2. Phrases: Defined A phrase is defined as a group of related words that lack one or more of the necessary components to be a sentence.Components of a Sentence:1. Subject: who/what the sentence is about2. Verb: initiator of the action or state of…3. Complete Thought
4. Noun Phrase The noun phrase consists of a noun and its descriptors (a.k.a. adjectives)Examples:1. A long-sleeved, light blue, button down dress shirt.2. A high-flying, unstoppable, 360 degree slam dunk.
5. Prepositional Phrase Prepositional phrases consist of:1. A preposition2. The object of the preposition (the noun of the phrase).Examples:In the morning During the ceremonyAfter the sun rises To the limitBeyond the horizon On the brink
6. Verb Phrase The verb phrase consists of the main verb and its modifiers (adverbs). Adverbs can also modify other adverbs. But first, which is the main verb---it is the verb that agrees with the subject.Example:The Real Housewives of Atlanta was airing while I typed this presentation.
7. Verb Phrase Modifiers for verbs are Adverbs. Adverbs are words that modify (change, alter) verbs and other adverbs.Example:The chef carefully prepared an exceptional dinner for the vacationers.
8. Verbs and Adverbs Other verb/adverb combinations: After her appointment at the orthodontist, Danielle cooked eggs for dinner because she could easily chew an omelet. Why did Danielle cook eggs? Because she could easily chew an omelet--- That’s an adverb clause.
9. Infinitive Phrase Infinitive phrases consist of a simple formula Infinitive To Verb Phrase
10. Infinitive phrases But let’s not forget the modifiers To smash a spider firmly against the wall To deftly kick the ball past the dazed goalie To instantly win the lottery To quickly understand the interplay of muscle and bone in the human body
11. Participial Phrases Appear at the beginning of a sentence or the end of the sentence. Always set off from the main clause with a comma. The action that is occurring in these participial phrases should relate back to the subject. The subject of the sentence should be doing the action. If not, the result is a dangling modifier.
12. Participial Phrases Easy to spot because most end in –ing.Examples:1. Looking at the recent issue of Cosmo, the man who always sits in the back of the bus began to hum to himself.2. Helping himself to the buffet, Mr. Klump quietly thought things about food that were never to be discussed with anyone.
13. Gerund Phrase Begin with a gerund(verb ending in –ing) Might include other modifiers and/or objects. Always function as nouns, They will be subjects. Always!
14. Gerund PhraseExamples: Jamming too much clothing into the washing machine may result in disaster.Buttering toast with a fork is not very effective.