DEFINING GOALS• Think about who your listeners are• Determine your goals with the communication• Consider what listeners expect• Find out how much time you have • Shorter is always better • Enough to deliver the point
SCENERY• Size of the audience• Location of the presentation• Equipment
AUDIENCE• Smaller audiences are less formal• Smaller audiences can take questions during the presentation• Larger audiences require more formality• Questions should wait until the end of the presentation for a large audience
LOCATION• Fixed seating requires one type of presentation.• Movable seating allows more flexibility• Chairs in a circle – less formal• Chairs in rows facing forward – more formal
EQUIPMENT• Projectors• Computers• Determines if you need handouts or can use a Powerpoint presentation
SINGLE SOURCE• Plan verbal and visual as parts of the same source material• Consider – people can only focus on one task • Reading • Listening • Facebooking• Graphics are easy to scan (“read”), thus can be used at the same time.
GRAPHICS• Allow for source material to be presented• Provides interesting and engaging material
SCRIPTED TALK• Written out and delivered word for word• Allows you to work out exact phrasing• Ideal for complex information• Ideal for nervous presentation • All your words are right in front of you• Keep within a time limit• Hard to sound natural• Cannot alter in response to audience
OUTLINED TALK• Prepare an outline of what you will say• In the middle approach• Flexible • Can speed up, slow down, or eliminate material• Ideal for small groups on familiar topics• Requires familiarity with subject matter• May be too flexible for beginning speakers
IMPROMPTU TALK• Spur of the moment, no preparation• Requires total familiarity with the subject• Natural speaking style• Small group
VISUAL MEDIUM• Depends on what is available• Computer Projection• Overhead transparencies• Chalkboard/Whiteboard• Handouts
COMPUTER• Polished slides• Prepare slides quickly• Expand media• Need a dark room, kind of• Slides cannot usually be altered during presentation• Preparation can be time consuming• Can detract from content
TRANSPARENCIES• Can be made simply• Widely available• Can reorder slides as you give talk• Look plain• Can’t include other media
WHITEBOARD/CHALKBOARD• Requires no preparation• Very flexible• Small meetings• No media• Delay presentation while you write
HANDOUTS• Gives viewers a takeaway document• Aids with note taking• Can be distracting• Requires preparation• Cannot be changed after the fact
INTEGRATION PLANNING• Your purpose and audience• What the audience expects• Your resources• Slides use key words, you use sentences
FOCUS• Focus on a few main points• Listeners have difficulty focusing• No more than twenty minutes• Listeners cannot “flip back”• Relevant points to listener needs• Break down into points
SIMPLE STRUCTURE• Introduction > Body > Conclusion• Intro - Introduce the topic• Intro - Explain relevance• Intro - Forecast organization of the presentation• Body - Present three or four main points• Conclusion - Sum up your main points• Conclusion - Identify next steps• Conclusion - Take questions
SIGNALING THE STRUCTURE• Forecast – tell what the structure will be• Show a graphic that outlines the major parts• Signal Transitions – Show a graphic for the next point• Pause before beginning next topic• Move about• Slow pace• Review – Best for the conclusion
CONVERSATIONAL STYLE• Builds rapport• When preparing – imaging the audience• Use you and your• Use personal pronouns• Shorter, simple sentences• Words listeners will understand• Enthusiasm• Gestures
MAKING GRAPHICS• Large typeface• Light background – dark letters (high contrast)• Easy to read typeface• Key words• Bulleted lists• Brief titles• Consistent design
DISPLAYING GRAPHICS• Only when you are talking about it• Long enough for viewers to understand• Explain key points• Avoid reading• Stand beside projections
INVOLVING AUDIENCE• Eye contact• Outline or script, look away briefly• Focus on an individual• Focus AROUND an individual• Invite questions• Give “takeaways” • Business cards • Handouts
PREPARING FOR INTERRUPTIONS• Respond courteously• Maintain good relations with the audience • Even antagonistic audience members• Mark a clear time for questions• Speak to interruptions immediately, then return
REHEARSAL• In front of people• Delivery of key points• Timing• Rehearse with graphics
NERVES• Accept it.• Arrive early• Relax before the talk• Speak with audience before the presentation• Everyone understands• Use the energy
YOUR PRESENTATION• 3 minute minimum – 5 minute maximum• Progress Report• Proposal and Research• Possible directions• Difficulty you’re having• Interesting information you’ve found
WRITING ASSIGNMENT• Script a short presentation to a classmate about your favorite hobby.• Tell your classmate about the following • What is the hobby? • How popular is it in North America? • How popular is it worldwide? • How did you find out about the hobby? • What introduced you to it? • How often do you engage in the hobby?• Outline and write as much as you can of the presentation until the end of class.
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