Psych sex and gender

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  • Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D.
    These slides ©1999 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.
  • Psych sex and gender

    1. 1. 1 Sex and Gender Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed
    2. 2. 2 Break out groups • Who is more likely to get lost? • Who is more able to describe a room accurately with their eyes closed? • Who cheats more in relationships? • Who are better drivers?
    3. 3. 3 • Who remembers arguments with their significant other more? • Who is more aggressive? • Who has the larger brain? • Who makes less eye contact
    4. 4. 4 • Who is more susceptible to depression? • In people aged 40-59 which gender was more likely to state dissatisfaction with their sex life? • Who has the most variation in personality? (This is across species) • Who has more difficulty returning to homeostasis after a stressful event?
    5. 5. Studies Suggest Males Have More Personality • ScienceDaily (Nov. 19, 2009) — “Males have more pronounced personalities than females across a range of species -- from humans to house sparrows -- according to new research.” • They also have more predictable behavior. 5
    6. 6. • “…Neuroscientists consistently found differences between the men's stressed-out brains and the women's. • Men responded with increased blood flow to the right prefrontal cortex, responsible for "fight or flight." • Women had increased blood flow to the limbic system, which is also associated with a more nurturing and friendly response. Women tend and befriend. 6
    7. 7. 7 Introduction • Sex: – The biological classification based on genetic composition, anatomy, & hormones. • Gender – The psychological & social phenomena associated with being feminine or masculine as these concepts are defined in a given culture.
    8. 8. 8 • Hermaphrodites: – Both ovarian & testicular tissues. – Example: – Lynn Edward Harris, born Lynn Elizabeth Harris, 09/13/50, California – November 8th, 1973 at age 23 Harris was diagnosed • undescended, sub-sized ovotestes • Due to ambiguously-formed genitalia at birth [stunted penis; divided scrotum; and vagina], assigned "female" by both parents and pediatrician, was raised as such and continued living in said social gender role until age 29 (1979) --- six years after the disclosure of this fixed, irreversible, yet-evolving biological state.
    9. 9. 9 Pseudohermaphrodite • Pseudohermaphrodites: – Possess two gonads of the same kind, but their external genitalia and secondary sex characteristics do not match their chromosomal makeup.
    10. 10. 10 A Female Pseudohermaphrodite • Genetic female. • External sex organs have been masculinized and look like a penis. • May occur if the mother takes the hormone progesterone to prevent a miscarriage • Usually caused by an overproduction of certain hormones.
    11. 11. 11 Male Pseudohermaphrodite • Genetic male. • External sex organs fail to develop normally. • Intersex males may have testes and a female-like vulva, or a very small penis.
    12. 12. 12 Genetic Determinants of Sex • Genetic inheritance is the most basic determinant of whether an individual is male or female. • 23rd pair of chromosomes determines a person's sex. • Male: X & Y chromosome • Female 2 X chromosomes.
    13. 13. 13 Genetic Determinate • Early in development, human embryos have an undifferentiated, or all-purpose, gonad (sex gland) that can become either a testis or an ovary. • The presence of a Y chromosome directs this undifferentiated gonad to develop into a testis.
    14. 14. 14 Chromosome and Gene- Linked Abnormalities • Occur at conception & can have major implications for later development.
    15. 15. 15 Klinefelter's Syndrome • (XXY) • Males only • Smaller-than-normal genitals • Enlarged breasts • Poor muscular development • May be mentally retarded • 75% percent are not identified • 1 in 500 males
    16. 16. 16
    17. 17. 17
    18. 18. 18 Klinefelter's Syndrome • Testosterone shots, patches or gels started shortly before or during puberty. • May have symptoms similar to women in menopause – Hot flashes – Increased irritability – Inability to concentrate – Depression. – Most cannot father children.
    19. 19. 19 Turners Syndrome • Females • 1 X chromosome, normal XX • 1 in 2,500 female births. • Approximately 98% of pregnancies with Turner's Syndrome abort spontaneously • Short stature • Webbed neck • May have abnormal body proportions, markedly shortened lower extremities. • Height range is between 4’5” to 4’8”
    20. 20. 20 Turners Syndrome Cont. • Prominent ears • Broad chest • Eyelid folds • Estrogen needed in order to menstruate develop breasts • Can not reproduce
    21. 21. 21
    22. 22. 22 Males (the weaker sex) • More vulnerable to developmental disorders & certain fatal diseases. • Greater chance of experiencing developmental difficulties: – Reading problems – Delayed speech – Environmental health problems • Cancer resulting from exposure to a toxic substances • Physical diseases
    23. 23. 23 Males • Why are males more vulnerable? • Possible causes: – Biological factors – Social roles – Differing stressors men & women face – Gender differences • In behavioral risk factors • In personality
    24. 24. 24 Males vs. Females Gender Differences • Sex differences in temperament appear as early as 6 months in hundreds of experiments. – Experiment (Rutgers University): Babies seated in front of a screen they are given a string to pull to change the picture in front of them. – Babies learn quickly how to change the pictures. The experimenters turn off the switch so the babies can no longer change the pictures • Boys keep pulling the string harder and harder – Boys more stubborn • Girls stop pulling and cry
    25. 25. 25 • Boys bang on things, girls don’t
    26. 26. 26 Reading • Different aptitudes at different speeds • Boys • Girls speak coherently about 1 year before a boy. • Girls reading and writing lifelong fluency over boys • Boys: Learn to read by sight – Boys out number girls in reading difficulties 3 to 1. • Girls: Better hearing learn to read and spell by sound
    27. 27. 27 Spatial Ability • Spatial ability better in boys tested at age 4 (able to test) • Grows more pronounced with age • Many more math talented boys than girls especially at higher levels of math – (Tested over a million kids over 20 years) • Left part of our brain: – Sequencing – Language – Delicate movements of the body • Right: – Visual and Spatial abilities – How we deal with emotions
    28. 28. 28 • Men’s speaking systems focused in left side of the brain • Process language in the right hemisphere.
    29. 29. 29 Can We Accept The Differences? • If we accepted the differences what might change? – Classrooms •More active for boys – Reading? – Math? • Why is our culture so hesitant to make and accept these changes?

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