Nervous system review

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  • 1. Nervous System Practice Reading Review
  • 2. Nervous System The nervous system is composed of billions of highly specialized nerve cells, orneurons, that constitute the brain and the nerve fibers that are found throughout the body. Thenervous system is subdivided into two major divisions: the central nervous system (CNS) and theperipheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS is composed of all the neurons in the brain and spinal cord;the PNS is made up of all the neurons forming the nerve fibers that connect the CNS to the body. The job of the CNS is to integrate and coordinate all bodily functions, process all incomingneural messages, and send out commands to different parts of the body. The CNS sends and receivesneural messages through the spinal cord, a trunk line of neurons that connects the brain to the PNS.The trunk line itself is housed in a hollow portion of the vertebral column, called the spinal column.The spinal cord coordinates the activity of the left and right sides of the body and is responsible forsimple, fast action reflexes that do not involve the brain. For example, an organism whose spinal cordhas been severed from its brain can still withdraw its limb from a painful stimulus. It is the role of the PNS to provide the CNS with information from sensory receptors, suchas those found in the eyes and ears, and to relay commands from the brain to the bodys organs andmuscles. The PNS is actually composed of two sets of nerve fibers. The autonomic nervous system, abranch of the PNS, sustains basic life processes. This system is on the job 24 hours a day, regulatingbodily functions that you usually dont consciously control, such as respiration and digestion. To carryout these functions, the autonomic nervous system is further subdivided into the sympathetic andparasympathetic nervous system. These divisions work in opposition to accomplish their tasks. Thesympathetic division governs responses to emergency situations; the parasympathetic divisionmonitors the routine operation of the bodys internal functions. (adapted from Gerrig et al. 2002.Psychology and Life. 58-60)
  • 3. Nervous System The nervous system is composed of billions of highly specialized nerve cells, orneurons, that constitute the brain and the nerve fibers that are found throughout the body. Thenervous system is subdivided into two major divisions: the central nervous system (CNS) and theperipheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS is composed of all the neurons in the brain and spinal cord;the PNS is made up of all the neurons forming the nerve fibers that connect the CNS to the body. The job of the CNS is to integrate and coordinate all bodily functions, process all incomingneural messages, and send out commands to different parts of the body. The CNS sends and receivesneural messages through the spinal cord, a trunk line of neurons that connects the brain to the PNS.The trunk line itself is housed in a hollow portion of the vertebral column, called the spinal column.The spinal cord coordinates the activity
of the left and right sides of the body and is responsible forsimple, fast action reflexes that do not involve the brain. For example, an organism whose spinal cordhas been severed from its brain can still withdraw its limb from a painful stimulus. It is the role of the PNS to provide the CNS with information from sensory receptors, suchas those found in the eyes and ears, and to relay commands from the brain to the bodys organs andmuscles. The PNS is actually composed of two sets of nerve fibers. The autonomic nervous system, abranch of the PNS, sustains basic life processes. This system is on the job 24 hours a day, regulatingbodily functions that you usually dont consciously control, such as respiration and digestion. To carryout these functions, the autonomic nervous system is further subdivided into the sympathetic andparasympathetic nervous system. These divisions work in opposition to accomplish their tasks. Thesympathetic division governs responses to emergency situations; the parasympathetic divisionmonitors the routine operation of the bodys internal functions. (adapted from Gerrig et al. 2002.Psychology and Life. 58-60)
  • 4. First Step Make a one sentence summary ofeach paragraph in order to discover overall main idea
  • 5. Paragraph One The nervous system is composed of billions ofhighly specialized nerve cells, or neurons, thatconstitute the brain and the nerve fibers that arefound throughout the body. The nervous system issubdivided into two major divisions: the centralnervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervoussystem (PNS). The CNS is composed of all the neuronsin the brain and spinal cord; the PNS is made up ofall the neurons forming the nerve fibers that connectthe CNS to the body.
  • 6. Paragraph One The nervous system is composed of billions ofhighly specialized nerve cells, or neurons, thatconstitute the brain and the nerve fibers that arefound throughout the body. The nervous system issubdivided into two major divisions: the centralnervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervoussystem (PNS). The CNS is composed of all the neuronsin the brain and spinal cord; the PNS is made up ofall the neurons forming the nerve fibers that connectthe CNS to the body.
  • 7. Paragraph One The nervous system is composed of billionsof highly specialized nerve cells, or neurons, thatconstitute the brain and the nerve fibers that arefound throughout the body. The nervous system issubdivided into two major divisions: the centralnervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervoussystem (PNS). The CNS is composed of all theneurons in the brain and spinal cord; the PNS ismade up of all the neurons forming the nervefibers that connect the CNS to the body.The nervous system is divided into two parts: the CNSand PNS.
  • 8. Paragraph Two The job of the CNS is to integrate and coordinateall bodily functions, process all incoming neuralmessages, and send out commands to different parts ofthe body. The CNS sends and receives neural messagesthrough the spinal cord, a trunk line of neurons thatconnects the brain to the PNS. The trunk line itself ishoused in a hollow portion of the vertebral column, calledthe spinal column. The spinal cord coordinates theactivity
of the left and right sides of the body and isresponsible for simple, fast action reflexes that do notinvolve the brain. For example, an organism whose spinalcord has been severed from its brain can still withdraw itslimb from a painful stimulus.
  • 9. Paragraph Two The job of the CNS is to integrate and coordinateall bodily functions, process all incoming neuralmessages, and send out commands to different parts ofthe body. The CNS sends and receives neural messagesthrough the spinal cord, a trunk line of neurons thatconnects the brain to the PNS. The trunk line itself ishoused in a hollow portion of the vertebral column, calledthe spinal column. The spinal cord coordinates theactivity
of the left and right sides of the body and isresponsible for simple, fast action reflexes that do notinvolve the brain. For example, an organism whose spinalcord has been severed from its brain can still withdraw itslimb from a painful stimulus.
  • 10. Paragraph Two The job of the CNS is to integrate and coordinateall bodily functions, process all incoming neuralmessages, and send out commands to different parts ofthe body. The CNS sends and receives neural messagesthrough the spinal cord, a trunk line of neurons thatconnects the brain to the PNS. The trunk line itself ishoused in a hollow portion of the vertebral column, calledthe spinal column. The spinal cord coordinates theactivity
of the left and right sides of the body and isresponsible for simple, fast action reflexes that do notinvolve the brain. For example, an organism whose spinalcord has been severed from its brain can still withdraw itslimb from a painful stimulus.The job of the CNS (mainly the spinal cord)
  • 11. Paragraph Three It is the role of the PNS to provide the CNS withinformation from sensory receptors, such as those found in theeyes and ears, and to relay commands from the brain to thebodys organs and muscles. The PNS is actually composed of twosets of nerve fibers. The autonomic nervous system, a branch ofthe PNS, sustains basic life processes. This system is on the job24 hours a day, regulating bodily functions that you usually dontconsciously control, such as respiration and digestion. To carryout these functions, the autonomic nervous system is furthersubdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervoussystem. These divisions work in opposition to accomplish theirtasks. The sympathetic division governs responses to emergencysituations; the parasympathetic division monitors the routineoperation of the bodys internal functions
  • 12. Paragraph Three It is the role of the PNS to provide the CNS withinformation from sensory receptors, such as those found in theeyes and ears, and to relay commands from the brain to thebodys organs and muscles. The PNS is actually composed of twosets of nerve fibers. The autonomic nervous system, a branch ofthe PNS, sustains basic life processes. This system is on the job24 hours a day, regulating bodily functions that you usually dontconsciously control, such as respiration and digestion. To carryout these functions, the autonomic nervous system is furthersubdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervoussystem. These divisions work in opposition to accomplish theirtasks. The sympathetic division governs responses to emergencysituations; the parasympathetic division monitors the routineoperation of the bodys internal functions
  • 13. Paragraph Three It is the role of the PNS to provide the CNS withinformation from sensory receptors, such as those found in theeyes and ears, and to relay commands from the brain to thebodys organs and muscles. The PNS is actually composed of twosets of nerve fibers. The autonomic nervous system, a branch ofthe PNS, sustains basic life processes. This system is on the job24 hours a day, regulating bodily functions that you usually dontconsciously control, such as respiration and digestion. To carryout these functions, the autonomic nervous system is furthersubdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervoussystem. These divisions work in opposition to accomplish theirtasks. The sympathetic division governs responses to emergencysituations; the parasympathetic division monitors the routineoperation of the bodys internal functionsThe role of the PNS (mainly the autonomic nervous system)
  • 14. Paragraph Summaries1. The nervous system is divided into two parts: the CNS and PNS.2. The job of the CNS (mainly the spinal cord)3. The role of the PNS (mainly the autonomic nervous system)
  • 15. Which sentence best states themain idea of this passage?A. The central nervous system works 24 hours a day.B. The spinal cord plays a critical role in the central nervous system.C. The central nervous system controls the functions of the body.D. The nervous system has two major parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
  • 16. Which sentence best states themain idea of this passage?A. The central nervous system works 24 hours a day.B. The spinal cord plays a critical role in the central nervous system.C. The central nervous system controls the functions of the body.D. The nervous system has two major parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
  • 17. The authors primary purpose istoA. explain the development of the central nervous system.B. describe the functions of the different parts of the nervous system.C. emphasize the complexity of the central nervous system.D. persuade the reader that the central nervous system is the most important system of the body.MI: The nervous system has two major parts: the centralnervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
  • 18. The authors primary purpose istoA. explain the development of the central nervous system.B. describe the functions of the different parts of the nervous system.C. emphasize the complexity of the central nervous system.D. persuade the reader that the central nervous system is the most important system of the body.MI: The nervous system has two major parts: the centralnervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
  • 19. Overall, the author uses anorganizational pattern thatA. classifies the different divisions and sub-divisions of the central nervous system.B. gives examples of injuries that damage the central nervous system.C. provides a comparison of the two divisions of the central nervous system.D. offers reasons for the way the system nervous system functionsMI: The nervous system has two major parts: the central nervoussystem and the peripheral nervous system.P: describe the functions of the different parts of the nervoussystem.
  • 20. Overall, the author uses anorganizational pattern thatA. classifies the different divisions and sub-divisions of the central nervous system.B. gives examples of injuries that damage the central nervous system.C. provides a comparison of the two divisions of the central nervous system.D. offers reasons for the way the system nervous system functionsMI: The nervous system has two major parts: the central nervoussystem and the peripheral nervous system.P: describe the functions of the different parts of the nervoussystem.
  • 21. This passage is based uponA. opinionB. fact
  • 22. This passage is based uponA. opinionB. fact
  • 23. The tone of this passage isA. subjectiveB. sympatheticC. informalD. clinical
  • 24. The tone of this passage isA. subjectiveB. sympatheticC. informalD. clinical
  • 25. The tone of this passage isA. subjectiveB. sympatheticC. informalD. clinical
  • 26. As used in line 15, the wordstimulus most nearly meansA. something that is caused by an emotion.B. something that is caused by a situation.C. something that is caused by an occasion.D. something that causes a reaction.
  • 27. Paragraph Two The job of the CNS is to integrate and coordinateall bodily functions, process all incoming neuralmessages, and send out commands to different parts ofthe body. The CNS sends and receives neural messagesthrough the spinal cord, a trunk line of neurons thatconnects the brain to the PNS. The trunk line itself ishoused in a hollow portion of the vertebral column, calledthe spinal column. The spinal cord coordinates the activityof the left and right sides of the body and is responsiblefor simple, fast action reflexes that do not involve thebrain. For example, an organism whose spinal cord hasbeen severed from its brain can still withdraw its limbfrom a painful stimulus.
  • 28. As used in line 15, the wordstimulus most nearly meansA. something that is caused by an emotion.B. something that is caused by a situation.C. something that is caused by an occasion.D. something that causes a reaction.
  • 29. As used in line 20, the wordregulating most nearly meansA. stimulatingB. controllingC. measuringD. policing
  • 30. Paragraph Three It is the role of the PNS to provide the CNS withinformation from sensory receptors, such as those found in theeyes and ears, and to relay commands from the brain to thebodys organs and muscles. The PNS is actually composed of twosets of nerve fibers. The autonomic nervous system, a branch ofthe PNS, sustains basic life processes. This system is on the job24 hours a day, regulating bodily functions that you usually dontconsciously control, such as respiration and digestion. To carryout these functions, the autonomic nervous system is furthersubdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervoussystem. These divisions work in opposition to accomplish theirtasks. The sympathetic division governs responses to emergencysituations; the parasympathetic division monitors the routineoperation of the bodys internal functions
  • 31. As used in line 20, the wordregulating most nearly meansThis system is on the job 24 hours a day, bodilyfunctions that you usually dont consciously control, such asrespiration and digestion.A. stimulatingB. controllingC. measuringD. policing
  • 32. As used in line 20, the wordregulating most nearly meansThis system is on the job 24 hours a day, bodilyfunctions that you usually dont consciously control, such asrespiration and digestion.A. stimulatingB. controllingC. measuringD. policing
  • 33. What is the relationship between theparts of the following sentence?"The nervous system is subdivided into two majordivisions: the central nervous system (CNS) and theperipheral nervous system (PNS).”A. contrastB. cause/effectC. summaryD. classification
  • 34. What is the relationship between theparts of the following sentence?"The nervous system is subdivided into two majordivisions: the central nervous system (CNS) and theperipheral nervous system (PNS).”A. contrastB. cause/effectC. summaryD. classification
  • 35. What is the relationship between theparts of the following sentence?"The nervous system is subdivided into two majordivisions: the central nervous system (CNS) and theperipheral nervous system (PNS).”A. contrastB. cause/effectC. summaryD. classification
  • 36. According to the passage, thespinal cordA. needs information from the brain to do its job.B. coordinates the activity of the brain.C. is the main trunk line that houses the peripheral nervous system.D. is responsible for coordinating activities that dont involve the brain.
  • 37. Paragraph Two The job of the CNS is to integrate and coordinateall bodily functions, process all incoming neuralmessages, and send out commands to different parts ofthe body. The CNS sends and receives neural messagesthrough the spinal cord, a trunk line of neurons thatconnects the brain to the PNS. The trunk line itself ishoused in a hollow portion of the vertebral column, calledthe spinal column. The spinal cord coordinates theactivity
of the left and right sides of the body and isresponsible for simple, fast action reflexes that do notinvolve the brain. For example, an organism whose spinalcord has been severed from its brain can still withdraw itslimb from a painful stimulus.
  • 38. According to the passage, thespinal cordA. needs information from the brain to do its job.B. coordinates the activity of the brain.C. is the main trunk line that houses the peripheral nervous system.D. is responsible for coordinating activities that dont involve the brain.
  • 39. "For example, an organism whose spinalcord has been severed from its brain canstill withdraw its limb from a painfulstimulus.”One conclusion that could be drawn from this sentencein paragraph two isA. A person needs the brain to send the signal to pull a hand away from a hot stove.B. A persons muscles always react on their own accord.C. A person whose spinal cord has been severed cannot move.D. A person can pull a hand away from a hot stove without being directed by the brain.
  • 40. "For example, an organism whose spinalcord has been severed from its brain canstill withdraw its limb from a painfulstimulus.”One conclusion that could be drawn from this sentencein paragraph two isA. A person needs the brain to send the signal to pull a hand away from a hot stove.B. A persons muscles always react on their own accord.C. A person whose spinal cord has been severed cannot move.D. A person can pull a hand away from a hot stove without being directed by the brain.