Unit F Data Security
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  • 1. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8 th  edition Unit F: Data Security
  • 2. Objectives
    • Know what can go wrong
    • Protect computer systems
    • Understand authentication
    • Explore security threats and malware
    • Avoid security threats and malware
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 3. Objectives (continued)
    • Examine network and Internet access security
    • Explore Web and email security
    • Understand backups
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 4. Knowing What Can Go Wrong
    • Risk management in computer systems
      • Identify potential threats to equipment and data
      • Implement plans to avoid threats
      • Develop steps to recover from unavoidable disasters
    • Possible problems with electricity
      • Power failure
      • Power spikes (or voltage spikes )
      • Power surges
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 5. Knowing What Can Go Wrong (continued)
    • Hardware failures
    • Software failures
    • Human error
    • Computer viruses
    • Safe Mode : a limited version of Windows that is used to troubleshoot some problems
    • Cyberterrorism : terrorist acts committed via the Internet
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 6. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Figure F-3: Troubleshooting guidelines
  • 7. Protecting Computer Systems
    • To reduce likelihood of computer theft:
      • Use common sense
      • Use locking devices
      • Use security plates
    • Tracking and recovery software
      • Used to track a computer if stolen
    • Ways to protect data if computer is stolen
      • Software that deletes data if computer is stolen
      • Use of a password to access computer
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 8. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Figure F-4: A locking device Figure F-5: A security plate
  • 9. Protecting Computer Systems (continued)
    • Protection from power problems
      • UPS (uninterruptible power supply)
        • Offers the best protection against power problems
        • Provides a continuous supply of power
      • Surge strip
        • Protects against power surges and voltage spikes
    • Most computers have a fan
      • Allow for ventilation around the computer
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 10. Understanding Authentication
    • Authentication protocols
      • Used to confirm a person’s identity when he or she tries to use a computer system
    • Three common ways to authenticate a user:
      • Using something a person carries
      • Using something a person knows
      • Using a unique physical characteristic
    • Biometrics : identification on some physical trait, such as a fingerprint, handprint, etc.
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 11. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Figure F-9: Retinal scans are a form of biometric authentication
  • 12. Understanding Authentication (continued)
    • Two-factor authentication : verifies identity using two independent elements of confirmation
    • User ID : a user’s unique identifier on a computer or Web page; typically public
    • Password : verifies a user ID and guarantees that the user is the person he or she claims to be
    • User rights : rules that limit the directories and files that each user can access
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 13. Exploring Security Threats and Malware
    • Malicious code or malware
      • Created by hackers , crackers , black hats , or cybercriminals
    • Computer virus (or virus )
      • Set of program instructions that attaches itself to a file, reproduces itself, and spreads to other files on the same computer
    • Computer worm (or worm )
      • Self-copying program that carries out some unauthorized activity on a victim’s computer
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 14. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Figure F-13: A simulated worm attack
  • 15. Exploring Security Threats and Malware (continued)
    • Trojan horse (or Trojan )
      • A program that seems to perform one function while actually doing something else
    • Intelligent agent (or bot )
      • Software that can automate a task or autonomously execute a task
      • Bad bots are used by hackers for unauthorized or destructive tasks
    • Spyware
      • A program that secretly gathers personal information, usually for commercial purposes
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 16. Exploring Security Threats and Malware (continued)
    • Malware can:
      • Create network traffic jam
      • Initiate a denial-of-Service (DoS) attack
      • Reconfigure a browser
      • Delete and modify files
      • Access confidential information
      • Disable antivirus and firewall software
      • Control your computer
      • Degrade performance
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 17. Avoiding Security Threats and Malware
    • Some guidelines to avoid threats:
      • Install and activate security software
      • Keep software and operating system updated
      • Do not open suspicious email attachments
      • Obtain software only from reliable sources
      • Use security software to scan for malware
      • Do not click pop-up ads
      • Avoid unsavory Web sites
      • Disable the option Hide extensions for known file types in Windows
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 18. Avoiding Security Threats and Malware (continued)
    • Security suite
      • Typically includes antivirus, firewall, and anti-spyware modules
    • Antivirus software
      • Utility software that looks for and removes viruses, Trojan horses, worms, and bots
      • Virus signature
        • A section of code that can be used to identify a known malicious program
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 19. Avoiding Security Threats and Malware (continued)
    • Virus definitions
      • Contains information that antivirus software uses to identify and remove malware
      • Needs to be updated regularly
    • Make regular backups of your data
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 20. Examining Network and Internet Access Security
    • Wireless networks
      • Susceptible to unauthorized access and use, especially if unsecured
    • LANjacking or war driving
      • Hackers can intercept signals with a Wi-Fi enabled notebook computer
    • Wireless encryption
      • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)
      • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)
      • WPA2
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 21. Examining Network and Internet Access Security (continued)
    • Wireless network key
      • The basis for scrambling and unscrambling data transmitted between wireless devices
    • Encryption
      • Transforms a message so that its contents are hidden from unauthorized readers
    • Firewall
      • Software or hardware that filters out suspicious packets attempting to enter or leave a computer
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 22. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Figure F-20: Windows Firewall settings
  • 23. Exploring Web and Email Security
    • Cookie
      • Contains information about the user
      • Stored on the user’s hard drive
      • Ad-serving cookie
    • InPrivate feature of Internet Explorer
      • No user data is stored after a browsing session
    • Antispyware
      • Security software designed to identify and neutralize spyware
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 24. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Figure F-23: Anti-Spyware software
  • 25. Exploring Web and Email Security (continued)
    • Phishing
      • Email-based or IM scam that persuades users to reveal confidential information
    • Pharming
      • Redirects users to fake sites by poisoning a domain name server with a false IP address
    • Spam
      • Unwanted electronic junk mail
      • Techniques to combat spam:
        • Email authentication techniques
        • Spam filter
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 26. Understanding Backups
    • Backup : a copy made in case the original files become damaged
      • Full backup (or full-system backup )
      • Differential backup
      • Incremental backup
    • Backup storage media include:
      • Writable CDs, DVDs, BDs, solid-state storage cards, tapes, and USB flash drives
    • Can back up data to a network server
    • Some Web sites offer Web-based storage
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 27. Understanding Backups (continued)
    • Backup software is designed to back up and restore files
    • Boot disk
      • A removable storage medium containing the operating system files needed to boot a computer
    • Recovery CD (or recovery disk )
      • A bootable CD, DVD, or other media that contains a complete copy of a computer’s hard drive, as it existed when shipped from the manufacturer
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 28. Talking Points: Prosecuting Computer Crime
    • Traditional laws do not cover the range of possibilities for computer crimes
    • Computer crime laws
      • Many countries have laws that specifically define computer data and software as personal property
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 29. Talking Points: Prosecuting Computer Crime (continued)
    • Computer crimes include:
      • Data diddling
      • Identity theft
      • Salami shaving
      • Denial of service
      • Information theft
      • Virus distribution
      • Vandalism
    • Are hackers dangerous cyberterrorists or harmless pranksters?
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  • 30. Summary
    • This chapter introduced:
      • Potential threats to computer equipment and data
      • Ways to protect computer system hardware
      • Authentication
      • How to use software to protect or recover computer data
      • How to back up data
      • Network and Internet access security
      • Different positions on prosecuting computer crime
    Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition