Audience and Audience Measurement (Ratings)


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Audience and Audience Measurement (Ratings)

  3. 3. Two Types of Audience Research <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are the audience members like? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do they live? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Quantitative Research <ul><li>Nielsen Media Research </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitron </li></ul><ul><li>Nielsen/Net Ratings </li></ul>
  5. 6. TV Audience Terms <ul><li>Universe Estimate </li></ul><ul><li>DMA </li></ul><ul><li>HUT </li></ul><ul><li>PUT </li></ul><ul><li>Rating </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Share </li></ul>
  6. 7. Universe Estimate <ul><li>Total persons/homes in a given population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I.e., TV households </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. DMA <ul><li>Designated Market Area </li></ul><ul><li>Non-overlapping areas used for planning, buying and evaluating television audiences </li></ul><ul><li>San Francisco </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#5 DMA in nation </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. HUT <ul><li>Households Using Television </li></ul><ul><li>HUT is a percentage </li></ul><ul><li>#HH with TV sets on </li></ul><ul><li>Total HH Universe </li></ul>
  9. 10. PUT <ul><li>Persons Using Television </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage </li></ul><ul><li># Persons with TV sets on </li></ul><ul><li>Total Persons Universe </li></ul>
  10. 11. Rating <ul><li>Size of a television audience relative to the total universe </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Universe Estimate </li></ul>
  11. 12. Share <ul><li>The percent of HUT (or PUT) tuned to a specific program or station at a specified time. </li></ul><ul><li># in Audience </li></ul><ul><li># of Households watching TV </li></ul>
  12. 13. Coverage <ul><li>Homes receiving particular broadcast signal </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audience % </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.E. x Covg. Area % </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Calculating HUT, Ratings, Share <ul><li>R </li></ul><ul><li>S H </li></ul>
  14. 16. Calculating HUT, Rating, Share <ul><li>Population 500,000 with 200,000 homes </li></ul><ul><li>72,000 homes watching Grey’s Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>36,000 homes tuned to CSI </li></ul><ul><li>54,000 homes watching 48 Hours </li></ul><ul><li>18,000 homes watching Arthur </li></ul>
  15. 17. HUT <ul><li>180,000 </li></ul><ul><li>200,000 </li></ul><ul><li>90% </li></ul><ul><li>90 </li></ul>
  16. 18. Nielsen Media Research <ul><li>local </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TV meters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some markets -- people meters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>national ratings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people meters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7,000 homes (and growing) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 19. TV / Cable / Radio Terms <ul><li>cume -- cumulative rating -- the total number of different households that tune to a station at different times, generally over a one-week period </li></ul>
  18. 20. Radio Audience Terms <ul><li>ADI </li></ul>
  19. 21. ADI <ul><li>Area of Dominant Influence </li></ul><ul><li>signal’s area of dominant influence </li></ul>
  20. 22. Radio Measurement Terms <ul><li>AQH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Quarter Hour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TSL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Spent Listening </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. New Media Terms <ul><li>hits </li></ul><ul><li>links </li></ul>
  22. 24. Hits <ul><li>click-by-click; page-by-page; second-by-second </li></ul>
  23. 25. Qualitative Research
  24. 26. Types of Qualitative Research <ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychographics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical Research Inc. (SRI) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Psychographics <ul><li>Lifestyle or activity and attitude research </li></ul><ul><li>The use of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors, self-concept, and lifestyle to determine how the market is segmented by the propensity of groups within the market--and their reasons--to make a particular decision about a product, person, or ideology . . . </li></ul>
  26. 28. Advantages of Pyschographics <ul><li>Finding and explaining markets </li></ul><ul><li>Understand why buyers act the way they do in the marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizes risk </li></ul>
  27. 29. Psychographics most useful for <ul><li>Companies that sell expensive products. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies that sell discretionary products. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies that sell indistinguishable products. </li></ul><ul><li>New product introduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Brand line extension. </li></ul><ul><li>New ventures. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Limitations of Psychographics <ul><li>Data collection and analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves primary research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluminous data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$50,000 and up </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Types of Psychographic Research <ul><li>Lifestyle or AIO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities, interests and opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Trends </li></ul>
  30. 32. Different ways to classify <ul><li>Boxes -- neat, organized and highly structured (accountants, computer programmers) </li></ul><ul><li>Triangles -- self-assured, respected and leaders (executives, entrepreneurs, politicians) </li></ul><ul><li>Rectangles -- going through life changes and are unpredictable (college graduates, new employees) </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>Circles -- concerned about good interpersonal relations and peace (nurses, secretaries) </li></ul><ul><li>Squiggles -- creative idea-people who are not detail oriented (artists, scientists) </li></ul>
  32. 34.