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1.general science

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Presentation by Suzanne B.

Presentation by Suzanne B.

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  • 1. I. LIFEA. What are we studying 1. Biology “Bio” = Life “ology” = Description 2. How to studyB. Define
  • 2. C. CHARACTERISTICSC1. Complex, Organized levels of hierarchyC2. Metabolism Acquire and use energy
  • 3. C3. HomeostasisMaintain - complex structure and internal environmentC4. Growth & DevelopmentBecome larger and more complex.
  • 4. C5. Respond to stimuliInteracts with the environment.C6. ReproduceMake individuals similar to themselves.C7. EvolveChange over time (from generation to generation)
  • 5. C8. DNA – Deoxyribonucleic AcidTHE HEREDITARY MATERIAL THAT CONTROLS EVERYTHING.Stores information that acts as a blueprintD. HOW STUDY
  • 6. E. How to classify life1. What is used Cell type Cell number Mode of nutrition
  • 7. 2. Classification – 3 domains & 4 kingdomsa. DomainsBACTERIA ARCHAEA EUKARYAProkaryote prokaryote eukaryote cell
  • 8. b. Kingdoms of Eukarya Eukaryotic cell PROTISTA – single or colony FUNGI – multicellular, consume others, cell wall PLANTAE – multicellular, make food, cell wall ANIMALIA – multicellular, consume others
  • 9. II. SCIENCEA. DefinitionA systematized, mechanistic,causalistic discipline wheregeneralizations to unknowns aredetermined through observationand experimentation
  • 10. B. Characteristics of scienceB1. CONTROL OF THE UNIVERSEVitalism MechanismA vital force (outside the The universe follows thephysical realm controls laws of chemistry andthe universe). physics (uniform in space and time).
  • 11. B2. PURPOSE OF THE UNIVERSETeleology CausalismThe universe and There is no purpose toevents are pre-planned. the universe everything is understood by cause and effect. (Cause) (Effect) X happens Y happens
  • 12. B3. LOGICDeductive InductiveGeneralization Specifics Specifics Generalization CAN’T PROVE TRUE
  • 13. III. TWO SCIENTIFIC APPROACHESA. Discovery Science1. Make verifiable observations and measurements to describe life2. Completely based on inductive reasoning.
  • 14. B. Hypothesis-Driven Science1. Use scientific method to ask questions2. Do experiments3. Use deductive logic to test hypothesis.
  • 15. C. SCIENTIFIC METHODObservationQuestionHypothesisPredictionExperiment and ConrolEvluate resultsPublishTheory
  • 16. METHOD OBSERVATIONDefinition Use sensesExample: Bacteria does not grow1920’s Fleming around fungus.
  • 17. METHOD QUESTIONDefinition What is the cause?Example: How is the fungus killing the bacteria?
  • 18. METHOD HYPOTHESISDefinition Testable statement with one variable that proposes an explanation for observationsExample: The fungus produces a chemical that kills the bacteria.
  • 19. METHOD PREDICTIONDefinition What you think will happen.Example: If I isolate material produced I will find a chemical.
  • 20. METHODEXPERIMENT CONTROLTest the hypothesis Same as experiment butwith only one variable without the variableHeat broth/fungus Heat broth/ no fungusFilter FilterPour on bacteria Pour on bacteriaBACTERIA DIE BACTERIA LIVE
  • 21. METHOD EVALUATEDefinition What you think result means.Example: A chemical produced by the fungus kills the bacteria.
  • 22. METHOD PUBLISHDefinition Communicate with scientific community.Example: Peer review.
  • 23. METHOD THEORYDefinition A general explanation of natural phenomena. A theory has been tested and upheld many times.THIS IS NOT A SIMPLE IDEA BUT AFUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE.
  • 24. IV. LEVELS OF COMPLEXITYChemicalatoms, compoundsCellularorganelles, cellsTissuecells & cell products that work together
  • 25. OrganTissues that work together and have agenetic shape.SystemGroup of organs that work together for afunction.OrganismIndividual
  • 26. PopulationLocal group of individuals that arereproductively isolatedCommunityGroup of populations that live close enoughto interactEcosystemGroup of communities and related abiotic
  • 27. V. MODERN SCIENTISTSA. Linnaeus – classification & taxonomyB. Schleiden & Schwann – Cell TheoryC. Charles Darwin – Theory of EvolutionD. Gregor Mendel - Genetics