eLearningand Communities of Practice         Dr. Johanna Völker  johanna@informatik.uni-mannheim.de              FSS 2011
Schedule 14.02.    Knowledge Management I      04.04      Information Extraction II 21.02.    Knowledge Management II     ...
Overview  1    Learning Organization  2    eLearning  3    Web 2.0 for eLearning  4    Communities of Practicehttp://ki.in...
Gilbert Probst et al. 1997                  Identify             Apply         Create                                     ...
Learning Organization                                 [Peter Senge]  "Where people continually expand their capacity to cr...
Knowledge Transformation   Knowledge is both input and output of organizational learning       Learning                   ...
Barriers for Organizational  Learning  • Effective learning can require the removal of traditional    hierarchical structu...
Benefits of Organizational Learning  • Improve corporate culture (internal) and reputation    of the organization (externa...
Overview  1    Learning Organization  2    eLearning  3    Web 2.0 for eLearning  4    Communities of Practicehttp://ki.in...
"Pedagogy empowered by digital  2 eLearning                                            technology"  • Electronically suppo...
http://www.ilias.de                   How does ILIAS support learning                          and teaching?http://ki.info...
eLearning and Traditional Classrooms                        Traditional Classroom   eLearning Classroom              Physi...
Educational Schools of Thought  • Behaviorism     – Learning through association and reinforcement     – Theories include,...
[Laurillard 1993]  Conversational Framework            Tutor                  Tutor-                                      ...
Learning in Higher Education              [Barnett 1990]                                         Deep understanding       ...
http://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de16
Serious Gameshttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de17
Welsh et al., E-Learning: Emerging Uses and Future Directions, 2003  Possible Drawbacks of eLearning  • Requires significa...
Welsh et al., E-Learning: Emerging Uses and Future Directions, 2003  Advantages of eLearning  • Provide consistent, worldw...
Learning Management Systems              mLearning                                                       Learning on Deman...
Tools and Technologies     Asynchronous                      Synchronous                                                  ...
Overview  1    Learning Organization  2    eLearning  3    Web 2.0 for eLearning  4    Communities of Practicehttp://ki.in...
eLearning + Web 2.0 = eLearning 2.0  "The term Web 2.0 is associated  with web applications that  facilitate participatory...
Web 2.0 for eLearning   eLearning 2.0: usage of social software for ...   Searching and connecting people        facebook,...
Christian Safran, Christian Gütl and Denis Helic, The impact of Web 2.0 on Learning at a Technical University – A usage su...
•   Course-related announcements                                        •   Online discussions                            ...
•   Course-related news and events                     Wikis•   Personal homepages of learners and teachers•   Discussions...
Podcasts• Audio recordings of lectures: download or streamed webcast• Learning materials available through web syndication...
Videoshttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de29
•   Course-related news and events•   Comments and discussions•   Publishing images, videos and links                     ...
Virtual Worlds • Virtual classrooms • Synchronous interaction between learners and   teachers: questions and discussions •...
Overview  1    Learning Organization  2    eLearning  3    Web 2.0 for eLearning  4    Communities of Practicehttp://ki.in...
4 Communities of Practice  "Communities of practice are groups of people who share a passion for  something that they know...
Digital Habits: Stewarding technology for communitiesWenger, White and Smith 2009                                         ...
[Lehner, p. 217] Purpose              Members          Collaboration       Duration Community of       knowledge          ...
African Community of                                       Practice on Managing                                           ...
Military Families                                       Learning Network       Community of       Practice: Yoga,   Medita...
Social Constructivism                                         100 %   acquired knowledge in % of contents                 ...
Potential Problems  • Ineffective distribution of highly specialized    and theoretical knowledge  • Strong intrinisic mot...
Competitive Advantages for Companies                                with associated Communities of Practice  • Identificat...
Summary  • Learning organization / organizational learning  • eLearning       – Learning and teaching supported by compute...
Literature Franz Lehner, Wissensmanagement. Grundlagen, Methoden und technische Unterstützung, Hanser Fachbuch, 3rd editio...
Literature   Kathryn Kane, Janine Robinson-Combre and Zane L. Berge, Tapping into   Social Networking: Collaborating enhan...
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E learning-e-comunidades-de-prática

  1. 1. eLearningand Communities of Practice Dr. Johanna Völker johanna@informatik.uni-mannheim.de FSS 2011
  2. 2. Schedule 14.02. Knowledge Management I 04.04 Information Extraction II 21.02. Knowledge Management II 11.04. Knowledge Repositories Part I Search and Discovery Part III Socialization and Collaboration 28.02. Information Retrieval I 02.05. Web 2.0 and Enterprise 2.0 07.03. Information Retrieval II 09.05. Social Network Analysis 14.03. Data Mining I Part IV Creativity and Problem Solving 21.03. Data Mining II 16.05. eLearning and Communities Part II Knowledge Repositories 23.05. Crowdsourcing 28.03. Information Extraction I 30.05. ... 10.06. Final Examhttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de2
  3. 3. Overview 1 Learning Organization 2 eLearning 3 Web 2.0 for eLearning 4 Communities of Practicehttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de3
  4. 4. Gilbert Probst et al. 1997 Identify Apply Create Store Sharehttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de4
  5. 5. Learning Organization [Peter Senge] "Where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to learn together." [Senge 1990] • Characteristics of a learning organization [Senge 1994]: personal mastery, mental models, shared visions, team learning, system thinking • Development of organizational memory and support for individual learning Technology Processes • "Organizational memory is the means by People which knowledge is stored for future use." [Huber 1991]http://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de5
  6. 6. Knowledge Transformation Knowledge is both input and output of organizational learning Learning Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge Socialization Externalization Tacit Sympathized Knowledge Knowledge Conceptual Knowledge Internalization Combination Explicit Knowledge Operational Systematic Knowledge Knowledge * Adapted from Nonaka and Konno (1998)http://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de6
  7. 7. Barriers for Organizational Learning • Effective learning can require the removal of traditional hierarchical structures • Investment into people and technologies • Corporate culture: lack of team spirit and openness, reluctance wrt. new technologies • Individual mastery and knowledge considered a threat to the organization • Positive effects of learning difficult to measure, especially on the individual levelhttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de7
  8. 8. Benefits of Organizational Learning • Improve corporate culture (internal) and reputation of the organization (external) by focusing on people • Increase innovation speed and competitiveness • Improve quality of products and services, increase customer satisfaction • Shorten time for reaction to external events, e.g., market changes or political decisions • Build up organizational knowledge base and preserve knowledge for future usehttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de8
  9. 9. Overview 1 Learning Organization 2 eLearning 3 Web 2.0 for eLearning 4 Communities of Practicehttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de9
  10. 10. "Pedagogy empowered by digital 2 eLearning technology" • Electronically supported learning and teaching, i.e. planned efforts to improve job-related knowledge and skills by using computers • Tools and technologies for ... – Course creation, management and administration – Learning, practice, application – Assessment of student performancehttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de10
  11. 11. http://www.ilias.de How does ILIAS support learning and teaching?http://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de11
  12. 12. eLearning and Traditional Classrooms Traditional Classroom eLearning Classroom Physical, time and Unlimited, anywhere, anytime location dependent Content Textbooks Text and multimedia (syndication) Multimedia Printed and online resources Projector slides Contributions by learners Learning process One learning path Personalization (pace and path determined by learner) Distinguished roles Collaboration and interaction Social contexthttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de12
  13. 13. Educational Schools of Thought • Behaviorism – Learning through association and reinforcement – Theories include, e.g., classical conditioning • Constructivism – Individuals build mental structures based on prior knowledge and personal experiences – Self-directed, active learning • Cognitivism – Focus on mental processes and how information is processed by learners – Short-term and long-term memory, problem solving etc.http://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de13
  14. 14. [Laurillard 1993] Conversational Framework Tutor Tutor- Tutor adapts describes student concepts concepts dialogue Student Dialogue on Tutor sets completes action task task Student "Pedagogy empowered by reflection digital technology"http://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de14
  15. 15. Learning in Higher Education [Barnett 1990] Deep understanding Radical critique Critique in company of others Experience Independent inquiry Students self reflection Testing Theory in Practice Reflection Experiential Learning Theory Building [Kolb 1984]http://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de15
  16. 16. http://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de16
  17. 17. Serious Gameshttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de17
  18. 18. Welsh et al., E-Learning: Emerging Uses and Future Directions, 2003 Possible Drawbacks of eLearning • Requires significant investment into technologies and IT experts for building eLearning infrastructure • Less personal interaction among learners or between learners and teachers • Sometimes, training becomes mere information provision, interactive guidance and feedback is neglected (pedagogy is important!) • Learners and teachers need to be familiar with eLearning technologies to use them effectivelyhttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de18
  19. 19. Welsh et al., E-Learning: Emerging Uses and Future Directions, 2003 Advantages of eLearning • Provide consistent, worldwide training • Lower expenses for training • Reduce delivery cycle time, i.e. more people can be trained in less time • Reduced information overload: management of information that learners have to consume • Increased learner convenience by asynchronous just-in-time training • Easier tracking of learner activities and masteryhttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de19
  20. 20. Learning Management Systems mLearning Learning on Demand Virtual Learning Environment Virtual Classroom Communities of Practice Mobile-Assisted Language Learning Blended Learning Computer-based Training Serious Games Web-based Training Immersive Learninghttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de20
  21. 21. Tools and Technologies Asynchronous Synchronous Assessment Learning Learning • Forums • Chat • Quiz • Blogging • Web • ePortfolio • Microblogging Conferencing • Assignment • Bookmarking • Virtual worlds • Simulation • Podcasts • Multiplayer • Wikis gameshttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de21
  22. 22. Overview 1 Learning Organization 2 eLearning 3 Web 2.0 for eLearning 4 Communities of Practicehttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de22
  23. 23. eLearning + Web 2.0 = eLearning 2.0 "The term Web 2.0 is associated with web applications that facilitate participatory information sharing, interoperability, user- centered design, and collaboration on the World Wide Web." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0http://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de23
  24. 24. Web 2.0 for eLearning eLearning 2.0: usage of social software for ... Searching and connecting people facebook, communities of practice Publishing and sharing knowledge blogs and RSS feeds, podcasts, folksonomies Collaboration and communication Twitter, Skype, wikis • Open learning environments • Active and self-organized learning • Collaborative learning in communities and networks • No strict separation between teachers and students • Syndication of eLearning contentshttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de24
  25. 25. Christian Safran, Christian Gütl and Denis Helic, The impact of Web 2.0 on Learning at a Technical University – A usage survey, Proceedings of ELEARN, 2007 Blogs: learning 23%, lectures 30% Wikis: learning 60%, lectures 84% Audio/Video Podcasts: learning 10%, lectures 13%http://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de25
  26. 26. • Course-related announcements • Online discussions • Questions by learners • Reminders about tests or project due dates Blogs Microblogging• Publish related world news• Publish materials and resources• Coordination of group projects• Reflect teaching / learning experienceshttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de26
  27. 27. • Course-related news and events Wikis• Personal homepages of learners and teachers• Discussions and versioning• Interlinked learning materials (text and images)• Links to relevant online resourceshttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de27
  28. 28. Podcasts• Audio recordings of lectures: download or streamed webcast• Learning materials available through web syndication• Access on computers or mobile deviceshttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de28
  29. 29. Videoshttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de29
  30. 30. • Course-related news and events• Comments and discussions• Publishing images, videos and links Social• Manage social relationships among learners and teachers Networkshttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de30
  31. 31. Virtual Worlds • Virtual classrooms • Synchronous interaction between learners and teachers: questions and discussions • Seemless integration of multimedia contentshttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de31
  32. 32. Overview 1 Learning Organization 2 eLearning 3 Web 2.0 for eLearning 4 Communities of Practicehttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de32
  33. 33. 4 Communities of Practice "Communities of practice are groups of people who share a passion for something that they know how to do, and who interact regularly in order to learn how to do it better." [Etienne Wenger 2004] • People spontaneously come together under common theme, they share a domain of interest about which they communicate • Practice developed by shared experiences, stories, tools, methodologies and solutions to practical problemshttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de33
  34. 34. Digital Habits: Stewarding technology for communitiesWenger, White and Smith 2009 open- meetings ended projects conver- sation content access publish- Community to ing activities expertise oriented to ... individualCommunity participat- relation- ships ionOrientation communitySpidergram cultivation contexthttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de34
  35. 35. [Lehner, p. 217] Purpose Members Collaboration Duration Community of knowledge self-organization commitment as long as Practice development of members and members and sharing identification share common with community interest Formal working perform a task nominated by task description, until next group or develop a management organizational reorganization product goals Project team complete a nominated by milestones and until the end project project leader project goals of the project Social network advice friends and general as long as regarding business reciprocal needs membership is concrete partners beneficial problemshttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de35
  36. 36. African Community of Practice on Managing for Development ResultsFarming for Healthhttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de36
  37. 37. Military Families Learning Network Community of Practice: Yoga, Meditation, Tai Chi: Gig Harborhttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de37
  38. 38. Social Constructivism 100 % acquired knowledge in % of contents solving real-world problems 80 % Teach others social interaction 75% Practical exercises learning by ... 50 % Discussions 20 % Media Use 5% Listeninghttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de38
  39. 39. Potential Problems • Ineffective distribution of highly specialized and theoretical knowledge • Strong intrinisic motivation required by individuals • Weaker social commitments and potential lack of trust in merely virtual communities • Varying degree of participation and membership counts, distinguished roles required to sustain CoP • CoP crossing the boundaries of companies can raise legal issues, e.g., concerning intellectual propertyhttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de39
  40. 40. Competitive Advantages for Companies with associated Communities of Practice • Identification of knowledge gaps and resources • Extension of organisational and individual knowledge bases, collective intelligence • Work effectiveness of employees who gain experience in giving instructions and working in teams • Faster integration of new employees • Shorter response time and problem solving lead to increased customer satisfaction • Innovation of new products and serviceshttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de40
  41. 41. Summary • Learning organization / organizational learning • eLearning – Learning and teaching supported by computers – Pedagogy and teaching / learning strategies • eLearning 2.0 – eLearning based on Web 2.0 technologies – Communities of Practice Next: Crowdsourcinghttp://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de41
  42. 42. Literature Franz Lehner, Wissensmanagement. Grundlagen, Methoden und technische Unterstützung, Hanser Fachbuch, 3rd edition, 2009 Etienne Wenger, Knowledge Management as a doughnut: Shaping your knowledge strategy through communities of practice, Ivey Business Journal, 2004 David A. Garvin, Amy C. Edmondson and Francesca Gino, Is Yours a Learning Organization? Harvard Business Review, 2008http://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de42
  43. 43. Literature Kathryn Kane, Janine Robinson-Combre and Zane L. Berge, Tapping into Social Networking: Collaborating enhances both knowledge management and e-learning, Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, 2009 George Sammour et al., The role of knowledge management and e-learning in professional development, International Journal of Knowledge and Learning, Vol. 4, No. 5, 2008 Mohamed Amine Chatti, Matthias Jarke and D. Frosch-Wilke, The future of e-learning: a shift to knowledge networking and social software, International Journal of Knowledge and Learning, Vol. 3, No. 4-5, 2007http://ki.informatik.uni-mannheim.de43

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