Introduction to Organization Behavior


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A glimpse of the basic fundamentals of organization behavior for Hospital Management Students of BK School of Business Management (taken on 24th Sep 2011)

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  • Organizational behavior can be examined at 3 levels: organizational, group, and individual. OB is particularly important to managers.
  • Introduction to Organization Behavior

    1. 1. Introduction to Organization Behavior
    2. 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Describe what managers do. </li></ul><ul><li>Define organizational behavior (OB). </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the value of the systematic study of OB. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the contributions made by major behavioral science disciplines to OB. </li></ul><ul><li>List the major challenges and opportunities for managers to use OB concepts. </li></ul>L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S
    3. 3. What Managers Do <ul><li>Managerial Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate resources </li></ul><ul><li>Direct activities of others to attain goals </li></ul>Managers (or administrators ) Individuals who achieve goals through other people.
    4. 4. Where Managers Work Organization A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
    5. 5. Management Functions Management Functions Planning Organizing Leading Controlling
    6. 6. Management Functions (cont’d) Planning A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.
    7. 7. Management Functions (cont’d) Organizing Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
    8. 8. Management Functions (cont’d) Leading A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.
    9. 9. Management Functions (cont’d) Controlling Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.
    10. 10. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles E X H I B I T 1 –1 Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973 by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.
    11. 11. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1 –1 (cont’d) Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973 by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.
    12. 12. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1 –1 (cont’d) Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973 by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.
    13. 13. Allocation of Activities by Time
    14. 14. <ul><li>Hence successful managers deal mostly with people-issues in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of an organization thus become the most important focus in managerial role </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Competitive advantage of an organization today is represented by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resource of an organization and how they are managed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely recognized as- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human capital, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social capital and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positive psychological capital . </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured patterns of interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinated tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work toward some purpose </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Formal Organization - the official, legitimate, and most visible part of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Organization - the unofficial and less visible part of the system </li></ul>Hawthorne Studies: studies conducted during the 1920’s and 1930’s that discovered the existence of the informal organization
    18. 18. The Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>A series of studies undertaken by Elton Mayo at Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works in Chicago between 1924 and 1932. </li></ul><ul><li>Research Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worker behavior and sentiments were closely related. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group influences (norms) were significant in affecting individual behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group standards (norms) were highly effective in establishing individual worker output. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and security. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>The study of individual behavior and group dynamics in organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Understand </li></ul><ul><li>Predict </li></ul><ul><li>Manage </li></ul>
    20. 20. Defining Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior (OB) A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
    21. 21. Group Level Individual Level Organizational Level
    22. 23. Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study Systematic study Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence. Provides a means to predict behaviors. Intuition “ Gut” feelings about “why I do what I do” and “what makes others tick”.
    23. 24. Contributing fields to OB field
    24. 26. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field E X H I B I T 1 –3 (cont’d) Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.
    25. 27. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1 –3 (cont’d) Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
    26. 28. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1 –3 (cont’d) Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.
    27. 29. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1 –3 (cont’d) Anthropology The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
    28. 30. There Are Few Absolutes in OB x y Contingency variables: &quot;It Depends!!!&quot; Situational factors that make the main relationship between two variables change---e.g., the relationship may hold for one condition but not another. Country 1 x y Country 2 May be related to May NOT be related to In In
    29. 31. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Responding to Globalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased foreign assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working with people from different cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coping with anti-capitalism backlash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing people during the war on terror. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managing Workforce Diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embracing diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing U.S. demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implications for managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing and responding to differences </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 32. Major Workforce Diversity Categories Domestic Partners Race Non-Christian National Origin Age Disability E X H I B I T 1 –4 Gender
    31. 33. Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d) <ul><li>Improving Quality and Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality management (QM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process reengineering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responding to the Labor Shortage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing work force demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer skilled laborers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early retirements and older workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improving Customer Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased expectation of service quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer-responsive cultures </li></ul></ul>
    32. 34. Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d) <ul><li>Improving People Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering People </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulating Innovation and Change </li></ul><ul><li>Coping with “Temporariness” </li></ul><ul><li>Working in Networked Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Ethical Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Managing People during the War on Terrorism </li></ul>
    33. 35. A Downside to Empowerment?
    34. 36. Basic OB Model, Stage I E X H I B I T 1-6 Model An abstraction of reality. A simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon.
    35. 37. <ul><li>Human input to output for an organization can be affected due to several dependant variables in an organization.. </li></ul>
    36. 38. The Dependent Variables Dependent variable A response that is affected by an independent variable (what organizational behavior researchers try to understand). x y
    37. 39. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Productivity A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness Achievement of goals. Efficiency Meeting goals at a low cost.
    38. 40. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Absenteeism The failure to report to work. Turnover The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization.
    39. 41. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Deviant Workplace Behavior Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and thereby threatens the well-being of the organization and/or any of its members.
    40. 42. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
    41. 43. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Job satisfaction A general attitude (not a behavior) toward one’s job; a positive feeling of one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
    42. 44. The Independent Variables Independent Variables Can Be Independent variable The presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable; major determinants of a dependent variable. Individual-Level Variables Organization System-Level Variables Group-Level Variables
    43. 45. Basic OB Model, Stage II E X H I B I T 1- 7
    44. 47. Personality <ul><li>Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Shaped by biological and environmental factors. </li></ul>
    45. 48. Sigmund Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis
    46. 50. Emotions <ul><li>Emotion is the complex psychophysiological experience of an individual's state of mind as interacting with biochemical (internal) and environmental (external) influences. </li></ul>
    47. 52. EQ <ul><li>Emotional Quotient (EQ): Emotional Intelligence, or EI, describes an ability or capacity to perceive, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, and of others.  Our EQ, or Emotional Quotient, is how one measures Emotional Intelligence.  </li></ul>
    48. 53. Perception <ul><li>Perception is the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, perception in humans describes the process whereby sensory stimulation is translated into organized experience . </li></ul>
    49. 54. Motivation <ul><li>Motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Show video. </li></ul>
    50. 55. Transactional Analysis
    51. 63. The final human output…
    52. 64. Thank you <ul><li> </li></ul>