relative humidity cycles =75.5%   (Salt crystallisation)  2070-2099 Brick masonry C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy ...
Salt crystallisation   .…will increase over the 100 years all across Europe Increase Decrease C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bol...
1961-1990 2070-2099 Central Europe, UK, Iceland, Sandinavian Peninsula and the northern Spain  will experience the highest...
1961-1990 2070-2099 Surface recession Bonazza et al., STOTEN (2009) General increase (> 6  µm/year)  throughout Europe, pa...
Thermal Stress The Mediterranean Basin in general  will continue to experience the highest level of risk. In the near and ...
Biological organisms  (lichens, algae, bacteria)   linked to temperature and precipitation An increase of biological growt...
WATER: IMPACT ON EARTH ARCHITECTURE Annual Precipitation amount 2070-2099 Structural damage Erosion Clay swelling Cracking...
AIR POLLUTION IMPACT ON CULTURAL HERITAGE <ul><li>Sulfation by SO 2   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>limestone to gypsum </li></ul>...
TC   =   CC   +   EC   +   OC Stone substrate NCC <ul><li>Atmospheric deposition </li></ul><ul><li>Biological weathering <...
CRUSTS European Monuments (carbonate stone) Substrate Bonazza et al. Atmos. Env. (2005) OC prevails on  monuments in  Euro...
CATHEDRAL OF LEARNING - Pittsburgh <ul><li>Soiling patterns on a tall limestone building : changes over 60 years </li></ul...
…………… a complex problem ………………. Bishapour Gulf War – Effect of the Kuwait oil  fires   in 1991 on the Iranian Cultural Her...
Vulnerability of building materials is different depending  on chemical composition and  porosity   Reactivity towards  SO...
Atmosphere Damage layer CementMortar SO 2 gas SO 4 = SO 3 = SO 4 = Catalysts aerosol  Catalysts material  CALCIUM CARBONAT...
SECONDARY DAMAGE PRODUCTS Sabbioni et al., Atmos. Env. (2001) 3CaO·Al 2 O 3 · 3CaSO 4 · 31H 2 O CaSiO 3 · CaSO 4 ·CaCO 3 ·...
ETTRINGITE FORMATION ETTRINGITE  DISSOLUTION  / DECOMPOSITION THAUMASITE   FORMATION BREAKDOWN BY EXPANSION EC Project EDA...
SECONDARY DAMAGE PRODUCTS:  HYDRAULIC MORTARS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA EC Project PRODOMEA MEKAWER FORTRESS  (JORDAN) JUP...
CONTEMPORARY AIR POLLUTANTS  AND STONE Need to expanmd  this slide…!. EC Project NOAH’s ARK Joakim Langner Thanks to the E...
Impact on society - Concern from the citizens - Impact on the press  More than 200 articles  (Europe, USA, Asia, Australia...
<ul><li>No mention </li></ul><ul><li>IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change 200 7 : Impacts, Adap...
Future needs: Policy Inclusion of cultural heritage among the priorities in existing and forthcoming legislation and polic...
Future needs: Research Scenarios on local scales  in European cities and other places characterised by concentrations of s...
POLLUTION, PARTICULARLY PARTICLES, IS A MAJOR THREAT AFFECTING THE BUILT CULTURAL HERITAGE IN URBAN AREAS   MODERN BUILDIN...
European network on Research Programme applied to the Protection of Tangible Cultural Heritage   <ul><li>Coordinator : Ita...
Some publications   SABBIONI C., ZAPPIA G., RIONTINO C., BLANCO-VARELA M.T., AGUILERA J., PUERTAS F., VAN BALEN K., TOUMBA...
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Vulnerability of cultural heritage to climate change

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  • ON STONE AND WOOD
  • The main environmental damage effect on the carbonate structural components and binders used in historic buildings is the transformation of calcium carbonate into gypsum due to wet and dry deposition of SO 2
  • Because of their high porosity, mortars show greater reactivity to SO 2 than stones. Lime mortars (i.e. mortars prepared using lime and sand) undergo a damage typology similar to that of sandstones, with the formation of a surface black crust and an underlying layer of disaggregated sand. But what about hydraulic mortars? Pozzolan and cement mortars have been widely used in ancient monuments, modern buildings and restoration works.  
  • Information from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC
  • Vulnerability of cultural heritage to climate change

    1. 1. Cristina Sabbioni Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, Italy VULNERABILITY OF CULTURAL HERITAGE TO CLIMATE CHANGE International Seminar “ Risk, Health and Environment” Sao Paulo (Brasil) 21-22 September 2009 [email_address]
    2. 2. ENEMIES OF CULTURAL HERITAGE Water (precipitation, relative humidity) Temperature Wind Pollution Prague, 2002 Tel č, Czech Rep. Salt crystallization Cracking Surface loss Biological attack Blackening Destruction or partial failure Flooding C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    3. 3. Cultural heritage is a non-renewable resource to be transmitted to future generations NOVEL RESEARCH SECTORS The Noah’s Ark Project creates for the first time a synergy between climate change and cultural heritage scientific research Climate Change Cultural Heritage ? C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    4. 4. Climate change impact on the cultural heritage May become a more important factor a central part of the EC project NOAH’S ARK Global Climate Change Impact on Built Heritage and Cultural Landscapes C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    5. 5. <ul><li>HOW ? </li></ul><ul><li>- Selection of the critical climate parameters affecting CH </li></ul><ul><li>Data output from the General Hadley Model (HadCM3) relative to 1961-1990, 2010-2039 and 2070-2099 </li></ul><ul><li>Data output from and the Regional Hadley Model ( HadRM3) relative to 2070-2099 </li></ul><ul><li>- Scenario IPCC SRES A2 </li></ul><ul><li>European window </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of materials and models of damage processes </li></ul>OUT PUTS Mapping of vulnerable areas in accordance with the types of impacts C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy Washington, 11 May 2009 C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    6. 6. Area and periods selected <ul><li>Area: European window </li></ul><ul><li>HadCM3 </li></ul><ul><li>Latitude: 33.75W – 67.50E </li></ul><ul><li>Longitude: 80.00N – 25.00N </li></ul><ul><li>23 x 28 grid points </li></ul><ul><li>HadRM3 </li></ul><ul><li>Latitude: 34W – 71E (approx.) </li></ul><ul><li>Longitude: 72N – 25N (approx.) </li></ul><ul><li>109 x 104 grid points </li></ul>Periods – 1961-1990 : Baseline – 2010-2039 : Near Future – 2070-2099 : Far Future C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    7. 7. Impact of climatic change on deterioration of building materials <ul><li>Stone/Masonry Materials: </li></ul><ul><li>Marble </li></ul><ul><li>Limestone </li></ul><ul><li>Sandstone </li></ul><ul><li>Lime mortars </li></ul><ul><li>Bricks </li></ul><ul><li>Clay containing mat. </li></ul><ul><li>- Metals </li></ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul><ul><li>- Glass </li></ul>MATERIALS <ul><li>- Gas (SO 2 , NOx,..) </li></ul><ul><li>- Particles </li></ul><ul><li>- Sea salts </li></ul><ul><li>pH precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>- Relative Humidity - Precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>- Wind </li></ul>PARAMETERS INTERACTION C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    8. 8. Methodological approach CRUCIAL PARAMETERS selection for the damage on the build cultural heritage Construction of a European DATABASE CLIMATE MAPS production Further data elaboration through using DAMAGE FUNCTIONS RISK MAPS and MULTI-RISK MAPS production DAMAGE MAPS production Identification of RISK AREAS C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    9. 9. DATABASE TEMPERATURE DERIVED PARAMETERS Temperature range Freeze-thaw cycles Thermal shock WIND DERIVED PARAMETERS Wind speed Wind driven rain Wind speed c ounts Wind driven sand Monthly, Seasonal and Annual mean of the following parameters : WATER DERIVED PARAMETERS Precipitation Amount Rain days: total number of rainy days Extreme rain Consecutive number of rainy days Mean Relative Humidity Relative Humidity range Relative Humidity shocks POLLUTION DERIVED PARAMETERS SO 2 air concentration HNO 3 air concentration O 3 air concentration Rain pH C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    10. 10. Maps Produced CLIMATE MAPS DAMAGE MAPS THEMATIC PAGES HERITAGE CLIMATE MAPS RISK MAPS C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    11. 11. Relative humidity cycles =75.5% (Salt crystallisation) 2070-2099 Brick masonry C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    12. 12. Salt crystallisation .…will increase over the 100 years all across Europe Increase Decrease C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    13. 13. 1961-1990 2070-2099 Central Europe, UK, Iceland, Sandinavian Peninsula and the northern Spain will experience the highest surface recession Future scenarios of surface recession of carbonate stone due to precipitation and CO 2 concentration change Losses in surface C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    14. 14. 1961-1990 2070-2099 Surface recession Bonazza et al., STOTEN (2009) General increase (> 6 µm/year) throughout Europe, particularly noticeable in high rainfall areas. The change can be > 6 µm/year in regions with recession = 20 µm/year 30% increase C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    15. 15. Thermal Stress The Mediterranean Basin in general will continue to experience the highest level of risk. In the near and far future thermoclastism will threaten more and more Central Europe. Bonazza et al., STOTEN (2009) C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    16. 16. Biological organisms (lichens, algae, bacteria) linked to temperature and precipitation An increase of biological growth in Central and Northern Europe. A decrease in Southern Europe Torre del Oro, Spain 2070-2099 C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    17. 17. WATER: IMPACT ON EARTH ARCHITECTURE Annual Precipitation amount 2070-2099 Structural damage Erosion Clay swelling Cracking for drying-wetting cycles Plaster dissolution Demonstrated to be the the main wheatering agent during the 21st century C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    18. 18. AIR POLLUTION IMPACT ON CULTURAL HERITAGE <ul><li>Sulfation by SO 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>limestone to gypsum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deposition of soot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rain sheltered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gypsum soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainwashed areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be white </li></ul></ul>White Tower, London Nanjing, China FORMATION OF BLACK CRUSTS C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    19. 19. TC = CC + EC + OC Stone substrate NCC <ul><li>Atmospheric deposition </li></ul><ul><li>Biological weathering </li></ul><ul><li>Surface treatments </li></ul>Particles emitted by combustion processes CARBON IN THE BLACK CRUSTS Ghedini et al., EST (2006) Tracers of fix and mobile combustion emissions C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    20. 20. CRUSTS European Monuments (carbonate stone) Substrate Bonazza et al. Atmos. Env. (2005) OC prevails on monuments in European towns due to urban traffic CNR Project Sustainable mobility C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    21. 21. CATHEDRAL OF LEARNING - Pittsburgh <ul><li>Soiling patterns on a tall limestone building : changes over 60 years </li></ul><ul><li>Built in the late 1930’s </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly soiled: 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>1990: loss of steel industry meant building became cleaner… </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of rain washing since 1950s </li></ul>1960 1990 Balance EC/OC deposition/accumulation and rain re-distribution C.I. Davidson et al., 2000 C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    22. 22. …………… a complex problem ………………. Bishapour Gulf War – Effect of the Kuwait oil fires in 1991 on the Iranian Cultural Heritage Spring 1991: burning of ~4.6 million barrels of oil per day Persepolis C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    23. 23. Vulnerability of building materials is different depending on chemical composition and porosity Reactivity towards SO 2 : laboratory tests Cement mortars most reactive ! C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    24. 24. Atmosphere Damage layer CementMortar SO 2 gas SO 4 = SO 3 = SO 4 = Catalysts aerosol Catalysts material CALCIUM CARBONATE GYPSUM FORMATION ON CEMENT GYPSUM CALCIUM ALUMINATES CALCIUM SILICATES C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    25. 25. SECONDARY DAMAGE PRODUCTS Sabbioni et al., Atmos. Env. (2001) 3CaO·Al 2 O 3 · 3CaSO 4 · 31H 2 O CaSiO 3 · CaSO 4 ·CaCO 3 · 15H 2 O Gypsum + Calcium silicate THAUMASITE Gypsum + Calcium aluminate ETTRINGITE
    26. 26. ETTRINGITE FORMATION ETTRINGITE DISSOLUTION / DECOMPOSITION THAUMASITE FORMATION BREAKDOWN BY EXPANSION EC Project EDAMM Laboratory tests Damage occurs also if SO 2 decrease 10-15 nm C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    27. 27. SECONDARY DAMAGE PRODUCTS: HYDRAULIC MORTARS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA EC Project PRODOMEA MEKAWER FORTRESS (JORDAN) JUPITER TEMPLE, DAMASCUS (SIRYA) VILLA DOMITIA, GIANNUTRI (ITALY) PETRA (JORDAN) C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    28. 28. CONTEMPORARY AIR POLLUTANTS AND STONE Need to expanmd this slide…!. EC Project NOAH’s ARK Joakim Langner Thanks to the European Air Quality Policy, SO 2 is declining in Europe  sulfation of stone declines and will continue in the future C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    29. 29. Impact on society - Concern from the citizens - Impact on the press More than 200 articles (Europe, USA, Asia, Australia), Press EC <ul><li>RESEARCH OUTPUTS </li></ul><ul><li>- Vulnerability Atlas including maps of European climate scenarios from the recent past to the late 21st century </li></ul><ul><li>The Guidelines proposing adaptation strategies for cultural heritage management in the face of climate change </li></ul>(in press by ANTHEM PRESS) MAY 2007 ATLAS AND GUIDELINES THE NOAH’S ARK PROJECT Global Climate Change Impact on Built Heritage and Cultural Landscapes C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    30. 30. <ul><li>No mention </li></ul><ul><li>IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change 200 7 : Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change 200 7 : M itigation </li></ul>Absence of cultural heritage in the Intergovernmental Climate Change Panel Reports (IPCC) Cultural heritage is not mentioned among the indicators for the identification of mitigation and adaptation strategies C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    31. 31. Future needs: Policy Inclusion of cultural heritage among the priorities in existing and forthcoming legislation and policies. Inclusion in future IPCC Reports and other international reports (e.g. UNFCCC). International cooperation particularly with fast growing developing countries (e.g. Brasil, Russia, China and India), neighbouring (e.g. candidate countries, Mediterranean area) and industrialised countries (e.g. USA and Japan). Disseminate knowledge and raise awareness of national, regional, local authorities, private sector (e.g. insurance) and citizens. C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    32. 32. Future needs: Research Scenarios on local scales in European cities and other places characterised by concentrations of significant cultural heritage assets . Assign probabilities of damage by utilising probabilistic climate models applied to specific case studies. Identify indicators of threats and damage to cultural heritage in outdoor and indoor environments. Impact of rising sea levels in CH protection. Development of adaptation strategies based on an early and cost-effective action. C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    33. 33. POLLUTION, PARTICULARLY PARTICLES, IS A MAJOR THREAT AFFECTING THE BUILT CULTURAL HERITAGE IN URBAN AREAS MODERN BUILDING MATERIALS, e.g. CEMENT, ARE LESS DURABLE THAN ANCIENT MATERIALS WITH RESPECT TO POLLUTION FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON HISTORICAL BUILDINGS AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES REMAIN A CHALLENGE C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    34. 34. European network on Research Programme applied to the Protection of Tangible Cultural Heritage <ul><li>Coordinator : Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities ( MiBAC) </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership of 14 EU Member States </li></ul><ul><li>CNR is actively involved </li></ul>European ERA NET Project www.netheritage.eu Started : 1 october 2008 C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009
    35. 35. Some publications SABBIONI C., ZAPPIA G., RIONTINO C., BLANCO-VARELA M.T., AGUILERA J., PUERTAS F., VAN BALEN K., TOUMBAKARI E.E. Atmospheric deterioration of ancient and modern hydraulic mortars Atmospheric Environment, 35, 539-548, 2001. SABBIONI C. Mechanisms of air pollution damage to stone In Effects of Air Pollution on the Built Environment (Ed. P. Brimblecombe) Imperial College Press, Singapore, 2002, pp. 63-106. SABBIONI C., GHEDINI N., BONAZZA A. Organic anions damage layers on monuments and buildings Atmospheric Environment 37, 1261-1269, 2003. GHEDINI N., SABBIONI C., PANTANI M. Thermal analyses in cultural heritage safeguard: an application. Thermochimica Acta, 406, 105-113, 2003 BONAZZA A., SABBIONI C., GHEDINI N. Quantitative data on carbon fractions in interpretation of black crusts and soiling on European built heritage. Atmospheric Environment 39, 2607-2618, 2005 GHEDINI N., SABBIONI C., BONAZZA A., GOBBI G. Chemical-Thermal Quantitative Methodology for Carbon Speciation in Damage Layers on Building Surfaces. Environmental Science and Technology 40, 939-944, 2006 BONAZZA A., BRIMBLECOMBE P., GROSSI C.M., SABBIONI C. Carbon in Black Crusts from the Tower of London. Environmental Science and Technology 41, 4199-4204, 2007 BONAZZA A., SABBIONI C., GHEDINI N., HERMOSIN H., JURADO V., GONZALEZ J. M., SAIZ-JIMENEZ C. Did smoke from the Kuwait oil well fires affected archaeological sites and monuments of Iranian cultural heritage? Environmental Science and Technology 41, 2378-2386, 2007   BONAZZA A., MESSINA P., SABBIONI C., GROSSI C.M., BRIMBLECOMBE P. Mapping the impact of climate change on surface recession of carbonate buildings in Europe. Science of the Total Environment 407, 2039-2050 , 2009 BONAZZA A., SABBIONI C., MESSINA P., GUARALDI C., DE NUNTIIS P. Climate change impact: Mapping thermal stress on Carrara marble in Europe Science of the Total Environment (in press) 2009   THANKS C. Sabbioni, CNR - ISAC, Bologna, Italy S ã o Paulo (Brasil), 22 September 2009

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