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Grasslands review

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  • 1. Grasslands
    Practice Reading
  • 2. Grasslands
    At one time grasslands covered about 42 percent of the land surface of Earth. In the Northern Hemisphere great expanses of grassland covered the midcontinent of North America and extended across the central part of Eurasia. In the Southern Hemisphere grasses covered much of the southern tip of South America and the high plateau of southern Africa. Today grasslands probably occupy less than 12 percent, for most of them have been plowed under for cropland and degraded by overgrazing. Humans have foolishly broken up grasslands with the plow and converted the most productive of them into the breadbaskets of the world.
    All grasslands have in common a climate characterized by rainfall between 250 and 800 mm (too light to support a heavy forest and too great to result in a desert), a high rate of evaporation, and periodic severe droughts. They share a rolling to flat terrain. Grazing and burrowing species are the dominant animals. Most grasslands require periodic fires for maintenance, renewal, and elimination of woody growth.
    Grasses have a mode of growth that adapts them to grazing and fire. The grass plant consists of leafy shoots called tillers. Each shoot has a leaf-like blade or lamina, the base of which has a tube-like sheath. These tillers grow from short, underground stems, which grow upward only when the plant begins flowering. Tillers that group closely about a central stem and buds make up a bunch or tussock grasses. Species that spread lateral buds on underground stems, producing a sod, are sod or turf grasses. Associated with grasses are a verity of legumes and composite plants.
    (Smith, Robert Leo and Thomas M. Smith. 2000. Elements of Ecology, 4th Ed. p. 397)
  • 3. Paragraph 1
    At one time grasslands covered about 42 percent of the land surface of Earth. In the Northern Hemisphere great expanses of grassland covered the midcontinent of North America and extended across the central part of Eurasia. In the Southern Hemisphere grasses covered much of the southern tip of South America and the high plateau of southern Africa. Today grasslands probably occupy less than 12 percent, for most of them have been plowed under for cropland and degraded by overgrazing. Humans have foolishly broken up grasslands with the plow and converted the most productive of them into the breadbaskets of the world.
    Where the grasslands were plentiful and how they have shrunk due to farming
  • 4. Paragraph 2
    All grasslands have in common a climate characterized by rainfall between 250 and 800 mm (too light to support a heavy forest and too great to result in a desert), a high rate of evaporation, and periodic severe droughts. They share a rolling to flat terrain. Grazing and burrowing species are the dominant animals. Most grasslands require periodic fires for maintenance, renewal, and elimination of woody growth.
    What they have in common: climate, terrain, inhabitants, maintenance/growth
  • 5. Paragraph 3
    Grasses have a mode of growth that adapts them to grazing and fire. The grass plant consists of leafy shoots called tillers. Each shoot has a leaf-like blade or lamina, the base of which has a tube-like sheath. These tillers grow from short, underground stems, which grow upward only when the plant begins flowering. Tillers that group closely about a central stem and buds make up a bunch or tussock grasses. Species that spread lateral buds on underground stems, producing a sod, are sod or turf grasses. Associated with grasses are a verity of legumes and composite plants.
    What the grasses are like/how they grow
  • 6. Summary
    Where the grasslands were plentiful and how they have shrunk due to farming
    What they have in common: climate, terrain, inhabitants, maintenance/growth
    What the grasses are like/how they grow
  • 7. Which sentence best states the main idea of the passage?
    Grasslands, shrinking in size, are characterized by rainfall, terrain, inhabitants, and vegetation.
    In the Northern Hemisphere, great expanses of grassland cover the mid-continent of North America and extend across the central part of Eurasia.
    Grasslands have a mode of growth that adapts them to grazing and fire.
    Grasslands share common characteristics.
  • 8. Which sentence best states the main idea of the passage?
    Grasslands, shrinking in size, are characterized by rainfall, terrain, inhabitants, and vegetation.
    In the Northern Hemisphere, great expanses of grassland cover the mid-continent of North America and extend across the central part of Eurasia.
    Grasslands have a mode of growth that adapts them to grazing and fire.
    Grasslands share common characteristics.
  • 9. The author's primary purpose is to
    explain the development of grasslands.
    discuss the forms of life unique to grasslands.
    classify the types of grasslands.
    describe the general features of grasslands.
    MI: Grasslands, shrinking in size, are characterized by rainfall, terrain, inhabitants, and vegetation.
  • 10. The author's primary purpose is to
    explain the development of grasslands.
    discuss the forms of life unique to grasslands.
    classify the types of grasslands.
    describe the general features of grasslands.
    MI: Grasslands, shrinking in size, are characterized by rainfall, terrain, inhabitants, and vegetation.
  • 11. What is the overall tone of this passage?
    Neutral
    Persuasive
    Informative
    Ambivalent
  • 12. What is the overall tone of this passage?
    Neutral(“foolishly”)
    Persuasive
    Informative
    Ambivalent
  • 13. Identify the relationship of parts within the following sentence.
    "Today grasslands probably occupy less than 12 percent, for most of them have been plowed under for cropland and degraded by overgrazing." (lines 5-6).
    Contrast
    Comparison
    Cause and effect
    Addition
  • 14. Identify the relationship of parts within the following sentence.
    "Today grasslands probably occupy less than 12 percent, formost of them have been plowed under for cropland and degraded by overgrazing." (lines 5-6).
    Contrast
    Comparison
    Cause and effect
    Addition
  • 15. Identify the relationship between these sentences from paragraph three.
    "The grass plant consists of leafy shoots called tillers. Each shoot has a leaf-like blade or lamina, the base of which has a tube-like sheath." (lines 14-16)
    Cause and effect
    Chronological
    Definition
    Comparison/contrast
  • 16. Identify the relationship between these sentences from paragraph three.
    "The grass plant consists of leafy shoots called tillers.Each shoot has a leaf-like blade or lamina, the base of which has a tube-like sheath." (lines 14-16)
    Cause and effect
    Chronological
    Definition
    Comparison/contrast
  • 17. A conclusion that can be drawn from the first paragraph is that
    grasslands are essential to human existence.
    at one time grasslands covered 42 percent of the Earth's land.
    grasslands still cover much of the southern tip of South America
    farming and ranching have contributed to the reduction of Grasslands.
    Conclusion = Inference
  • 18. First Paragraph
    At one time grasslands covered about 42 percent of the land surface of Earth. In the Northern Hemisphere great expanses of grassland covered the midcontinent of North America and extended across the central part of Eurasia. In the Southern Hemisphere grasses covered much of the southern tip of South America and the high plateau of southern Africa. Today grasslands probably occupy less than 12 percent, for most of them have been plowed under for cropland and degraded by overgrazing. Humans have foolishly broken up grasslands with the plow and converted the most productive of them into the breadbaskets of the world.
  • 19. A conclusion that can be drawn from the first paragraph is that
    grasslands are essential to human existence. (no information to support)
    at one time grasslands covered 42 percent of the Earth's land. (stated)
    grasslands still cover much of the southern tip of South America (probably less than 12 percent)
    farming and ranching have contributed to the reduction of Grasslands. (“ foolishly broken up grasslands with the plow and converted the most productive of them into the breadbaskets of the world”)
    Conclusion = Inference
  • 20. A conclusion that can be drawn from the first paragraph is that
    grasslands are essential to human existence.
    at one time grasslands covered 42 percent of the Earth's land.
    grasslands still cover much of the southern tip of South America
    farming and ranching have contributed to the reduction of Grasslands.
  • 21. In this passage, the author shows bias against (negative feelings about)
    grazing and burrowing species.
    diminishing grasslands for croplands and grazing.
    periodic fires.
    the beauty of the grasslands.
  • 22. First Paragraph
    At one time grasslands covered about 42 percent of the land surface of Earth. In the Northern Hemisphere great expanses of grassland covered the midcontinent of North America and extended across the central part of Eurasia. In the Southern Hemisphere grasses covered much of the southern tip of South America and the high plateau of southern Africa. Today grasslands probably occupy less than 12 percent, for most of them have been plowed under for cropland and degraded by overgrazing. Humans have foolishly broken up grasslands with the plow and converted the most productive of them into the breadbaskets of the world.
  • 23. First Paragraph
    At one time grasslands covered about 42 percent of the land surface of Earth. In the Northern Hemisphere great expanses of grassland covered the midcontinent of North America and extended across the central part of Eurasia. In the Southern Hemisphere grasses covered much of the southern tip of South America and the high plateau of southern Africa. Today grasslands probably occupy less than 12 percent, for most of them have been plowed under for cropland and degraded by overgrazing. Humans have foolishly broken up grasslands with the plow and converted the most productive of them into the breadbaskets of the world.
  • 24. In this passage, the author shows bias against
    grazing and burrowing species.
    diminishing grasslands for croplands and grazing.
    periodic fires.
    the beauty of the grasslands.
  • 25. Throughout the passage, overall, which type of support is offered to describe the characteristics of the grasslands?
    Objective
    Emotional
  • 26. Throughout the passage, overall, which type of support is offered to describe the characteristics of the grasslands?
    Objective
    Emotional
  • 27. "Humans have foolishly broken up grasslands with the plow and converted the most productive of them into the breadbaskets of the world." (lines 6-8)
    The above sentence is a statement of
    opinion(Look for a judgement/opinion word)
    fact
  • 28. "Humans have foolishly broken up grasslands with the plow and converted the most productive of them into the breadbaskets of the world." (lines 6-8)
    The above sentence is a statement of
    opinion
    fact