“Problem",• The word "problem" is connected with theword "solution". A problem is somethingnegative that needs to be solved. Some badthings that happen cant be called "problems"because theyre unsolvable.• . A problem is something that has a clearanswer
"Issue"• "Issue" is associated withdifficult decisions and disagreements. A issueis something that causes debate and dividespeople.
Problems and Issues• They are similar because both problems andissues cause debate, concern, and conflict.• Problems typically can be solved by asking,how can something be solved.• If the problem cannot be answered easilyand people are divided over the problemthen it becomes an issue.
Curriculum development• Problems of planning an effective andintegrated curriculum are not simple.• A good curriculum involves out of harddedicated and intelligent work conducted oncontinuous bases.
Curriculum development• A curriculum development is continuous work. It musthave philosophical psychological, social and economicbasis.• The curriculum planners have to investigate carefullyand thoroughly the nature and qualification of thosefor which curriculum is to be planned.• Fundamental principle of curriculum planning is“student must either be selected to fit the plannedcurriculum or curriculum must be planned to fit thelevel of the students enrolled”(Kelly jr.,1971p.115)
Curriculum development• Developing or revising a curriculum one isfaced a number of problems and issues. Thecurriculum is planned set of activities.• The process of curriculum is a web of moraland intellectual purposes and beliefs whichultimately define the political economic andsocial arrangements of any society..
Curriculum development• If the society is relatively stable, the plannercan answer of many crucial questionsunderlying the curriculum• Its simple to shape the personality andcharacter of an individual.• “Straight hair and wan face that hadseemingly never known cosmetics”.
Curriculum development• In highly dynamic societies curriculumproblems are more complex.• Decisions about aims, goals objectives,selection of major areas of curriculum.• Choosing learning experiences and evaluationprocedures are reached after input of variousgroups.
Curriculum development• The people concerned in curriculum planninggathering without conflicting points onfoundations. They may be able to work faster.• If personals involved have no agreement onthese. This would create confusions.• Societal and ideological problems facingcurriculum have broadened the cultural andphilosophical dilemma.• These may have indirect but powerful relevancewith curriculum.
Societal and ideological problemsfaced in curriculum development• Authority• Poverty• In-equality• Indoctrination• Ill health• Suppression of inquiry and expression• Regionalism• Provincialism• Nationalism
Societal and ideological problemsfaced in curriculum development• Dissolution of family• Ecological imbalance• Prejudices• Alienation• Threat• Fear• Control• Coercion• War and greed
Institutional and Instructionalproblems• Apathy• Discipline• Individual differences• Science and high technology• Basic standards• Jobs• Instructional packages• Teacher effectiveness• Life skills• Drug abuse Education
Societal problems• Death Education• Family life• Sex Education• Consumers Education• Accountability• Global Education• Mind and body study• Feminist studies(Schubert 1986. pp 344,345-62)
Issues to Considerglobalization is a constant• In a world of ever-increasing complexity, what are ourobligations to teach “how the world works”?• How does faculty adapt or change educationalparadigms.• To be more responsive to an increasinglyinterconnected world and far-reaching economic,social, political and technological changes resultingfrom globalization?
Issues to Consider• Looking at demographic trends, how can youmeet educational needs, demands &expectations of its stakeholders?• Educational challenges: anticipating theknowledge, skills, critical thinking abilities &wisdom needed for the globalized future
Factor Effecting CurriculumDevelopment in Pakistan1. Lack of Sequence2. Economic Problems3. Political Interference4. Inadequate Evaluation5. Disapproval of society6. Curriculum more Urbanized7. Lack of Teaching Material8. Lack of In-services TrainingTeacher Reluctant to Accept Change9. Lack of commitment of National Philosophy
Lack of Sequence• There is a little coordination among thecommittees working for curriculum developmentat various stages.• When a student completes his studies at aparticular stage enters the next stage, he findshimself helpless.• The concepts being taught at this stage are quitestrange. It needed that learning experiencesselected and organized for every stage shouldfollow the pervious one and should be sequentialin form.
Economic Problems• Change in curriculum, needs financial support.• New teaching materials are required.• Teachers are needed to be provided with in-services training and equipped with newteaching materials textbooks are to be revisedto fulfill the changing needs of the society.• Supportive personal are required to assist theteachers for effective implementation of newcurriculum designs.
Political Interference• It would be tempting, to argue that educationshould be taken out of politics. An educationalwill expect political parties to clarify theirgeneral educational aims and policies, whichconcern broad social issues.• Every person coming into power brings withhim his vested interests and few educationalplans for the nation, in such atmosphereeducationist is likely to suffer from frustration
Inadequate Evaluation• If evaluation is to be of any education worth, itcannot be regarded, as it is in Pakistani schools,evaluation must become an integral part of thetotal learning process and not an appendage to it.• The general practice in Pakistanis that curriculumreshaped but the evaluation system helps theteacher to concentrate on teaching the student,the examination tricks rather that on bringing adesirable change in student’s behavior.
Disapproval of society• The school curriculum according to Lawton isessentially a selection from the culture of society.• Certain aspect of our ways of life, certain kinds of“knowledge”, certain values and attitude areregarded as so important that their transmissionto the next generation is very necessary.• Pakistan inherited its curriculum patterns fromthe colonial rulers. The same pattern is beingsocial need it is often disapproved by the society.The school to public members of the societyshould have much to say about the curriculum.
Curriculum more Urbanized• Uniformity has always been misinterpreted inPakistan.• About seventy percent of the total population issettled in rural areas. But the same coursed arebeing offered in rural and urban schools, whenurban children come with a certain backgroundof language, particularly Urdu with either subjectsuch as social studies, general science etc.• The need is to design a separate curriculum forrural areas.
Lack of Teaching Material• Many of the educational programmers are faindue to lack of teaching materials. Thesemester system was introduced in theinstitution of higher education.• It faced many problems due to lack oftextbooks and other teaching material.Though teacher too, takes a little interest butmajor factor for its failure is shortage ofinstructional materials.
Lack of In-services Training• When new curriculum was design are broughtinto practice the teacher are not properlyintroduced to new learning actives and teachingstrategies.• If teacher are to be mobilized in support ofcurriculum change, both initial and in-serviceteacher education must convince them for theircrucial role in promoting innovation.• It provide a place where teacher could findsolutions to practice they have encountered inthe classroom.
Teacher Reluctant to Accept Change• It is universal phenomena that teacher areconsidered to be conservative.• They have reasons for beings unwilling to changetheir approaches, not least because they have aninvestment in knowledge and skills, which lend tobe devalued by the passage of time.• They face the natural human temptation to resistany change which may render their stock in tradeobstacle. Secondary always opposed newcurriculum as they are supposed to pay moreattention to new concepts and ideas
Lack of commitment of NationalPhilosophy• When Pakistan came into being it was stressed that oureducational system will be reshaped according to theteaching of Islam.• Islamic way of life will be the focus of our political,social and economic thinking. But soon after the deathof Quaid-e-Azam, this motto was set aside.• A workable educational policy is always based on aphilosophy. Every nation has a philosophical way of life.Due to lack of philosophy we are unable to deriveconsistent educational objectives.