Clicker QuestionThe “Calculus of Voting” suggests thatpeople will only vote if the ___________outweigh the __________. a. Democrats, Republicans b. Issues, Laziness c. Benefits, Costs d. Costs, Benefits
Clicker QuestionExcept in rare occasions, boundaries forcongressional and state legislativedistricts in the United States are redrawnby the states every _______ years. a. two b. ten c. twenty d. twenty-five
Reapportionment and RedistrictingReapportionment – Every 10 years the census is used to tell us where people have moved (within and across states).Redistricting – Usually, in response to reapportionment (but not always), states redraw district lines so that their districts achieve basic equality.Gerrymandering – Redistricting with PURPOSE. Partisan and Incumbent usually OKAY, racial is a NO.Shaw v. Reno, 1993 – Districts based exclusively on racial criteria are unlawful.
Districts Gone WildIllinois’ 4th District North Carolina’s 12th District
Gerrymandering Techniques• Packing: Places the opposing partys voters in the fewest possible districts, to minimize their influence on other districts• Cracking: Spreading voters of one type over many districts where they will comprise minorities that are unable to influence elections.• Hijacking: Separating an incumbent candidate from his constituents and placing him or her in a district where he or she has no name recognition.• Kidnapping: Drawing two incumbent candidates into the same district so they must run against each other.
Cracking and PackingFig. 1 creates 4 Fig. 2 represents an Fig. 3 portrays an Fig. 4 portrays ancompetitive incumbent protection extreme example of example ofdistricts, where or "sweetheart" packing, where a cracking, wherethere are an equal gerrymandering single district is voters have beennumber of voters plan, in which district composed solely divided among afrom each party in boundaries are draw to of RED voters, thro number ofevery district. split the number of wing the advantage districts, so that seats evenly between to the BLUE party in the RED party holds the parties and to the remaining three a 9-7 advantage in insure a strongly districts. three districts partisan voting base in and BLUE wins just every district. a single district
PackingCalifornia’s 23rd DistrictDemocratic Packed District
Hijacking2005 – Georgia’s 12th District John Barrow was drawn out of his district And placed in the 10th D but moved back to the 12th and won anyway.
KidnappingGeorgia’s 7th and 11th Districts Bob Barr and John Linder were placed in the same district…had to face off in the Republican primary.
Redistricting in Georgia2000 – Census gives GA +2 districtsDemocratic controlled Assembly map 11th was an attempt to create a majority- minority district2002 – Republicans win control of Gen. Assembly Argue that 2001 map splits too many communities/counties; creates districts that are irregularly shaped; too partisan in nature2005 – New Map…
2001 Map 2005 Map
Clicker QuestionWould you vote to change the redistricting process in Georgia? a. Yes b. No
Campaigns - Median Voter Theory• Rather than differentiate themselves, there are clear incentives for candidates to “go to the middle” because that’s where the voters are.• Electoral competition drives parties together…• So, the reason candidates appear to be so centrist is because they are both competing for “Bob’s” vote in order to win.
Median Voter Theory Obama McCain
How Do Voters Decide?Social Characteristics – SES, Religion, EthnicityParty Loyalties – Strength of Partisan IdentificationCandidates – experience, decisiveness, personal warmth, etc.Issues The Economy – Bush I vs. Clinton (“It’s the Economy Stupid”)Foreign Policy – Wars, International Crises
Clicker QuestionWhich step comes last? a. Reapportionment b. Census c. Redistricting
Clicker QuestionWhich step comes first? a. Reapportionment b. Census c. Redistricting
Clicker QuestionWhich step comes second? a. Reapportionment b. Census c. Redistricting