Memos, Letters, and Email Correspondence
Planning and Researching <ul><li>What do you want to convey? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the rhetorical situation? </li></ul...
Purpose <ul><li>What do you want to have happen as a result of this letter? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you need? </li></ul>
Audience <ul><li>Target specific audience </li></ul><ul><li>Target needs of audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do people ...
Writing Techniques <ul><li>What you want? </li></ul><ul><li>What the reader wants? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Downplay elements...
Memos vs. Letters <ul><li>Memoranda (plural) </li></ul><ul><li>Memorandum (singular) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for intern...
Analyzing Audience <ul><li>Direct approach </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect approach </li></ul>
Direct Approach <ul><li>More efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Frontload information </li></ul><ul><li>Audience is friendly or n...
Elements of Direct Approach <ul><li>Introductory greeting (not in memos) </li></ul><ul><li>Main point of the letter or mem...
Indirect Approach <ul><li>Audience likely to resist your point </li></ul><ul><li>When relaying bad or unexpected news </li...
Types of Buffers <ul><li>Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Fairness...
Elements of Indirect Approach <ul><li>Introductory greeting </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer </li></ul><ul><li>Proof that you have...
Organization <ul><li>Main ideas should be clear </li></ul><ul><li>Logic straightforward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(true of mos...
Four types of messages <ul><li>Informative </li></ul><ul><li>Requests for action </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiries </li></ul><ul...
Informative messages <ul><li>Progress updates </li></ul><ul><li>Convey results </li></ul><ul><li>Get the basics in the fir...
Requests for action <ul><li>These ask someone to do something </li></ul><ul><li>This is what I need. </li></ul><ul><li>Thi...
Inquiries <ul><li>Ask about something </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W...
Appreciation <ul><li>Create goodwill </li></ul><ul><li>Show sensitivity to other’s actions or accomplishments </li></ul><u...
Memo design <ul><li>Headings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DATE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TO: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FROM: <...
Proposal Memo <ul><li>What type of memo? </li></ul><ul><li>Review Proposal Content Requirements and </li></ul><ul><li>Rubr...
Source <ul><li>Woolever, Kristin R.  Writing for the Technical Professions.  3 rd  ed. New York: Pearson, 2005. </li></ul>
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Memos, Letters and Email Correspondence

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Memos, Letters and Email Correspondence

  1. 1. Memos, Letters, and Email Correspondence
  2. 2. Planning and Researching <ul><li>What do you want to convey? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the rhetorical situation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing techniques </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Purpose <ul><li>What do you want to have happen as a result of this letter? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you need? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Audience <ul><li>Target specific audience </li></ul><ul><li>Target needs of audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do people want from this document? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What biases or special concerns might they have? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Writing Techniques <ul><li>What you want? </li></ul><ul><li>What the reader wants? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Downplay elements that conflict with audience's biases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize information that conforms to their wishes </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Memos vs. Letters <ul><li>Memoranda (plural) </li></ul><ul><li>Memorandum (singular) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for internal communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Already established contact; part of ongoing conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Letters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for external communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More formal; initiate correspondence </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Analyzing Audience <ul><li>Direct approach </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect approach </li></ul>
  8. 8. Direct Approach <ul><li>More efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Frontload information </li></ul><ul><li>Audience is friendly or neutral to message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin right upfront with main point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves reader time </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Elements of Direct Approach <ul><li>Introductory greeting (not in memos) </li></ul><ul><li>Main point of the letter or memo </li></ul><ul><li>Details </li></ul><ul><li>Action step </li></ul><ul><li>Closing </li></ul>
  10. 10. Indirect Approach <ul><li>Audience likely to resist your point </li></ul><ul><li>When relaying bad or unexpected news </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with “buffer” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start by showing you understand audience point of view and share its concerns </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Buffers <ul><li>Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Fairness </li></ul><ul><li>Good news </li></ul><ul><li>Praise </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul>
  12. 12. Elements of Indirect Approach <ul><li>Introductory greeting </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer </li></ul><ul><li>Proof that you have lookeda t all sides </li></ul><ul><li>Your opinion presented in reasonable manner </li></ul><ul><li>Action step </li></ul><ul><li>Closing </li></ul>
  13. 13. Organization <ul><li>Main ideas should be clear </li></ul><ul><li>Logic straightforward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(true of most Western audiences) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Four types of messages <ul><li>Informative </li></ul><ul><li>Requests for action </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiries </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciation messages </li></ul>
  15. 15. Informative messages <ul><li>Progress updates </li></ul><ul><li>Convey results </li></ul><ul><li>Get the basics in the first paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>General strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State major conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate rest of memo gives reasons for results </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Requests for action <ul><li>These ask someone to do something </li></ul><ul><li>This is what I need. </li></ul><ul><li>This is why I need it. </li></ul><ul><li>This is when I need it. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Inquiries <ul><li>Ask about something </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Appreciation <ul><li>Create goodwill </li></ul><ul><li>Show sensitivity to other’s actions or accomplishments </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness is critical </li></ul>
  19. 19. Memo design <ul><li>Headings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DATE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TO: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FROM: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUBJECT: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signature </li></ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul>
  20. 20. Proposal Memo <ul><li>What type of memo? </li></ul><ul><li>Review Proposal Content Requirements and </li></ul><ul><li>Rubric for Evaluation </li></ul>
  21. 21. Source <ul><li>Woolever, Kristin R. Writing for the Technical Professions. 3 rd ed. New York: Pearson, 2005. </li></ul>

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