01 - Foundations and DemocracyPresentation Transcript
Clicker Question Do the things that our government does affect your daily life? a. A little b. A lot c. Not at all
Clicker Question Are you happy about the direction of the country these days? a. Very Happy b. Somewhat Happy c. Somewhat UNhappy d. Not at all
Clicker Question What are you doing to express your discontent? a. NOTHING b. Complaining c. Occasionally Participating d. I attend protests weekly!
Clicker Question Do elected officials care about YOU (and people like you)? a. A lot b. Somewhat c. Very Little d. Not at all
American Political Culture The price of apathy towards public affairs is to be ruled by evil men. -Plato Government and politics are important in your life! Example: Who knows someone in Iraq? Whose education is paid for by the government? Who pays taxes? Who thinks marijuana should be legalized? Who is under the drinking age? What is this?
Clicker Question Is Government Necessary? a. Yes b. No c. Maybe
American Political Culture Is Government Necessary?....................YES Your Book: A government is needed to provide those services, sometimes called “public goods,” that all citizens need but are not likely to be able to provide adequately for themselves. Includes: Defense against foreign aggression, maintenance of public order, enforcement of contractual obligations and property rights, and a guarantee of some measure of social justice 1. To Maintain Order 2. To Protect Property 3. To Provide Public Goods 4. To Regulate Common Resources
What is Human Nature? Is mankind Moral/Immoral/Amoral? Is mankind basically Individualistic or Social? What’s the difference between Self-Interest and Selfish? Is mankind primarily Self-Interested? RIGHTS/LIBERTY Where do our basic rights come from? Can you legitimately have your rights revoked? How do you balance my rights with your rights?
American Political Culture 1. Hobbes on Order Before Civil Society developed, life in “the State of Nature” was terrible! “continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” To get out of this predicament, mankind rationally CHOOSES to form a society The CHOICE is trading some of our FREEDOM for more ORDER.
American Political Culture 2. Locke on Property For Locke, the “State of Nature” was a pretty nice place…at first. Then, SCARCITY!!! With the presence of scarcity, ownership is necessary to distinguish MY stuff from YOUR stuff. However, in the SoN, ownership was uncertain, people couldn’t secure their property… People enter into civil society rationally to secure their “life, liberty, and PROPERTY”
American Political Culture 3. To Provide Public Goods Private vs. Public Goods Public Good – A good that is Non-rivalrous and Non-excludable. Non-Rivalrous – Once produced, everyone can benefit from it with out diminishing other’s enjoyment. Non-Excludable – Once created, it is almost impossible to prevent access to the good. In short, a public good is a “good” that can be enjoyed (and not diminished) by anyone, whether they pay for it or not. EXAMPLES – National Defense, Infrastructure, Environmental Protection, Public Safety…
Clicker Question Are you Here? a. Yes b. No c. Maybe
Clicker Question "In order to reduce the federal budget deficit, do you think it will be necessary or not necessary to increase taxes on people like you?" A. Necessary B. Not Necessary C. Unsure
Clicker Question "If you HAD to choose ONE, which would you prefer in order to reduce the federal budget deficit: raising taxes on people like you or reducing spending on government programs that benefit people like you?“ A. Raising Taxes B. Reducing Spending C. Unsure
Clicker Question Support for cutting federal government spending
Clicker Question If you are Socially Liberal and Economically Liberal, then you are a __________? a. Liberal b. Conservative c. Statist d. Libertarian
Clicker Question If you are Socially Conservative and Economically Liberal, then you are a __________? a. Liberal b. Conservative c. Statist d. Libertarian
Clicker Question If you are Socially Conservative and Economically Conservative, then you are a __________? a. Liberal b. Conservative c. Statist d. Libertarian
Clicker Question If you are Socially Liberal and Economically Conservative, then you are a __________? a. Liberal b. Conservative c. Statist d. Libertarian
American Political Culture The Problem with Public Goods Free-Riding Problem – When some persons enjoy the benefits of some good or action while letting others bear the costs of attaining that good. EXAMPLES: PBS/NPR Taking Out the Trash Free-riding, although unpleasant, is not problematic unless so many people choose to free-ride that the public good can no longer be provided or maintained. Parks, Roads, National Defense
American Political Culture Government Saves the Day… With out government’s coercive powers through laws and policy to
build a bridge, road, school
produce an army
Provide other public services
…there is no incentive, and often a disincentive, for individuals to provide for any of these collective (public) goods.
American Political Culture 4. To Regulate Common Resources The Tragedy of the Commons: Picture a public pasture that is open to all local herdsmen. Each herdsman owns his own cattle, but nobody owns or controls the “commons.” Each herdsman is free to use the commons at will, and each herdsman is free to choose the number of animals that he will graze on it. What problem occurs? Modern Examples: Air Use - Pollution Oceans – Overfishing Water Sources (GA/Fl/AL) A government and its ability to regulate such common resources is one way to overcome this potentially negative outcome of over-exploitation. However, sometimes governments are too slow…
American Political Culture What Types of Government are There? 1. Governments can be classified based on how authority/power is distributed. Autocracy – Authority rests in a single individual – King, Queen, or Dictator Oligarchy – Authority rests in a small group of people – landowners, military officers, wealthy merchants Democracy – Authority rests with all citizens
American Political Culture What Types of Government are There? 2. Governments can be classified based on what types of limitations are placed on authority/power Constitutional – Formal and effective (written down) limits are placed on the powers of the government. Authoritarian – A government that recognizes no formal limits BUT may be constrained by other social institutions. Example = Cuba, Under Castro Totalitarian - A government that recognizes no formal limits AND seeks to absorb/eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it. Example – Stalinist Russia, Nazi Germany
American Political Culture What EXACTLY is Democracy? ARISTOTLE – “the most pure democracy is that which is so called principally from the equality which prevails in it…” DE TOCQUEVILLE – “the very essence of democratic government consists in the absolutesovereignty of the majority.” SCHUMPETER – “That institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people’s votes.” “Power of the People”
American Political Culture Direct Vs. Representative Democracy Direct Democracy– Political outcomes are decided by all citizens meeting in small assemblies Representative Democracy– Indirect democracy, in which the people rule through elected representatives Which type do we have?
Traditional Political Ideology So, how do we traditionally understand ideology? What distinguishes between Liberal (LEFT) and Conservative (RIGHT)? Size of Government? But, is this correct?
Political Ideology In fact, ideas about “size of government” can be divided into 2 categories Social Issues Economic Issues You can be liberal or conservative on these – independent of each other.
“Better” Political Ideology Based on these 2 axes, we can have a ideological MAP based on ones beliefs about BOTH sets of issues. For Example: If you are Socially and Economically liberal, you would be in the bottom left quadrant. BUT, WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?
Political Ideology MAP Rather than just Liberal and Conservative (which doesn’t tell us that much) we can think of each axis as a TRADE-OFF. The Social axis represents a tradeoff between Social Order or Social Liberty The Economic Axis represents a tradeoff between Econ Equality and Econ Liberty
Authoritarian The Upper Left quadrant is the AUTHORITARIAN quadrant. (Social Order, Economic Equality) Those found in this quadrant typically support government intervention in social issues as well as economic issues.
Conservative The Upper Right quadrant is the CONSERVATIVE quadrant. (Social Order, Economic Liberty) Those found in this quadrant typically support greater moral values imposed in society, but do not support government intervention into the economy (No Taxes; No redistribution of wealth)
Liberal (Socialist) The Lower Left quadrant is the SOCIALIST quadrant. (Social Liberty, Economic Equality) Those found in this quadrant typically call for social freedoms (sex, drugs, and rock-n-roll while desiring economic intervention for the purposes of minimizing inequality (favor social safety net)
Libertarian The Lower Right quadrant is the LIBERTARIAN quadrant. (Social Liberty, Economic Liberty) Those found in this quadrant typically desire freedom, freedom, freedom. As little government as possible. Limited social and economic intervention.
Political Ideology So, where would you place… www.politicalcompass.org
Political Ideology So, where would you place… Barak Obama? John McCain? Sarah Palin? Hitler? Gandhi? Stalin?
Clicker Question Are you STILL Here? a. Yes b. No c. Maybe
American Political Culture What is CULTURE? Culture consists of all learned beliefsand behaviors, the rules by which we order our lives, and the meanings that human beings construct to interpret their universes and their places within them. What is AMERICAN culture?
American Political Culture What is Political Culture? Defined as the broadly shared values, beliefs, and attitudes about how the government should function. Centers on values like: Individualism Private Property and Free Enterprise Judeo-Christian Ethics Distrust in Government Democracy, Freedom, Liberty
Clicker Question Statement: “Most federal spending goes to Social Security, Medicare, and Defense spending a. That is Correct b. That is Incorrect c. Unsure
Clicker Question Statement: “Most federal spending goes to Social Security, Medicare, and Defense spending a. That is Correct (35%) b. That is Incorrect (44%) c. Unsure (20%) BUT IT IS TRUE!!!
Clicker Question Of every tax dollar that goes to the federal government in Washington, D.C., how many cents of each dollar would you say are wasted? Enter Amount Examples - 25 would equal $0.25 100 would equal $1.00
Clicker Question According to Citizens Against Government Waste (www.cagw.org), they estimate that around $20B or % is pork barrel legislation.
American Political Culture Where Does Federal Money Come From? 12.7% 45.3% 35.5% Dollars In Billions
American Political Culture How is Government Money Spent? Education Spending = $47B or 1.9% Defense = $515B+$145B ($660B)or 27% “Old People” Spending = ~$1.15T or 34% INTEREST on DEBT = $164B or 8.5%