Psych memory

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Psych memory

  1. 1. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 1 Psychology Memory by Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed & butchered by Professor Carney
  2. 2. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 2 Reflect on your own Personal Beliefs Regarding Memory  What does it mean to say you "remember" or "can't remember"?  Where do memories go when you can’t remember something?  How do they reappear?  Why is it that we have so few memories before about the age of 3 years?
  3. 3. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 3  Do we register every single thing we come into contact with?  Memories like videos?  If yes, then why can't we remember all of these things?  Accurate reflections of reality? Reflect on your own Personal Beliefs regarding Memory Cont.
  4. 4. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 4 Memory & the Law by British Psychological Society 2008 (book)  Guidelines for legal system  Memories of witnesses are flawed  Marred by gaps or imagination  Should not be relied upon in court  Memories are record of people’s experiences of events  Not a video of those events
  5. 5.  ‘People “remember” events that they have not in reality experienced & such recollections could – if heavily relied upon – lead to wrongful convictions.’  Recommends Courts use memory experts to help juries to evaluate memory-based evidence where, for instance, given by a child or elderly person. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 5 Memory & the Law by British Psychological Society 2008 (book)
  6. 6. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 6  “Older adults are more prone to false memories because of an overreliance on the gist of an event.”  Witnesses’ memories of events might be influenced by the way they were questioned Memory & the Law by British Psychological Society 2008 (book)
  7. 7. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 7 You Can’t Trust A Witness’s Memory, Experts Tell Courts 7/11/08, Cont.  Memories dating from below age of 7 cannot be relied upon without independent evidence.  Memories of specific events after the age of 10 can be  Highly accurate  Highly inaccurate  Wholly false
  8. 8. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 8 Memory  The ability to retain & retrieve what you have learned.  Brain's capacity to remember  One of the least understood areas of science.  Memory is a process that occurs constantly & in varying stages.
  9. 9. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 9 Initial Studies Ebbinghaus  Hermann Ebbinghaus  German  Pioneering research on memory 1879
  10. 10. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 10 Ebbinghaus Major Contributions  Developed 1st scientific approach  Study of process of memory  1st to use nonsense syllables  1st to describe “learning curve”
  11. 11. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 11 Initial Studies Ebbinghaus  Serial learning (ordered recall)  Learning in which material that has been learned must be repeated in the order in which it was presented.  Cat, dog, mouse, elephant, hamster, frog  Nonsense syllables  No meaning  How associations between stimuli formed?  Example: DAX, BOK & YAT 
  12. 12. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 12 Initial Studies Ebbinghaus  Serial position effect  Tendency for items at beginning & end of a list to be learned better than items in the middle.  Cat, dog, mouse, elephant, hamster, frog
  13. 13. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 13 Free Recall  Material that has been learned may be repeated in any order.  Free Recall test: http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch07/fr eerec.mhtml
  14. 14. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 14 Paired-associate Learning  Items to be recalled are learned in pairs.  Cloud-Nep  Bag-Llue  Door-aley  During recall, 1 of pair is presented  Other is to be recalled.  Cloud?  Nep  Learn foreign language
  15. 15. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 15 Paired-associate Learning  Conclusion  Learners remember the word pair as a unit  More affective, not as a stimulus that leads to response.  Learn  Cloud-Nep together
  16. 16. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 16 Initial Studies  Important finding of Ebbinghaus’s research is the curve of forgetting.
  17. 17. Distributed Practice  Best study frequently  Why? Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 17
  18. 18. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 18 Initial Studies  Recognition test  Pick out items previously viewed  Longer list also contains unfamiliar items.  Test my brain  http://www.testmybrain.org/
  19. 19. Recognition Test  Mouse  Chair  Rat  Bowl  Tub Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 19
  20. 20. Recognition Test Which words from the previous list do you remember?  Baby  Home  Chair  Purse  File  Rat  Mouse  Bowl  Cabinet  Clock  Tub  Boss Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 20
  21. 21. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 21 Initial Studies  Relearning test  Test of retention Compares time or trials required to learn material a 2nd time with time or trials required to learn material the 1st time.
  22. 22. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 22 Ebbinghaus Practical Application to Studying  Make information meaningful to you  Easier to memorize material  Learning curve  Increasing amount of material to be learned  Dramatically increases time it takes to learn it.
  23. 23. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 23 Ebbinghaus Practical Application to Studying  Relearning easier than initial learning  It takes longer to forget material after each subsequent re-learning.
  24. 24. Ebbinghaus Practical Application to Studying  Learning is more effective when it is spaced out over time rather than crammed into a single marathon study session.  Forgetting happens most rapidly right after learning occurs & slows down over time Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 24
  25. 25. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 25 3 Stages of Memory 1. Input or encoding stage 2. Storage stage 3. Retrieval stage
  26. 26. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 26 Stages of Memory  Encoding  Getting information into your brain from your sensory receptors.  Storing  Retaining the information in your brain.  Retrieval  Getting information back out of your brain.
  27. 27. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 27 1. Encoding stage  Getting information into your brain  Can occur through automatic processing.  Effortless  Read a word and you already know what it means.  Effortful Processing  Encoding that requires effort & conscious processing.  Calculus homework  Stuff information into your brain.
  28. 28. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 28 1. Encoding stage  Number of ways to encode (stuff information into your brain)  Rehearsal  Repeating the information.  Visualizing  Imagery  Making a mental picture
  29. 29. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 29 1. Encoding stage  Socks  monster  Encode  Toilet  Jargon  Toes  Believe  Easier to remember  You can form a mental picture of them.  Abstract  You can’t form a mental image.
  30. 30. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 30 1. Encoding stage  Must organize information to make it easier for your memory to hang onto it.  You can organize encoded information by chunking it.  Chunking  Organizing material into familiar manageable units.  Business phone numbers  1-800-the-law2  Easier to remember than a string of numbers
  31. 31. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 31 1. Encoding stage  Hierarchy  Like an outline  Organize  Understand  Recall information
  32. 32. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 32 2. Storage Stage  Encoded information must be stored in the memory system if we plan to retain it for any length of time or use it more than once.
  33. 33. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 33 3. Retrieval Stage  When we recall or bring a memory into consciousness, we have retrieved it.
  34. 34. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 34 Models of Memory Eidetic Imagery  Photographic memory  Can look at a written page, person, slide, or drawing & then later mentally see that image.  Appears to be rare  Images last for up to 4 minutes  Once image has faded the memory seems no better than others memories.
  35. 35. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 35 Models of Memory Stages-of- Memory Model  Also called traditional model  Memory can be processed in different ways.  There are 3 types of memory: sensory, short-term, and long-term.
  36. 36. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 36 Models of Memory  Sensory memory  Very brief  Lasting 1/2 to 1 second  Extensive memory for sensory events.  Short-term memory (STM)  Limited in capacity compared to sensory memory  Lasts longer (10 to 20 seconds).
  37. 37. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 37 Models of Memory  The initial 10- to 20-second STM period often leads to a second phase, working memory, during which attention and conscious effort are brought to bear on the material at hand.
  38. 38. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 38 Long-term Memory  (LTM) is the memory stage that has a very large capacity & the capability to store information relatively permanently.
  39. 39. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 39 Models of Memory  The stages-of-memory model stresses the importance of rehearsal or practice in this transfer.  Items that are rehearsed seem more likely to be transferred than unrehearsed items.  Memories may not be retrievable from LTM because they have faded or because of interference by other memories.
  40. 40. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 40 Models of Memory  We use maintenance rehearsal when we want to save or maintain a memory for a short period.  Participants who are instructed to remember a list use elaborative rehearsal, which adds meaning to material that we want to remember.
  41. 41. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 41 Models of Memory  Proactive interference occurs when old material interferes with the retrieval of material learned more recently.  .
  42. 42. Models of Memory  Retroactive interference occurs when recently learned material interferes with the retrieval of material learned earlier Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 42
  43. 43. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 43 Other Approaches To Memory  The tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon is a condition of being almost, but not quite, able to remember something; used to investigate the nature of semantic memory.  Episodic memory is memory of one’s personal experiences.  Flashbulb memories are detailed memories of situations that are very arousing, surprising, or emotional.  The study of flashbulb memories has provided information about episodic memory.
  44. 44. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 44 Techniques for Improving Memory  Mnemonic devices  Procedures for associating new information with previously stored memories.  If you create and use mental pictures or images of the items you are studying, you will remember them better.
  45. 45. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 45 Techniques for Improving Memory  Since the time of the 1st experiment on grouping, psychologists have consistently found that we tend to group or chunk items when we recall them.  Items that are not very meaningful or relevant to the learner are not learned as well or as easily as more meaningful or relevant items.
  46. 46. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 46 Techniques for Improving Memory During Reading  Predicting  Predict what will happen next in reading material, etc.  Ask questions based on titles to improve comprehension.  Example  Pink Collar Jobs  What is a pink collar job?  Do I know anyone that has a pink collar job?
  47. 47. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 47 Techniques for Improving Memory  Create special codes to help learn material that lacks relevance.  Code less relevant material in a meaningful form & then remember the coded items.  Acronyms & acrostics are 2 popular coding techniques.
  48. 48. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 48 Techniques for Improving Memory  An acronym is a word formed by the initial letter(s) of the items to be remembered.  Acrostic  Verse or saying (often unusual or humorous) in which the first letter(s) of each word stands for a bit of information.  Humor has a tendency to stick in people’s mind
  49. 49. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 49 Acrostic Example Using the Word Peace  People need love care and friendship.  Every word that we let slip.  All the prayers that come from our heart  Could be the sign for peace to start  Everyone must play their part .

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