• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Premise and fallacy2

Premise and fallacy2



Items that affect propaganda and how we see it

Items that affect propaganda and how we see it



Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



2 Embeds 82

http://dugger.tn.ecj.schoolinsites.com 81
http://tad.ecschools.net 1



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Premise and fallacy2 Premise and fallacy2 Presentation Transcript

    • Premise, Fallacy, Bias, and Stereotyping Techniques used within propaganda to help influence your decisions
    • What is premise?
      • A statement that is ASSUMED to be true
      • Most premises are accepted as true without having to have proof
      • Premise statements are taken for granted to be true beforehand (the seller tells you something in advance that you either cannot or do not check
    • What can go wrong with having a premise that is ASSUMED?
      • This leads to what is known as a fallacy
    • What is a fallacy?
      • A fallacy is a misconception based on one or more faulty premise
      • These types of arguments can take advantage of a person's emotions, make people give in more to an authority figure, and can be hard to recognize
    • Types of Fallacies
      • Fallacies of Distraction
      • Fallacies of Motive
      • Fallacies of Changing the subject
      • Fallacies of Ambiguity
      • Fallacies that miss the point
    • Fallacies of Distraction
      • False Dilemma (compare to oversimplification)
        • Only two options are given when others are available
          • Presidential campaigns
          • You're either for me or against me
          • Every person is either good or evil
      • Argument from Ignorance
        • Because you cannot prove something is false, it must be true
          • Since you cannot prove ghosts do not exist, they must
          • Fred said he is smarter than Jill, but did not prove it, so it must be false
    • Fallacies of Distraction
      • Slippery slope
        • A series of more and more undesirable events takes place
          • You should not gamble. Once you start gambling, yo will find it hard to stop and lose all your money, your home, and your family.
      • Complex Question
        • two unrelated points are joined together
          • Do you support freedom and the right to bear arms?
    • Fallacies of Motive
      • Appeal to force
        • You are told that unpleasant consequences will occur
          • If you want to keep your grade in this class, you better make sure to fail Mr. Wright's class
      • Appeal to Pity
        • You are told of the pitiful state of the object
          • Commercials for poor, disadvantaged children
    • Fallacies of Motive
      • Prejudicial language
        • Uses loaded terms to make you favor the idea
          • Any reasonable person would agree that teacher pay is way too low
      • Appeal to Popularity
        • Because a statement is widely accepted is thought to be true
          • Everyone knows the Colts are going to win the Superbowl, so you might as well support them
    • Fallacies that change the subject
      • Attacking the person
        • Something about the person or their life is attacked
      • Appeal to authority
        • using an expert to back your opinion (can be dangerous because not all experts agree)
        • This can also be known as hearsay when the "expert" is not truly an expert
    • Fallacies that change the subject
      • Anonymous authority
        • does not mention the name of the expert or company that provided the information
          • My sources tell me that Mr. Smithdeal will give you an A if you sing in class.
          • Rumor has it that Mr. Little, our new principal, is really mean.
    • Fallacy of Ambiguity
      • Equivocation
        • The same word is used with two different meanings to confuse
          • There was a sign that said "Fine for parking", so I figured it was okay (fine = okay)
      • Dual sentence meaning
        • A sentence is written so that two meanings could be seen
          • Last night I shot a burglar in my pajamas.
    • Fallacy of Ambiguity
      • Accent
        • Emphasis is placed on a word to make it seem like a different meaning than what is intended
          • It would be illegal to give away FREE CIGARETTES to children.
          • You really look pretty TODAY.
    • Fallacies that miss the point
      • Straw man
        • A person will choose a weak concept to defend as opposed to defending one that is strong
          • If asked about the war in Iraq, a person demonstrating straw man fallacy would briefly discuss it but then try to refocus on something that is related to the war, but not closely
          • This creates an easy argument for the person to win
    • Fallacy that Misses the point
      • Untestabilty
        • A theory given to explain something cannot be tested
          • I won the lottery because of my psychic abilities (If this is true, you should be able to win again.)
    • Bias and Stereotyping
      • A stereotype is an exaggerated belief, image or distorted truth about a person or group — a generalization that allows for little or no individual differences or social variation. Stereotypes are based on images in mass media
      • A prejudice is an opinion, prejudgment or attitude about a group or its individual members.
      • Prejudices are often accompanied by ignorance, fear or hatred.
      • Discrimination is behavior that treats people unequally because of their group memberships.
      • Bias uses all the above to show favortism or partiality