Unit D Digital Electronics and File Management


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Unit D Digital Electronics and File Management

  1. 1. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8 th  edition Unit D: Digital Electronics and File Management
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Discuss data representation </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce integrated circuits </li></ul><ul><li>Explore processors </li></ul><ul><li>Explore computer memory: RAM </li></ul><ul><li>Explore other types of computer memory </li></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  3. 3. Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Explore file management </li></ul><ul><li>Examine folders </li></ul><ul><li>Explore computer files </li></ul><ul><li>Work with files </li></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  4. 4. Discussing Data Representation <ul><li>Data representation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form in which data is stored, processed, output, and transmitted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binary number system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has only two digits: 0 and 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text, numbers, graphics, sound, and video that has been converted into 0s and 1s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each 0 or 1 is one binary digit, or bit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byte : a series of eight bits </li></ul></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  5. 5. Discussing Data Representation (continued) <ul><li>Digitized images are a series of colored dots, called pixels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each pixel is assigned a binary number based on the color of that pixel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital sound files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To digitize sound: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sample an analog sound wave at various points </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convert those points into digital numbers </li></ul></ul></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  6. 6. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-3: Digitizing sound
  7. 7. Introducing Integrated Circuits <ul><li>Integrated circuit (IC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An incredibly thin slice of semiconducting material (or semiconductor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are packed with microscopic circuit elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called computer chip, microchip, and chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chip packages vary in shape and size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIP (dual inline package) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIMM (dual inline memory module) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PGA (pin-grid array) </li></ul></ul></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  8. 8. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-5: Packaging for integrated circuits Figure D-4: An integrated circuit
  9. 9. Introducing Integrated Circuits (continued) <ul><li>Integrated circuits are connected to the motherboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motherboard: computer’s main circuit board </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processor : one type of chip or integrated circuit </li></ul><ul><li>CPU (central processing unit) : the main processor in a personal computer </li></ul><ul><li>Intel is the world’s largest chipmaker </li></ul><ul><li>AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) is Intel’s chief rival in the PC chip market </li></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  10. 10. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-6: Chips on a motherboard
  11. 11. Exploring Processors <ul><li>Central processing unit (CPU) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the circuitry to perform the central processing tasks of the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clock speed : pace at which processor executes instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Bus : electronic pathway that carries electronic signals between electronic parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus speed: identifies how fast electronic signals move along the bus pathway </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Word size : number of bits that a processor can manipulate at one time </li></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  12. 12. Exploring Processors (continued) <ul><li>Cache : high-speed memory that a processor can access more rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions for processors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source code : human-readable version of a program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation of source code into 0s and 1s: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Done by a compiler or an interpreter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Overclocking: a technique for increasing the speed of a computer part </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very risky </li></ul></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  13. 13. Exploring Computer Memory: RAM <ul><li>RAM (random access memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds operating system instructions that control the basic functions of a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also a temporary holding area for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Program instructions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data waiting to be processed, displayed, or printed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results of processing until they can be stored more permanently </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance of a computer is directly related to how much RAM is available </li></ul></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  14. 14. Exploring Computer Memory: RAM (continued) <ul><li>How RAM works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content of RAM is changed by changing the charge of capacitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capacitors: hold the bits that represent data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>RAM differs from hard drive storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RAM is temporary storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important to have the most RAM possible </li></ul><ul><li>RAM speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster RAM generally means faster performance </li></ul></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  15. 15. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-16: How RAM works
  16. 16. Exploring Other Types of Computer Memory <ul><li>Virtual memory : an area of the hard drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used when RAM is reaching its capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROM (read-only memory) : memory that holds the computer’s startup routine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent and nonvolatile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RAM is temporary and volatile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the bootstrap program, which: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tells a computer what to do during the boot process </li></ul></ul></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  17. 17. Exploring Other Types of Computer Memory (continued) <ul><li>Boot process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six major events take place: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start boot program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power-on self-test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify peripheral devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Load operating system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check configuration and customization </li></ul></ul></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  18. 18. Exploring Other Types of Computer Memory (continued) <ul><li>ROM BIOS (basic input/output system) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A small set of instructions stored in ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EE PROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A nonvolatile chip that requires no power to hold data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds computer configuration settings, such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Date and time, hard drive capacity, number of CD/DVD/BD drives, RAM capacity </li></ul></ul></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  19. 19. Exploring File Management <ul><li>Computer file (or file): a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium </li></ul><ul><li>Folder : a logical representation of where you store your files on a computer </li></ul><ul><li>File specification (or a path ): identifies a computer file’s location </li></ul><ul><li>Most operating systems provide file management programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows provides Windows Explorer </li></ul></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  20. 20. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-24: Files are stored in folders Figure D-25: A file specification
  21. 21. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-26: Windows Explorer
  22. 22. Examining Folders <ul><li>To create a new folder: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use New Folder button of Windows Explorer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To work with folders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the folder(s), then copy, move, rename, or delete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Folder Properties dialog box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides general information about files and folders stored in that folder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Folder Options dialog box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to view or change a folder’s options </li></ul></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  23. 23. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-31: Properties dialog box for My Documents folder
  24. 24. Exploring Computer Files <ul><li>Filename : identifies a file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must adhere to filenaming conventions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Save and Save As commands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Save command: saves a file using its current name and location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Save As command: allows you to select a name and storage device for a file </li></ul></ul><ul><li>File extension (or filename extension) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separated from main filename by a period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File formats </li></ul></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  25. 25. Exploring Computer Files (continued) <ul><li>Possible reasons for problems opening a file: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t have the software application needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File might have been damaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File extension might have been changed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File might use a file format for a newer version of the software than you have </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other information stored with files: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in bytes, kilobytes, or megabytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File date </li></ul></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  26. 26. Working with Files <ul><li>Use descriptive names </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain file extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Group similar files and consider using the default folders </li></ul><ul><li>Do not mix data files and program files </li></ul><ul><li>Do not store programs or data files in the root directory (C:) of hard drive </li></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  27. 27. Working with Files (continued) <ul><li>Be aware of storage locations </li></ul><ul><li>Organize your folders from the top down </li></ul><ul><li>Access files from the hard drive </li></ul><ul><li>Follow copyright rules </li></ul><ul><li>Delete or archive files you no longer need </li></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  28. 28. Talking Points: Is Your Computer Making You Sick? <ul><li>Radiation risks </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive stress injuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be avoided by following ergonomic guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ergonomics: study of safe and efficient environments, particularly working environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eye strain </li></ul><ul><li>Back pain </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary lifestyle </li></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition
  29. 29. Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-41: Ergonomic workstation guidelines
  30. 30. Summary <ul><li>This chapter introduced: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated circuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How computers create and store data in files and folders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical information about how to organize and manage files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues that may affect the health and well-being of computer users </li></ul></ul>Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition Computer Concepts – Illustrated 8th Edition