Using and creating each<br />Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences<br />
Phrases<br />Phrases are a group of words that lacks a subject, predicate, or both.<br />Phrases can take many different forms:<br />Prepositional phrases<br />Verb phrases<br />Adjective phrases<br />Adverb phrases<br />Noun phrases<br />Verbial phrases<br />
Phrases<br />Prepositional Phrases<br />Begin with a preposition (a word that shows position, location, or direction) <br />Ends with an object of the preposition (noun or pronoun)<br />Can be used as adjectives (words that describe a noun or pronoun). Adjectives answer what kind, how many, which one<br />Can be used as Adverbs (words that describeverbs, adjectives, or other adverbs). Adverbs answer where, when, how, or to what extent<br />
Phrases<br />Verbial phrases<br />Verbs that act as other parts of speech<br />Types:<br />Gerund phrase = Verb ending in ING and is used as a noun. Example: Swimming is a fun exercise.<br />Participle phrase = Verb ending in ING or ED is used as an adjective. Example: 1. Rattlingin the cabinets, the dishes were about to crash to the floor. 2. Why didn’t the tired boy just stand still?<br />Infinitive phrase = Verb that starts with to and is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Example: I am afraid to swim.<br />
Clauses<br />A clause is group of related words that has both a subject and a predicate. They DO NOT have to form a complete thought.<br />Types:<br />Independent<br />Dependent<br />
Clauses<br />Independent Clauses:<br />Have a subject and a predicate and can stand alone as a sentence.<br />When standing alone, an independent clause is ALWAYS a simple sentence (ONE subject and ONE predicate only)<br />Example: This ancient oak tree may eventually be cut down.<br />
Clauses<br />Dependent Clause:<br />Have a subject and a predicate, but will NEVER express a complete thought.<br />These clauses can not be a sentence by itself.<br />A dependent clause depends on being connected to an independent clause to make sense.<br />These clauses are also known as SUBODINATING CLAUSES because of the words that start them (subordinating conjunctions: AFTER, ALTHOUGH, BECAUSE, BEFORE, IF, SINCE, WHEN, etc.)<br />The following words can also start a dependent clause: who, which, whose, that<br />
Sentences<br />A sentence has at least one subject, at least one predicate, and expresses a complete thought.<br />A sentence ALWAYS begins with a capital letter<br />A sentence ALWAYS ends with a period, question mark, or exclamation mark<br />
Sentences<br />Simple sentences:<br />A simple sentence is one independent clause.<br />Simple sentences may contain a simple or compound subject<br />Simple sentences may contain a simple or compound predicate.<br />John and his friend played basketball after school.<br />Icebergs form glaciers and float in the ocean.<br />
Sentences<br />Compound sentences:<br />Happen when two or more simple sentences (independent clauses) are combined with each other.<br />When making a compound sentence, you must use the words For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So<br />Use the acronym FANBOYS to help you remember.<br />The FANBOYS cannot begin a sentence (They are COMBINING words)<br />
Sentences<br />Complex sentences:<br />Combine a dependent clause and an independent clause together.<br />When making a complex sentence, you must use a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun.<br />See page 710 and page 744 for a complete list of these words<br />
Sentences<br />Complex sentences:<br />If a dependent clause comes first, a comma is used after the clause.<br />Example: When I left for home, my aunt stood teary-eyed in the doorway.<br />If a dependent clause comes last, no comma is needed.<br />Example: My uncle Louis died soon after I left for home.<br />
Sentences<br />The four types of sentences include:<br />Imperative = giving a command<br />Interrogative = asking a question<br />Declarative = making a statement<br />Exclamatory = showing emotion<br />Each sentence ends with a different type of punctuation.<br />The imperative sentence can have what is known as an understood “you”. This means the subject is not explicitly stated, but must be interpreted. <br />
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