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S11 eng10104 030711_runonfragment
S11 eng10104 030711_runonfragment
S11 eng10104 030711_runonfragment
S11 eng10104 030711_runonfragment
S11 eng10104 030711_runonfragment
S11 eng10104 030711_runonfragment
S11 eng10104 030711_runonfragment
S11 eng10104 030711_runonfragment
S11 eng10104 030711_runonfragment
S11 eng10104 030711_runonfragment
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S11 eng10104 030711_runonfragment

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  • Run these tests to determine if your sentence is complete: 1. Does the sentence have a verb? If not, you have a sentence fragment. Example-Today the school bus running late. Example Revised-Today the school bus is running late. 2. Does the sentence have a subject? If not, you have a sentence fragment. Example-Jumped into the ocean. (who did?) Example Revised- Bethany jumped into the ocean. 3. Does your subject and verb lack a connection to an independent clause? If so, you have a sentence fragment. Example-If I run there. Example Revised-If I run there, I will reach my goal for the week.
  • Dependent clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions (although, because, etc) or a relative pronoun (which, who, etc). Remember, if you have the relative pronoun ”which” starting a clause, you are dealing with a dependent clause most likely. Besides attaching a dependent clause to an independent clause to create a complex sentence, there other ways to revise dependent clauses: Remove the subordinate conjunction to make a complex sentence Hershin declared war. Because Disonia bombed their capital city. (second sentence is a dependent clause) Revise to... Hershin declared war. Disonia bombed their capital city. (remove subordinating conjunction to make two independent clauses)
  • Many times, fragments will be introduced by transitional expressions. To revise them, add the subject and verb (see example on slide). Example In addition, four new litter boxes for the cats. (missing subject/verb) Example Revised In addition, we need four new litter boxes for the cats.
  • Some things to look in erronous comma splices... A pronoun starting the second independent clause Example-Olivia Dunham was a FBI agent, she solved many paranormal cases. A transitional expression (aka conjunctive adverb) starting the second independent clause Example-Walter Bishop was a brilliant scientist, nevertheless, he was also mentally ill. A second independent clause that explains the first clause Walter Bishop was a brilliant scientist behind many of this universe's most absurb inventions, shifting through parellel dimensions among them.
  • On page 158 in Hacker there is a nice flowchart for revising runon sentences that I need to scan. If you'd like a copy, please email me. Comma Splices/Fused Sentences There are a number of ways to revise comma splices and fused sentences. 1. Add a period between clauses to create two sentences. Example (for all comma splices) Charles Dickens created the character of Mr. Micawber he also created Uriah Heep. (fused sentence) Example Revised Charles Dickens created the character of Mr. Micawber. He also created Uriah Heep. 2. Add a semicolon between clauses to create a compound sentence. Example Revised Charles Dickens created the character of Mr. Micawber; he also created Uriah Heep. 3. Add a coordinating conjunction between the clauses to create a compound sentence. Example Revised Charles Dickens created the character of Mr. Micawber, and he also created Uriah Heep. 4. Subordinate one clause to the other to create a compound sentence. Example Revised Charles Dickens, who created the character of Mr. Micawber, also also created Uriah Heep. Fragments On page 149 of Hacker, there is a great fragment flowchart I need to scan. If you want it, please email me. To revise fragments, you can try one of these methods: 1. Attach the fragment to a nearby sentence. Example I tripped and fell on the grass. Running up the hill. (second sentence is a fragment) Example Revised Running up the hill, I tripped and fell on the grass. 2. Turn the fragment into a sentence. Example Sawyer jumped out of the helicoptor, landing in the ocean. And swam back to The Island. (second sentence is a fragment) Example Revised Sawyer jumped out of the helicoptor, landing in the ocean. He swam back to The Island.
  • Transcript

    1. Run On Sentences & Fragments! <ul><li>Sentence fragments are sentences that are incomplete; a phrase or clause that is punctuated like a complete sentence. There are many reasons why a sentence is fragmented :
    2. Lacks a subject :
    3. Many astropsychisists now believe that galaxies are distributed in clusters. And even form supercluster complexes. </li></ul>
    4. Fragments! <ul><li>The fragment lacks a verb .
    5. Every generation has its defining moments. Usually the events with the most news coverage.
    6. It lacks both a subject AND verb .
    7. Researchers are engaged in a variety of studies. Suggesting a link between alcoholism and heredity.
    8. See note for sentence completeness test and more on revising fragments . </li></ul>
    9. Time Out <ul><li>Pause.
    10. Take a breath!
    11. Questions!? </li></ul>
    12. Dependent Clauses! <ul><li>It is a dependent clause .
    13. A dependent clause contains both a subject and verb, but cannot stand alone as a sentence. It needs an independent clause to be complete.
    14. Recently retired ArchBishop Desmund Tutu was awarded the 1984 Nobel Peace Prize. Because he fought to end apartheid. (connect dependent clause to independent clause)
    15. See note for more on revising and attaching dependent clauses . </li></ul>
    16. Phrases! <ul><li>Phrases provide information about other words or elements in a sentence.
    17. They lack a subject , verb , and cannot stand alone in a sentence .
    18. Often they are MISSING INFORMATION.
    19. Finally, a new home for the family. (missing subject/verb )
    20. See note for more on revising phrases with transitions . </li></ul>
    21. Prepositional Phrases <ul><li>A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition , its object , and any modifiers of the object .
    22. To fix them, attach PP to an independent clause .
    23. Toni ran five miles. On the final day at Monmouth. (second sentence is a prepositional phrase )
    24. Toni ran five miles, on the final day at Monmouth. </li></ul>
    25. Time Out! <ul><li>Pause.
    26. Take a breath!
    27. Questions?! </li></ul>
    28. Revising Run Ons & Comma Splices! <ul><li>A run on sentence is an error that occurs when two independent clauses are joined incorrectly. This can happen via two ways:
    29. Comma splices , also known as comma faults , occur when two independent clauses are joined with just a comma .
    30. Charles Dickens created the character of Mr. Micawber, he also created Uriah Heep.
    31. See note for more on revising comma splices . </li></ul>
    32. Revising Comma Splices! <ul><li>Two independent clauses need a conjunction and a comma . To fix this, add a conjunction (and, or, nor).
    33. Charles Dickens created the character of Mr. Macawber, and he also created Uriah Heep.
    34. Or...
    35. Use a semicolon !
    36. Charles Dickens created the character of Mr. Macawber; he also created Uriah Heep. </li></ul>
    37. Fused Sentences! <ul><li>Fused sentences happen when two independent clauses have no punctuation.
    38. Charles Dickens created the character of Mr. Micawber he also created Uriah Heep.
    39. See note for tips on revising run ons , fragments , and fused sentences . Grammar checkers will only correct about 50% of run ons, fragments, and fused sentences. </li></ul>

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