Social Psychology

Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall

1
Social Psychology
• Scientific study of how a person's
• Thoughts
• Feelings
• Behaviors
• Are influenced by
• Behavior
• ...
Social Psychology
• Examines
• Causes
• Types
• Consequences
• Of human interaction

• Interactions occur in a specific cu...
Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall

4
Social Psychology
• Dress
• Do you really dress the way you would like
to?
• What clothes to wear when?
• Accessories
• Sh...
Social Psychology
• Space
• How close you stand to someone is culturally
determined.
• Exercise
• Closest?
• Farthest way?...
Social Psychology
• Speech
• Do's and don'ts
• What can you say to someone?
• Should you look someone in the eyes when
spe...
Social Psychology
• Eat?
•
•
•
•

What foods do you eat with your fingers?
Which foods accompany other foods?
What do we e...
Social Psychology
• Culture clash
• Parents
• Travel
• Moving from one part of the country to
another
• Country to the cit...
Social Psychology
• Ethnocentrism
• A belief in or assumption of the superiority of the
social or cultural group that a pe...
Social Psychology and Culture
• Culture can influence
• Type of research problem we choose to
investigate
• Hypothesis
• S...
Cross Cultural Study on Body Size

• Men's Body Image
• Women prefer the
same male body size
across cultures?

Copyright 2...
Social Psychology and Culture
• Individualism
• Placing one’s own goals above those of the
group.
• U.S.

• Collectivism
•...
Social Psychology and Culture
• Degree of individualism or collectivism in
a culture can influence many aspects of
behavio...
Social Psychology and Culture
• Cultures vary widely
• Social psychologists need to conduct
cross-cultural studies
• Can r...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• Impression formation
• Process of developing an opinion about
another person.
• Ac...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• Stereotypes
• Me
• Other professors
• Hair color
• Age

• Positive
• Professors ar...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
•

4 features of the actor have been shown
to influence impression formation.
1) Phy...
Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall

19
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• Why do we all create stereotypes?
• Safe, not safe
• Easier on our on our brain
• ...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• 2 reasons stereotypes persist
• 1. Believe that a group of people possesses
certai...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior

• Self-fulfilling prophecy

• When your behaviors influence others to
respond the w...
The Halo Effect
•

Named due to the
perfection associated
with angels.
Assumption

•
•

Attractive people are:
•
•
•

•

M...
The Halo Effect
• Alternative explanation for attractive
people achieving more in life
• We automatically categorize other...
The Halo Effect
• Cultural
stereotypes
• Attractive people
must be
intrinsically good
• Ugly people must
be inherently bad...
The Halo Effect
• “Beautiful is good” stereotype
• Assumes that attractive people have positive
characteristics
• Witty
• ...
The Halo Effect
• Elliot Aronson, social psychologist at
Stanford
• Self-fulfilling prophecies
• Person’s self-perception ...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• Research on self-disclosure
• The more a person reveals about themselves
• More po...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
•

Communication
•

Nonverbal communication
•

Important in determining initial impr...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior

• 1st Impressions

• How do they effect us?
• Hear something bad
about someone?

• ...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior

• Attributions

• Addresses how people make judgments
about the causes of behavior....
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• Internal Versus External Causes
• Internal attributions
• Behavior is seen as bein...
Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall

33
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• External
attributions

• Causes of behavior
are viewed as
residing outside an
indi...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• Fundamental attribution error
• Tendency to attribute the behavior of others
to ca...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• Self-Serving Bias
• Defensive Attribution
• Tendency to attribute our successes to...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior

• Actor-perceiver bias

• Perceivers more likely to make internal
attributions
• Ac...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• Another aspect of the self-serving bias
involves the just world belief.
• Just wor...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• Attitudes
• Relatively stable organization of
• Beliefs
• Feelings
• Behavior
• Di...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• 3 components of attitude formation
• Think
• Feel
• Do

Copyright 2004 - Prentice ...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• 1st component of attitude formation
• Evaluative beliefs
• Think
• Facts
• Opinion...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• 2nd component of attitude formation
• Feeling
•
•
•
•
•
•

Mad
Sad
Glad
Scared
Sur...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• 3rd component of attitude formation
• Behavioral tendency
• Approach
• Avoid

Copy...
How We View Others and
Their Behavior
• Example:
• Cell phone
• Think
• Feel
• Do

• Do we always act according to our
att...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• Social pressure?
• Does the Dare program work?
• Why or why not?

Copyright 2004 -...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• What variables help form our
basic attitudes?

Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall

49
How We View Others and
Their Behavior
•
•
•
•
•

Parents
Teachers
Media
Peers
Billboards
• Kids sponges
Copyright 2004 - P...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• Advertisers
• Make sure our 1st exposure to product is very
positive.

Copyright 2...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• Self-reports often used to measure
attitudes
• Influence responses
• Types of ques...
How We View Others and Their
Behavior
• Likert scales
• Questionnaires
participants
indicate degree
of agreement or
disagr...
Experiment
• Shoes

Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall

54
Social Influences on Behavior
• Obedience
• The initiating or changing of behavior in
response to a direct command of an
a...
Social Influences on Behavior
• Milgram
• More than 800 townspeople in New Haven,
Connecticut participated
• Scientist (th...
Social Influences on Behavior
• Teacher read a list of word
• Learner gave 1st word of a pair and asked the
learner to ide...
Social Influences on Behavior
• Ultimately 65% of all of the "teachers"
punished the "learners" to the maximum
450 volts.
...
Social Influences on Behavior

Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall

59
Social Influences on Behavior
• Milgram
• Authority figure
takes responsibility
for any harm
resulting from
obedience to
c...
Social Influences on Behavior
• Milgram's experiment
• Results:
•
•
•
•
•
•

2/3 obeyed fully
Why do we obey authority?
Wa...
Social Influences on Behavior
• Conformity
• Results from indirect social pressure on an
individual to change his or her b...
Social Influences on Behavior
• Selecting the
matching line
• 30% of Asch’s
participants chose
incorrectly to
conform with...
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  • Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D.
    These slides ©1999 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.
  • Psych chapter 15

    1. 1. Social Psychology Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 1
    2. 2. Social Psychology • Scientific study of how a person's • Thoughts • Feelings • Behaviors • Are influenced by • Behavior • Characteristics • Of other people • Real • Imagined • Inferred Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 2
    3. 3. Social Psychology • Examines • Causes • Types • Consequences • Of human interaction • Interactions occur in a specific cultural context. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 3
    4. 4. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 4
    5. 5. Social Psychology • Dress • Do you really dress the way you would like to? • What clothes to wear when? • Accessories • Shoes Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 5
    6. 6. Social Psychology • Space • How close you stand to someone is culturally determined. • Exercise • Closest? • Farthest way? Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 6
    7. 7. Social Psychology • Speech • Do's and don'ts • What can you say to someone? • Should you look someone in the eyes when speaking? • Should we speak the truth? • Slang Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 7
    8. 8. Social Psychology • Eat? • • • • What foods do you eat with your fingers? Which foods accompany other foods? What do we eat and how much? What is cool to eat? • Food PowerPoint Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 8
    9. 9. Social Psychology • Culture clash • Parents • Travel • Moving from one part of the country to another • Country to the city • Blue collar job to a white collar job Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 9
    10. 10. Social Psychology • Ethnocentrism • A belief in or assumption of the superiority of the social or cultural group that a person belongs to. • Researchers sometimes guilty of • Disregard cultural differences • See other cultures as an extension of their own “superior” culture • Therefore will view another culture from our own eyes • Female Genital Mutilation Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 10
    11. 11. Social Psychology and Culture • Culture can influence • Type of research problem we choose to investigate • Hypothesis • Selection of the variables we choose to manipulate & record Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 11
    12. 12. Cross Cultural Study on Body Size • Men's Body Image • Women prefer the same male body size across cultures? Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 12
    13. 13. Social Psychology and Culture • Individualism • Placing one’s own goals above those of the group. • U.S. • Collectivism • Placing group goals above individual goals. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 13
    14. 14. Social Psychology and Culture • Degree of individualism or collectivism in a culture can influence many aspects of behavior • • • • • Interpersonal relations Self-concept Parenting practices Self-esteem Emotional expression Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 14
    15. 15. Social Psychology and Culture • Cultures vary widely • Social psychologists need to conduct cross-cultural studies • Can results of research conducted in one culture be generalized to others? Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 15
    16. 16. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Impression formation • Process of developing an opinion about another person. • Actor • Perceiver • Judgments you made of me and classmates • Based on • Stereotypes • Set of beliefs about members of a particular group. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 16
    17. 17. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Stereotypes • Me • Other professors • Hair color • Age • Positive • Professors are geniuses. • Negative • Blondes are stupid. • In-group • Our group • Positive • Out-group • Negative Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 17
    18. 18. How We View Others and Their Behavior • 4 features of the actor have been shown to influence impression formation. 1) Physical appearance 2) Style and content of speech 3) Nonverbal mannerisms and nonverbal communication 4) Perceiver’s prior information about the actor Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 18
    19. 19. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 19
    20. 20. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Why do we all create stereotypes? • Safe, not safe • Easier on our on our brain • Don’t have to continually process bits of information Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 20
    21. 21. How We View Others and Their Behavior • 2 reasons stereotypes persist • 1. Believe that a group of people possesses certain characteristics • Note behaviors consistent with those characteristics • Fail to notice behaviors that are inconsistent • Example? • 2. Effects of our own reactions & behaviors on the individuals in question. • Treat people consistent with stereotype Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 21
    22. 22. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Self-fulfilling prophecy • When your behaviors influence others to respond the way you expect • Information that is available to you before you meet someone can affect your impression of that person. • The activation of a stereotype can either enhance or decrease (stereotype threat) an individual’s performance. • Stars demanding Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 22
    23. 23. The Halo Effect • Named due to the perfection associated with angels. Assumption • • Attractive people are: • • • • More intelligent Better adjusted More popular Research shows attractive people: • • More occupational success More dating experience Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 23
    24. 24. The Halo Effect • Alternative explanation for attractive people achieving more in life • We automatically categorize others before having an opportunity to evaluate their personalities • Cultural stereotypes • Attractive people must be intrinsically good • Ugly people must be inherently bad Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 24
    25. 25. The Halo Effect • Cultural stereotypes • Attractive people must be intrinsically good • Ugly people must be inherently bad Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 25
    26. 26. The Halo Effect • “Beautiful is good” stereotype • Assumes that attractive people have positive characteristics • Witty • Intelligent • Pleasing personalities • Therefore attractive people can be expected to make better impressions. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 26
    27. 27. The Halo Effect • Elliot Aronson, social psychologist at Stanford • Self-fulfilling prophecies • Person’s self-perception perpetuated by feedback from others • May play a role in success as well. • People who feel they are attractive - not necessarily rated as such– • Just as successful as those judged to be good-looking. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 27
    28. 28. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Research on self-disclosure • The more a person reveals about themselves • More positive the impression • Too much early in a relationship • May result in a negative first impression Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 28
    29. 29. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Communication • Nonverbal communication • Important in determining initial impressions. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 29
    30. 30. How We View Others and Their Behavior • 1st Impressions • How do they effect us? • Hear something bad about someone? • Murder ? • All the facts are in hard to believe • 1. Wealthy • 2. Popular • 3. Family man Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 30
    31. 31. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Attributions • Addresses how people make judgments about the causes of behavior. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 31
    32. 32. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Internal Versus External Causes • Internal attributions • Behavior is seen as being caused by factors that reside within a person. • Stupid, smart, unfocused, critical, etc. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 32
    33. 33. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 33
    34. 34. How We View Others and Their Behavior • External attributions • Causes of behavior are viewed as residing outside an individual. • Environmental • Wave • Bright light Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 34
    35. 35. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Fundamental attribution error • Tendency to attribute the behavior of others to causes within themselves. • Example • Driving • He drives reckless because he is an asshole. • Test • She did poorly on the test because she is rather stupid. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 35
    36. 36. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Self-Serving Bias • Defensive Attribution • Tendency to attribute our successes to our own efforts or qualities • Failures to external factors • Driving • I drive fast because I am in a hurry. • He drives fast because he is an asshole. • Test • I did poorly on the test because the room was noisy. • I did well on the test because I am intelligent. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 36
    37. 37. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Actor-perceiver bias • Perceivers more likely to make internal attributions • Actors more likely to make external attributions. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 37
    38. 38. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Another aspect of the self-serving bias involves the just world belief. • Just world belief • Bad things happen to bad people • Good things happen to good people Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 41
    39. 39. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Attitudes • Relatively stable organization of • Beliefs • Feelings • Behavior • Directed toward something or someone. • Position on something or someone. • Can be positive, negative, or neutral Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 42
    40. 40. How We View Others and Their Behavior • 3 components of attitude formation • Think • Feel • Do Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 43
    41. 41. How We View Others and Their Behavior • 1st component of attitude formation • Evaluative beliefs • Think • Facts • Opinions • General knowledge Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 44
    42. 42. How We View Others and Their Behavior • 2nd component of attitude formation • Feeling • • • • • • Mad Sad Glad Scared Surprise Disgust Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 45
    43. 43. How We View Others and Their Behavior • 3rd component of attitude formation • Behavioral tendency • Approach • Avoid Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 46
    44. 44. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Example: • Cell phone • Think • Feel • Do • Do we always act according to our attitudes? • Why or why not? Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 47
    45. 45. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Social pressure? • Does the Dare program work? • Why or why not? Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 48
    46. 46. How We View Others and Their Behavior • What variables help form our basic attitudes? Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 49
    47. 47. How We View Others and Their Behavior • • • • • Parents Teachers Media Peers Billboards • Kids sponges Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 50
    48. 48. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Advertisers • Make sure our 1st exposure to product is very positive. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 51
    49. 49. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Self-reports often used to measure attitudes • Influence responses • Types of questions asked • Way they are worded • Attitudes can be measured by Likert scales & evaluation of observed behaviors. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 52
    50. 50. How We View Others and Their Behavior • Likert scales • Questionnaires participants indicate degree of agreement or disagreement with statements. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 53
    51. 51. Experiment • Shoes Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 54
    52. 52. Social Influences on Behavior • Obedience • The initiating or changing of behavior in response to a direct command of an authority. • In cases in which obedience will result in harm to another person, obedience increases with proximity to the source of the commands but decreases with proximity to the victim. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 55
    53. 53. Social Influences on Behavior • Milgram • More than 800 townspeople in New Haven, Connecticut participated • Scientist (the experimenter) wearing a white laboratory coat • Middle-aged man • Confederate • Learner • Participant • Teacher • Real participant Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 56
    54. 54. Social Influences on Behavior • Teacher read a list of word • Learner gave 1st word of a pair and asked the learner to identify the second word from among 4 words. • Each time the learner gave an incorrect answer • Teacher instructed to administer an electric shock starting at 15 volts • Before the session began, each teacher experienced a mild (45-volt) shock to appreciate what the learner would feel. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 57
    55. 55. Social Influences on Behavior • Ultimately 65% of all of the "teachers" punished the "learners" to the maximum 450 volts. • No subject stopped before reaching 300 volts! Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 58
    56. 56. Social Influences on Behavior Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 59
    57. 57. Social Influences on Behavior • Milgram • Authority figure takes responsibility for any harm resulting from obedience to commands, the likelihood of obedience is high. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 60
    58. 58. Social Influences on Behavior • Milgram's experiment • Results: • • • • • • 2/3 obeyed fully Why do we obey authority? Waco Jonestown Heaven's gate Hitler Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 61
    59. 59. Social Influences on Behavior • Conformity • Results from indirect social pressure on an individual to change his or her behaviors and thoughts. • The nature of the authority behind pressures for conformity is not as obvious as it is in commands for obedience. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 62
    60. 60. Social Influences on Behavior • Selecting the matching line • 30% of Asch’s participants chose incorrectly to conform with the group. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 63
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