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Premise and fallacy2
 

Premise and fallacy2

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Items that affect propaganda and how we see it

Items that affect propaganda and how we see it

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    Premise and fallacy2 Premise and fallacy2 Presentation Transcript

    • Premise, Fallacy, Bias, and Stereotyping Techniques used within propaganda to help influence your decisions
    • What is premise?
      • A statement that is ASSUMED to be true
      • Most premises are accepted as true without having to have proof
      • Premise statements are taken for granted to be true beforehand (the seller tells you something in advance that you either cannot or do not check
    • What can go wrong with having a premise that is ASSUMED?
      • This leads to what is known as a fallacy
    • What is a fallacy?
      • A fallacy is a misconception based on one or more faulty premise
      • These types of arguments can take advantage of a person's emotions, make people give in more to an authority figure, and can be hard to recognize
    • Types of Fallacies
      • Fallacies of Distraction
      • Fallacies of Motive
      • Fallacies of Changing the subject
      • Fallacies of Ambiguity
      • Fallacies that miss the point
    • Fallacies of Distraction
      • False Dilemma (compare to oversimplification)
        • Only two options are given when others are available
          • Presidential campaigns
          • You're either for me or against me
          • Every person is either good or evil
      • Argument from Ignorance
        • Because you cannot prove something is false, it must be true
          • Since you cannot prove ghosts do not exist, they must
          • Fred said he is smarter than Jill, but did not prove it, so it must be false
    • Fallacies of Distraction
      • Slippery slope
        • A series of more and more undesirable events takes place
          • You should not gamble. Once you start gambling, yo will find it hard to stop and lose all your money, your home, and your family.
      • Complex Question
        • two unrelated points are joined together
          • Do you support freedom and the right to bear arms?
    • Fallacies of Motive
      • Appeal to force
        • You are told that unpleasant consequences will occur
          • If you want to keep your grade in this class, you better make sure to fail Mr. Wright's class
      • Appeal to Pity
        • You are told of the pitiful state of the object
          • Commercials for poor, disadvantaged children
    • Fallacies of Motive
      • Prejudicial language
        • Uses loaded terms to make you favor the idea
          • Any reasonable person would agree that teacher pay is way too low
      • Appeal to Popularity
        • Because a statement is widely accepted is thought to be true
          • Everyone knows the Colts are going to win the Superbowl, so you might as well support them
    • Fallacies that change the subject
      • Attacking the person
        • Something about the person or their life is attacked
      • Appeal to authority
        • using an expert to back your opinion (can be dangerous because not all experts agree)
        • This can also be known as hearsay when the "expert" is not truly an expert
    • Fallacies that change the subject
      • Anonymous authority
        • does not mention the name of the expert or company that provided the information
          • My sources tell me that Mr. Smithdeal will give you an A if you sing in class.
          • Rumor has it that Mr. Little, our new principal, is really mean.
    • Fallacy of Ambiguity
      • Equivocation
        • The same word is used with two different meanings to confuse
          • There was a sign that said "Fine for parking", so I figured it was okay (fine = okay)
      • Dual sentence meaning
        • A sentence is written so that two meanings could be seen
          • Last night I shot a burglar in my pajamas.
    • Fallacy of Ambiguity
      • Accent
        • Emphasis is placed on a word to make it seem like a different meaning than what is intended
          • It would be illegal to give away FREE CIGARETTES to children.
          • You really look pretty TODAY.
    • Fallacies that miss the point
      • Straw man
        • A person will choose a weak concept to defend as opposed to defending one that is strong
          • If asked about the war in Iraq, a person demonstrating straw man fallacy would briefly discuss it but then try to refocus on something that is related to the war, but not closely
          • This creates an easy argument for the person to win
    • Fallacy that Misses the point
      • Untestabilty
        • A theory given to explain something cannot be tested
          • I won the lottery because of my psychic abilities (If this is true, you should be able to win again.)
    • Bias and Stereotyping
      • A stereotype is an exaggerated belief, image or distorted truth about a person or group — a generalization that allows for little or no individual differences or social variation. Stereotypes are based on images in mass media
      • A prejudice is an opinion, prejudgment or attitude about a group or its individual members.
      • Prejudices are often accompanied by ignorance, fear or hatred.
      • Discrimination is behavior that treats people unequally because of their group memberships.
      • Bias uses all the above to show favortism or partiality