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01 - Foundations and Democracy
 

01 - Foundations and Democracy

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    01 - Foundations and Democracy 01 - Foundations and Democracy Presentation Transcript

    • Clicker Question
      Do the things that our government does affect your daily life?
      a. A little
      b. A lot
      c. Not at all
    • Clicker Question
      Are you happy about the direction of the country these days?
      a. Very Happy
      b. Somewhat Happy
      c. Somewhat UNhappy
      d. Not at all
    • Clicker Question
      What are you doing to express your discontent?
      a. NOTHING
      b. Complaining
      c. Occasionally Participating
      d. I attend protests weekly!
    • Clicker Question
      Do elected officials care about YOU (and people like you)?
      a. A lot
      b. Somewhat
      c. Very Little
      d. Not at all
    • American Political Culture
      The price of apathy towards public affairs is to be ruled by evil men.
      -Plato
      Government and politics are important in your life!
      Example:
      Who knows someone in Iraq?
      Whose education is paid for by the
      government?
      Who pays taxes?
      Who thinks marijuana should be legalized?
      Who is under the drinking age?
      What is this?
    • Clicker Question
      Is Government Necessary?
      a. Yes
      b. No
      c. Maybe
    • American Political Culture
      Is Government Necessary?....................YES
      Your Book: A government is needed to provide those services, sometimes called “public goods,” that all citizens need but are not likely to be able to provide adequately for themselves.
      Includes: Defense against foreign aggression, maintenance of public order, enforcement of contractual obligations and property rights, and a guarantee of some measure of social justice
      1. To Maintain Order
      2. To Protect Property
      3. To Provide Public Goods
      4. To Regulate Common Resources
    • What is Human Nature?
      Is mankind Moral/Immoral/Amoral?
      Is mankind basically Individualistic or Social?
      What’s the difference between Self-Interest and Selfish?
      Is mankind primarily Self-Interested?
      RIGHTS/LIBERTY
      Where do our basic rights come from?
      Can you legitimately have your rights revoked?
      How do you balance my rights with your rights?
    • American Political Culture
      1. Hobbes on Order
      Before Civil Society developed, life in “the State of Nature” was terrible!
      “continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”
      To get out of this predicament, mankind rationally CHOOSES to form a society
      The CHOICE is trading some of our FREEDOM for more ORDER.
    • American Political Culture
      2. Locke on Property
      For Locke, the “State of Nature” was a pretty nice place…at first. Then, SCARCITY!!!
      With the presence of scarcity, ownership is necessary to distinguish MY stuff from YOUR stuff.
      However, in the SoN, ownership was uncertain, people couldn’t secure their property…
      People enter into civil society rationally to secure their “life, liberty, and PROPERTY”
    • American Political Culture
      3. To Provide Public Goods
      Private vs. Public Goods
      Public Good – A good that is Non-rivalrous and Non-excludable.
      Non-Rivalrous – Once produced, everyone can benefit from it with out diminishing other’s enjoyment.
      Non-Excludable – Once created, it is almost impossible to prevent access to the good.
      In short, a public good is a “good” that can be enjoyed (and not diminished) by anyone, whether they pay for it or not.
      EXAMPLES – National Defense, Infrastructure, Environmental Protection, Public Safety…
    • Clicker Question
      Are you Here?
      a. Yes
      b. No
      c. Maybe
    • Clicker Question
      "In order to reduce the federal budget deficit, do you think it will be necessary or not necessary to increase taxes on people like you?"
      A. Necessary
      B. Not Necessary
      C. Unsure        
    • Clicker Question
    • Clicker Question
      "If you HAD to choose ONE, which would you prefer in order to reduce the federal budget deficit: raising taxes on people like you or reducing spending on government programs that benefit people like you?“
      A. Raising Taxes
      B. Reducing Spending
      C. Unsure        
    • Clicker Question
      Support for cutting federal government spending
    • Clicker Question
      If you are Socially Liberal and Economically Liberal, then you are a __________?
      a. Liberal
      b. Conservative
      c. Statist
      d. Libertarian
    • Clicker Question
      If you are Socially Conservative and Economically Liberal, then you are a __________?
      a. Liberal
      b. Conservative
      c. Statist
      d. Libertarian
    • Clicker Question
      If you are Socially Conservative and Economically Conservative, then you are a __________?
      a. Liberal
      b. Conservative
      c. Statist
      d. Libertarian
    • Clicker Question
      If you are Socially Liberal and Economically Conservative, then you are a __________?
      a. Liberal
      b. Conservative
      c. Statist
      d. Libertarian
    • American Political Culture
      The Problem with Public Goods
      Free-Riding Problem – When some persons enjoy the benefits of some good or action while letting others bear the costs of attaining that good.
      EXAMPLES: PBS/NPR
      Taking Out the Trash
      Free-riding, although unpleasant, is not problematic unless so many people choose to free-ride that the public good can no longer be provided or maintained.
      Parks, Roads, National Defense
    • American Political Culture
      Government Saves the Day…
      With out government’s coercive powers through laws and policy to
      • build a bridge, road, school
      • produce an army
      • Provide education
      • Provide other public services
      …there is no incentive, and often a disincentive, for individuals to provide for any of these collective (public) goods.
    • American Political Culture
      4. To Regulate Common Resources
      The Tragedy of the Commons: Picture a public pasture that is open to all local herdsmen. Each herdsman owns his own cattle, but nobody owns or controls the “commons.” Each herdsman is free to use the commons at will, and each herdsman is free to choose the number of animals that he will graze on it.
      What problem occurs?
      Modern Examples: Air Use - Pollution
      Oceans – Overfishing
      Water Sources (GA/Fl/AL)
      A government and its ability to regulate such common resources is one way to overcome this potentially negative outcome of over-exploitation.
      However, sometimes governments are too slow…
    • American Political Culture
      What Types of Government are There?
      1. Governments can be classified based on how authority/power is distributed.
      Autocracy – Authority rests in a single individual – King, Queen, or Dictator
      Oligarchy – Authority rests in a small group of people – landowners, military officers, wealthy merchants
      Democracy – Authority rests with all citizens
    • American Political Culture
      What Types of Government are There?
      2. Governments can be classified based on what types of limitations are placed on authority/power
      Constitutional – Formal and effective (written down) limits are placed on the powers of the government.
      Authoritarian – A government that recognizes no formal limits BUT may be constrained by other social institutions.
      Example = Cuba, Under Castro
      Totalitarian - A government that recognizes no formal limits AND seeks to absorb/eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it.
      Example – Stalinist Russia, Nazi Germany
    • American Political Culture
      What EXACTLY is Democracy?
      ARISTOTLE – “the most pure democracy is that which is so called principally from the equality which prevails in it…”
      DE TOCQUEVILLE – “the very essence of democratic government consists in the absolutesovereignty of the majority.”
      SCHUMPETER – “That institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people’s votes.”
      “Power of the People”
    • American Political Culture
      Direct Vs. Representative Democracy
      Direct Democracy– Political outcomes are decided by all citizens meeting in small assemblies
      Representative Democracy– Indirect democracy, in which the people rule through elected representatives
      Which type do we have?
    • Traditional Political Ideology
      So, how do we traditionally understand ideology?
      What distinguishes between Liberal (LEFT) and Conservative (RIGHT)?
      Size of Government?
      But, is this correct?
    • Political Ideology
      In fact, ideas about “size of government” can be divided into 2 categories
      Social Issues
      Economic Issues
      You can be liberal or conservative on these – independent of each other.
    • “Better” Political Ideology
      Based on these 2 axes, we can have a ideological MAP based on ones beliefs about BOTH sets of issues.
      For Example:
      If you are Socially and Economically liberal, you would be in the bottom left quadrant.
      BUT, WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?
    • Political Ideology MAP
      Rather than just Liberal and Conservative (which doesn’t tell us that much) we can think of each axis as a TRADE-OFF.
      The Social axis represents a tradeoff between Social Order or Social Liberty
      The Economic Axis represents a tradeoff between Econ Equality and Econ Liberty
    • Authoritarian
      The Upper Left quadrant is the AUTHORITARIAN quadrant. (Social Order, Economic Equality)
      Those found in this quadrant typically support government intervention in social issues as well as economic issues.
    • Conservative
      The Upper Right quadrant is the CONSERVATIVE quadrant. (Social Order, Economic Liberty)
      Those found in this quadrant typically support greater moral values imposed in society, but do not support government intervention into the economy (No Taxes; No redistribution of wealth)
    • Liberal (Socialist)
      The Lower Left quadrant is the SOCIALIST quadrant. (Social Liberty, Economic Equality)
      Those found in this quadrant typically call for social freedoms (sex, drugs, and rock-n-roll while desiring economic intervention for the purposes of minimizing inequality (favor social safety net)
    • Libertarian
      The Lower Right quadrant is the LIBERTARIAN quadrant. (Social Liberty, Economic Liberty)
      Those found in this quadrant typically desire freedom, freedom, freedom. As little government as possible. Limited social and economic intervention.
    • Political Ideology
      So, where would you place…
      www.politicalcompass.org
    • Political Ideology
      So, where would you place…
      Barak Obama?
      John McCain?
      Sarah Palin?
      Hitler?
      Gandhi?
      Stalin?
    • Political Ideology
    • Clicker Question
      Are you STILL Here?
      a. Yes
      b. No
      c. Maybe
    • American Political Culture
      What is CULTURE?
      Culture consists of all learned beliefsand behaviors, the rules by which we order our lives, and the meanings that human beings construct to interpret their universes and their places within them.
      What is AMERICAN culture?
    • American Political Culture
      What is Political Culture?
      Defined as the broadly shared values, beliefs, and attitudes about how the government should function.
      Centers on values like:
      Individualism
      Private Property and Free Enterprise
      Judeo-Christian Ethics
      Distrust in Government
      Democracy, Freedom, Liberty
    • Clicker Question
      Statement: “Most federal spending goes to Social Security, Medicare, and Defense spending
      a. That is Correct
      b. That is Incorrect
      c. Unsure
    • Clicker Question
      Statement: “Most federal spending goes to Social Security, Medicare, and Defense spending
      a. That is Correct (35%)
      b. That is Incorrect (44%)
      c. Unsure (20%)
      BUT IT IS TRUE!!!
    • Clicker Question
      Of every tax dollar that goes to the federal government in Washington, D.C., how many cents of each dollar would you say are wasted?
      Enter Amount
      Examples -
      25 would equal $0.25
      100 would equal $1.00
    • Clicker Question
      According to Citizens Against Government Waste (www.cagw.org), they estimate that around $20B or % is pork barrel legislation.
    • American Political Culture
      Where Does Federal Money Come From?
      12.7%
      45.3%
      35.5%
      Dollars In Billions
    • American Political Culture
      How is Government Money Spent?
      Education Spending = $47B or 1.9%
      Defense = $515B+$145B ($660B)or 27%
      “Old People” Spending = ~$1.15T or 34%
      INTEREST on DEBT = $164B or 8.5%