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Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
Psych learning
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Psych learning

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  • 1. LEARNING
  • 2. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 What is Learning? • Learning: – The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior.
  • 3. Behavior and Fear Conditioning • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVJMhk4oA 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3
  • 4. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 4 Behaviorists • Look at how people respond to the things in their environment that affect them. • Don’t think it is important to study one’s – Inner needs – Thoughts – Feelings – Motives
  • 5. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5 Associative Learning (Stimulus Response) • People learn to associate events – Lighting – Thunder • 2 types of Associative Learning – Classical Conditioning • Stimulus from environment > reflexive response from subject – Operant Conditioning • Behavior from subject > response from environment
  • 6. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 6 Classical Conditioning • Classical conditioning –Form of learning that occurs when 2 stimuli—a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus—that are paired (presented together) become associated with each other.
  • 7. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 7 Ivan Pavlov & Classical Conditioning • (1849-1936) • Russian physiologist • Studied digestion • Psychology hopeless as an independent science.
  • 8. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 8 Pavlov Cont. • Serendipity • Noticed dogs salivated before food presented • Sounded bell before feeding dogs • Dogs salivated at sound of bell whether food or not. • Ringing a bell alone would not ordinarily produce salivation. • Classical conditioning has been demonstrated in all species.
  • 9. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 9 Classical Conditioning • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – Stimulus that automatically produces response without any previous training. • Meat – Naturally salivate when anticipate eating » Naturally & automatically elicit response • Lighter to your finger – Automatically pull away » Fire unconditioned stimulus » Stimulus > Response
  • 10. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 10 Classical Conditioning • Unconditioned response (UCR) – Reaction that is automatically produced when an unconditioned stimulus is presented. • Unlearned naturally occurring response – Dog • Unconditioned response was salivation – Lighting your finger • Unconditioned response pull away
  • 11. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 11 Classical Conditioning • A neutral stimulus (NS) – Stimulus that, before conditioning, does not elicit a particular response. – Dog • Bell – Does not naturally & automatically produce a response
  • 12. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 12 Classical Conditioning • Conditioned stimulus (CS) – Neutral stimulus that acquires ability to elicit a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus. – Dog • Paired sound of bell with meat – Tone no longer neutral stimulus » Conditioned stimulus
  • 13. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 13 Classical Conditioning • Conditioned response (CR) – Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus; it is similar to the unconditioned response. – Several pairings of the NS and UCS during an acquisition phase lead to a situation in which the CS presented by itself elicits a CR. • Bell > Salivation • Wouldn’t naturally salivate at sound of bell
  • 14. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 14 Classical Conditioning Cont. • Neurological change occurs before eating. • Dopamine in addicts is released even before they get the drug in anticipation of receiving it.
  • 15. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 15 Classical Conditioning Cont. • Sound of a can opener • Fish swim fast when knock on the aquarium. • Taught the fish to have a physiological response to the tapping. • Learned tap = food • Consistent • Short time interval • * Conduct experiment on Crunch.
  • 16. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 16 Classical Conditioning in Humans
  • 17. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 17 Classical Conditioning in Humans • Advertising using Classical Conditioning? – Taught to pair what with what?
  • 18. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 18 Classical Conditioning • John Watson & Rosalie Rayner –Demonstrated • Emotions can be learned by classically conditioning – 9-month-old Little Albert to fear a white rat. • Every time Albert reached for rat – Struck steel bar
  • 19. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 19 Classical Conditioning in Humans • Rosalie Rayner & John Watson (1920'S) • Conditioning Little Albert to fear white rat. • Not ethical by present-day standards.
  • 20. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 20 Classical Conditioning in Humans • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) • Loud noise – No learning • Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – Rat • Unconditioned Response (UCR) • Fear (of loud noise) – No learning • Conditioned Response (CR) – Fear of rat
  • 21. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 21 Little Albert Cont. • Generalized • Became frightened of –White animals –Stuffed animals –Fur coats –Santa Claus beards
  • 22. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 22 Classical Conditioning in Humans • Discrimination – Ability to tell difference between similar stimuli. • Rat not the same as fur coat
  • 23. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 23 Mary Cover Jones (1924) • 3 yr. Old Peter • Afraid of white rats • Placed cage at a distance • Gave child candy • Each day moved cage closer • Candy + white rat = pleasure • Rat conditioned stimulus for pleasure
  • 24. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 24 Classical Conditioning • Optimum sequence for CS to precede the UCS (by about .50 second). • Stronger the UCS, stronger the conditioning. • More times the CS & UCS are presented together – Stronger the CR becomes • Steel bar hit every time you touch the rat • *Complete crunch experiment
  • 25. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 25 Classical Conditioning Cont. Aversion Therapy • A type of Classical Conditioning technique for reducing or eliminating behavior by pairing the behavior with an unpleasant stimulus. – Antibuse – Squirrels hot pepper
  • 26. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 26 Classical Conditioning Cont. • Extinction: Weakening of associations. • Dog door story –Open all the time –Open sometimes –Closed all the time –Behavior becomes extinct
  • 27. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 27 Classical Conditioning • Extinction • General term for a reduction & eventual disappearance of a behavior • Process of getting rid of a conditioned response • Classical conditioning – Extinction occurs when repeated presentation of CS alone leads to a decrease in the strength of the CR.
  • 28. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 28 Classical Conditioning • Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of an extinguished CR after the passage of time.
  • 29. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 29 Spontaneous Recovery • Dog door – Dog stops checking – One day checks again – Extinction • Car – Battery dead – Stop checking – Check again – Extinction
  • 30. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 30 Classical Conditioning • Many of our fears and anxieties may have been classically conditioned. • A phobia is an irrational fear of an activity, object, or situation that is out of proportion to the actual danger it poses.
  • 31. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 31 Desensitization Therapy • Joseph Wolpe, 1973 • Fear of flying –Hierarchy of fear –Pair item with relaxation
  • 32. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 32 Classical Conditioning • Taste-aversion learning refers to the development of a dislike or aversion to a flavor or food that has been paired with illness. • Garcia Effect
  • 33. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 33 Operant Conditioning • Also known as instrumental conditioning, an organism operates on its environment to produce a change. • Teaches subjects to associate behaviors with their consequences – Subject acts first – Environment responds to the action • Classical Conditioning – Environment acts first by triggering or eliciting a response from subject
  • 34. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 34 Operant Conditioning • Behaviors more likely to be repeated if they are followed by a reward or an incentive to do it again. • Less likely to be repeated if followed by a punishment. – Principles apply to both Operant & Classical Conditioning • Extinction • Generalization • Discrimination
  • 35. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 35 Edward Thorndike • Studied behavior of animals – Placed them in a small chamber • Puzzle box
  • 36. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 36 Thorndike's Puzzle Box • Did not know how to escape. • 1st cats explored restlessly, meowed. • Eventually stepped on the foot switch accidentally – Trap door opened. – On succeeding trials, they operated the switch faster.
  • 37. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 37 Edward Thorndike • Believed that when cat stumbled upon a behavior that produced a desirable effect – Created a link or associative bond between • Stimulus (in this case, being in the cage) • Response (stepping on the switch). – Later, in the same stimulus situation response occurred faster. • Thorndike’s Law of Effect – People are more likely to do things when the consequences feel good.
  • 38. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 38 Operant Conditioning • Example: –Training a dog to roll over. –How did you do it? –What steps did you take?
  • 39. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 39 Shaping • Reinforcing successive approximations to the desired behavior.
  • 40. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 40 Operant Conditioning • B.F. Skinner influenced by Thorndike, & John B. Watson’s behavioral view of psychology. • Watson – If we could understand how to • Predict • Control behavior – Would know all there was to know about psychology. • Skinner looked for the stimuli that control behavior.
  • 41. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 41 Operant Conditioning Chamber or Skinner Box.
  • 42. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 42 Skinner • Skinner box recorded – How fast – How often • Pressed the bar – Taught animals weird behaviors to get food • Reward • Used shaping – Operant Conditioning • Subject acts first • Reward from environment • If subject likes reward will probably repeat behavior
  • 43. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 43 Operant Conditioning • Reinforcer – Event or stimulus that increases the frequency of the response that it follows.
  • 44. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 44 Reinforcers • Primary Reinforcers – Food – Hour extra sleep – Something that feels good & satisfying all by itself. • Secondary Reinforcers – Not satisfying all by themselves – Learn they are worth repeating a behavior • Money / Concert tickets – By themselves not fun » Buy fun stuff » See a show with the tickets
  • 45. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 45 Reinforcers • Positive reinforcers – Gives subject something • More likely that a behavior will be repeated – Food – Money – Concert tickets – Praise • Presented after the target response occurs.
  • 46. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 46 Reinforcers • Negative reinforcers – Events or stimuli that are removed because a response has occurred. • Takes away something unpleasant – Example Skinner Box • Rat gets shock • Press bar to stop shock – Behavior reinforced when the pain of the current stops
  • 47. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 47 Operant Conditioning
  • 48. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 48 Operant Conditioning • Punisher – Stimulus that produces a decrease in responding – May take the form of presentation of a stimulus or termination of a stimulus.
  • 49. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 49 Operant Conditioning • Punishment – Process of using a punisher to decrease response rate. • Punishment is not an especially effective means of altering behavior. – May repeat the behavior but not in the presence of the punisher – Sometimes creates fear & aggression – Doesn’t encourage desired behavior – RAT EXPERIMENT!!``````````````
  • 50. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 50 Cognitive and Social Perspectives On Learning • Latent learning occurs when learning has taken place, but is not demonstrated.
  • 51. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 51 Cognitive and Social Perspectives On Learning • Latent learning occurs when learning has taken place, but is not demonstrated.
  • 52. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 52 Cognitive and Social Perspectives On Learning • Observational learning (modeling) – Learning that occurs through watching & imitating the behaviors of others. • Parents • See person doing the behavior reinforced for the behavior – Gold & silver class watch teacher do what you have been trying to do easier.
  • 53. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 53 Cognitive and Social Perspectives On Learning • Keys to observational learning – Participant identifies with the person being observed. • Vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishment. – Put ourselves in the other person’s place for a moment – Better able to imagine the effects of the reinforcer or punisher. • Brown eye, blue eye study
  • 54. 03/13/14 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 54 Cognitive and Social Perspectives On Learning • Attempts to influence behavior through observational learning occur every day (along with efforts based on classical conditioning). • Observational learning – Used to reduce or eliminate phobias.

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