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520- Lecture ppt ch03

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  • L.O. 3.1
  • Mention importance of breastfeeding L.O. 3.2
  • Describe Failure to progress and Breech Presentation
  • Map can be used to highlight areas where C section has occurred.
  • L.O. 3.3
  • L.O. 3.4
  • L.O. 3.4
  • L.O. 3.5 Discuss from text how midwives are viewed and how cultures differ on how one can become a midwife
  • L.O. 3.7
  • May spend a little time on childbed fever and handwashing in early 20 th century
  • May spend a little time on childbed fever and handwashing in early 20 th century
  • L.O. 3.7
  • Neonatal mortality remains high in developing countries Use Map to discuss rates of mortality and to highlight ethnic variation within the United states L.O. 3.8
  • Neonatal mortality remains high in developing countries Use Map to discuss rates of mortality and to highlight ethnic variation within the United states L.O. 3.8
  • L.O. 3.9
  • End section with negative outcomes associated with LBW L.O. 3.10
  • L.O. 3.11
  • Use table to talk about reflexes including survival value Good discussion on questioning why it is important that they disappear Highlight survival reflexes and non survival L.O. 3.12
  • L.O. 3.13
  • L.O. 3.14
  • Also mention length of time it is suggested that one breastfeeds
  • L.O. 3.15 Give number of infant related deaths due to stress importance of breastfeeding
  • Possible two column power point
  • Possible two column power point
  • L.O. 3.17
  • L.O. 3.18 and 3.19 Highlight post partum depression and support systems and genotype correlations
  • L.O. 3.18 and 3.19 Highlight post partum depression and support systems and genotype correlations
  • Transcript

    • 1. Human Development A Cultural Approach Chapter 3 Birth and the Newborn ChildHuman Development: A Cultural ApproachJeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 2. Birth and Its Cultural Context Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 3. Stages of the Birth Process The First Stage: Labor• Longest and most taxing stage• Contractions in the uterus cause cervix to dilate• Labor is painful but there are some ways to ease discomfort  Rocking chair, warm shower or bath, massages or taking a walk  Emotional support is important Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 4. Stages of the Birth Process The Second & Third Stage• Delivery can take up to an hour• Crowning occurs• Third stage expels the placenta and umbilical cord• Complications can occur if placenta not fully expelled Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 5. Stages of the Birth Process Birth ComplicationsTwo common birth complications:•Failure to progress•Breech PresentationCesarean delivery can be done to dealwith birth complications Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 6. Map 3.1 Cesarean Section Rates, Selected Countries Which countries have the highest rates of cesarean sections? What determines whether a country has high or low rates? Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 7. Stages of the Birth Process Birth Complications• Cesarean-retrieving the baby directly from the uterus• High rates of C-section may be due to extreme caution• Vaginal birth after C-section is possible Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 8. Cultural and Historical Variations in Birth Beliefs• Celebration of birth  ILA of Zimbabwe praise the woman and offer gifts• Fear or wariness of birth  Arapesh of New Guinea allow birth on outskirts of the village in a place reserved for menstruation activities Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 9. Cultural and Historical Variations in Birth Beliefs• Cultures may have purifying traditions for mothers after birth• Placenta also has meanings  Some cultures bury in sacred place  Some cultures believe it has value for hormones and nutrients Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 10. Cultural Variations in Birth Beliefs Midwives and Others • Midwives maintain birth assistant in traditional cultures • Variation in how one becomes a midwife • Some variation in how midwives are viewed Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 11. Cultural Variations in Birth Beliefs Easing the Birth • Attempts to ease birth process include  Abdominal massage and herbal teas  Herbal medicines to cope with pain  Midwives give instruction and encouragement  Symbolic symbols placed in different areas Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 12. Cultural Variations in Birth Beliefs Easing the Birth • Emotional and social support important • Medical use of epidural seen in developed countries • Birthing position also eases pain  Upright, semi-sitting, half reclining position • Placenta delivered through various methods • Umbilical cord may be cut and tied Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 13. Historical Variations in Birth BeliefsPeculiar History of Birth in the West • Pre-15th Century-Midwives respected • 15th Century-Midwives suspected of being witches • 18th Century-Medical schools and physician delivery Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 14. Historical Variations in Birth BeliefsPeculiar History of Birth in the West • 20th Century-Doctors not properly trained  Led to misuse of drugs for delivery including morphine  Late 20th century backlash led to advocating natural childbirth Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 15. Historical Variations in Birth BeliefsPeculiar History of Birth in the West • Currently there are several improvements in birth process  Collaboration during birth  Fathers more likely involved  Medications are safer  Use of electronic fetal monitoring Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 16. Map 3.2 Neonatal and Maternal Mortality Worldwide How do neonatal and maternal mortalityrates compare? What factors might explain why mortality rates are higher in developing countries than in developed countries? (continued on next slide) Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 17. Map 3.2 Neonatal and Maternal Mortality Worldwide How do neonatal and maternal mortalityrates compare? What factors might explain why mortality rates are higher in developing countries than in developed countries? (continued from previous slide) Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 18. The NeonateHuman Development: A Cultural ApproachJeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 19. The Neonate• Neonate:  Fuzzy hair called lanugo  Misshapen head with soft spots called fontanels  About 20 inches and 7.5 pounds  Yellowish skin Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 20. The Neonate’s Health Measuring Neonatal Health• Neonatal assessment is critical in first few minutes• Apgar Scale  Assessed on Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity and Respiration  Rated on each category with a 0-2 score  Gives total score of 0-10  Measured twice, in first minute and after five minutes Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 21. Table 3.1 The Apgar ScaleHuman Development: A Cultural ApproachJeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 22. The Neonate’s Health Measuring Neonatal Health• Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)  Rates neonates on 27 items  Receives rating of worrisome, normal or superior  Most effective if given at one day and a week later  Can help parents interact with infants  Useful in research on cultural differences in parenting practices Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 23. The Neonate’s Health Low Birth Weight•Low birth weight (LBW)-less than 2500grams•Very Low birth weight-less than 1500grams•Extremely Low birth weight-less than1000 grams Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 24. The Neonate’s Health• Causes for LBW  Developing countries-malnourished mothers and lack of prenatal care  Developing countries-Cigarette smoking  Overall-multiple births, maternal age, drug use Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 25. The Neonate’s HealthConsequences of LBW•High mortality rate•LBW for small to date infants  Poor maternal malnutrition, illness, exposure•LBW for pre-term neonates  Inadequately developed physical systems  Immature lungs, immune system, and CNS Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 26. The Neonate’s Health Low Birth Weight• Treatment for LBW infants include  Kangaroo care: skin to skin contact for 2-3 hours a day  Infant massage• Even with assistance LBW babies are at risk developmentally Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 27. Physical Functioning of the Neonate Neonatal Sleeping Patterns • Neonates sleep/wake cycle governed more by hunger than day/night cycle • REM sleep dominates • For neonates REM sleep stimulates brain activity • Traditional cultures keep close physical contact  May cause infants to spend more day hours sleeping than in industrialized cultures Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 28. Table 3.2 Neonatal ReflexesHuman Development: A Cultural ApproachJeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 29. Physical Functioning of the Neonate Neonatal Senses • Touch-earliest sense to develop  Neonates do experience pain • Taste and Smell-well developed  Show smell preferences for mother’s diet  Prefer sweet taste  Prefer mother’s breast smell to another’s Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 30. Physical Functioning of the Neonate Neonatal Senses • Hearing-well developed  Sensitive to human speech  Prefer mother’s voice  Have problems with locating sound • Vision-least developed  Sees 8-14 inches  Binocular and color vision limited  Prefer patterns to random designs  Prefer faces to other patterns Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 31. Caring for the NeonateHuman Development: A Cultural ApproachJeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 32. Breastfeeding• Historical evidence  Mother and infant reflex actions at birth  Historical evidence suggest breastfeeding common  Substitute milk, wet nurse, formula became alternatives  Breastfeeding back on the rise - Mother age, education and SES increase likelihood of breast feeding Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 33. Breastfeeding• Benefits include  Colostrum  Disease protection  Cognitive development  Reduced obesity  Better health in childhood and adulthood• Mothers benefit by reduced bleeding, strengthening bones, and suppresses ovulation Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 34. Breastfeeding• Benefits of breastfeeding extremely important in developing countries• Issues with breastfeeding in developing countries  May have infectious disease (maternal)  Using formula mixed with non purified water could contribute to death rates Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 35. Social and Emotional Aspects of Neonatal Care Crying and Soothing• Three distinct crying signals  Fussing-soft volume, unsteady whimper  Anger-large volume of air  Pain-Sudden onset• Crying can also be classified as basic if no distinctive cry is noted• Crying curve relates to crying frequency Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 36. Figure 3.2 Crying Frequency in the Early Months In their first months of life, infants often cry for no apparent reason. Source: Barr, 2009 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 37. Social and Emotional Aspects of Neonatal Care Crying and Soothing• Duration and intensity of crying differ between cultures  Swaddling babies has been shown to reduce crying  10% of Western babies are colicky with no known cause Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 38. Social and Emotional Aspects of Neonatal Care Bonding and Postpartum Depression• No support that first hour is critical for bonding in mother and infant• Hospitals still encourage close contact immediately after birth Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett
    • 39. Social and Emotional Aspects of Neonatal Care Bonding and Postpartum Depression• In some cases birth can cause postpartum depression  Combination of hormonal changes and deep feelings of anxiety, sadness and difficulty sleeping  Increased risk if previous episodes of depression  May impact child development Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett