•Parents affect success
•Model & provide:
• Emotional coaching
• I know you must feel sad that it is raining & we
can’t go to the park.
• Emotional dismissing
• I know it hurt but it is okay.
• Jack’s list
• Mad, sad, glad & scared
Self-Concept & Self-Esteem
•Evaluation of self-concept
•Traits & emotions included by age 4 – 5
• Descriptions usually unrealistic, positive
• I am the best swimmer.
• I am happy all the time.
•Self-concept in adolescents?
•Male & female characteristics
• sense of own gender
• Appears @ age 2
• sets of expectations (think, act, feel) for females &
•Chromosomes, hormones, evolution
•Evolutionary psychological view
• Human adaptation from reproduction roles
• Adaptation due to social experiences
• Social role theory:
• Cultural definition of
• Social hierarchy
• Gender differences in power
•Boy infants more
•Activity level shapes
• We respond to boys different than girls?
•May contribute to toy preferences.