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  • Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. <br /> These slides ©1999 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing. <br />

Psych chapter 15 Psych chapter 15 Presentation Transcript

  • Social Psychology Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 1
  • Social Psychology • Scientific study of how a person's • Thoughts • Feelings • Behaviors • Are influenced by • Behavior • Characteristics • Of other people • Real • Imagined • Inferred Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 2
  • Social Psychology • Examines • Causes • Types • Consequences • Of human interaction • Interactions occur in a specific cultural context. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 3
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  • Social Psychology • Dress • Do you really dress the way you would like to? • What clothes to wear when? • Accessories • Shoes Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 5
  • Social Psychology • Space • How close you stand to someone is culturally determined. • Exercise • Closest? • Farthest way? Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 6
  • Social Psychology • Speech • Do's and don'ts • What can you say to someone? • Should you look someone in the eyes when speaking? • Should we speak the truth? • Slang Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 7
  • Social Psychology • Eat? • • • • What foods do you eat with your fingers? Which foods accompany other foods? What do we eat and how much? What is cool to eat? • Food PowerPoint Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 8
  • Social Psychology • Culture clash • Parents • Travel • Moving from one part of the country to another • Country to the city • Blue collar job to a white collar job Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 9
  • Social Psychology • Ethnocentrism • A belief in or assumption of the superiority of the social or cultural group that a person belongs to. • Researchers sometimes guilty of • Disregard cultural differences • See other cultures as an extension of their own “superior” culture • Therefore will view another culture from our own eyes • Female Genital Mutilation Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 10
  • Social Psychology and Culture • Culture can influence • Type of research problem we choose to investigate • Hypothesis • Selection of the variables we choose to manipulate & record Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 11
  • Cross Cultural Study on Body Size • Men's Body Image • Women prefer the same male body size across cultures? Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 12
  • Social Psychology and Culture • Individualism • Placing one’s own goals above those of the group. • U.S. • Collectivism • Placing group goals above individual goals. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 13
  • Social Psychology and Culture • Degree of individualism or collectivism in a culture can influence many aspects of behavior • • • • • Interpersonal relations Self-concept Parenting practices Self-esteem Emotional expression Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 14
  • Social Psychology and Culture • Cultures vary widely • Social psychologists need to conduct cross-cultural studies • Can results of research conducted in one culture be generalized to others? Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 15
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Impression formation • Process of developing an opinion about another person. • Actor • Perceiver • Judgments you made of me and classmates • Based on • Stereotypes • Set of beliefs about members of a particular group. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 16
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Stereotypes • Me • Other professors • Hair color • Age • Positive • Professors are geniuses. • Negative • Blondes are stupid. • In-group • Our group • Positive • Out-group • Negative Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 17
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • 4 features of the actor have been shown to influence impression formation. 1) Physical appearance 2) Style and content of speech 3) Nonverbal mannerisms and nonverbal communication 4) Perceiver’s prior information about the actor Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 18
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  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Why do we all create stereotypes? • Safe, not safe • Easier on our on our brain • Don’t have to continually process bits of information Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 20
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • 2 reasons stereotypes persist • 1. Believe that a group of people possesses certain characteristics • Note behaviors consistent with those characteristics • Fail to notice behaviors that are inconsistent • Example? • 2. Effects of our own reactions & behaviors on the individuals in question. • Treat people consistent with stereotype Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 21
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Self-fulfilling prophecy • When your behaviors influence others to respond the way you expect • Information that is available to you before you meet someone can affect your impression of that person. • The activation of a stereotype can either enhance or decrease (stereotype threat) an individual’s performance. • Stars demanding Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 22
  • The Halo Effect • Named due to the perfection associated with angels. Assumption • • Attractive people are: • • • • More intelligent Better adjusted More popular Research shows attractive people: • • More occupational success More dating experience Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 23
  • The Halo Effect • Alternative explanation for attractive people achieving more in life • We automatically categorize others before having an opportunity to evaluate their personalities • Cultural stereotypes • Attractive people must be intrinsically good • Ugly people must be inherently bad Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 24
  • The Halo Effect • Cultural stereotypes • Attractive people must be intrinsically good • Ugly people must be inherently bad Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 25
  • The Halo Effect • “Beautiful is good” stereotype • Assumes that attractive people have positive characteristics • Witty • Intelligent • Pleasing personalities • Therefore attractive people can be expected to make better impressions. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 26
  • The Halo Effect • Elliot Aronson, social psychologist at Stanford • Self-fulfilling prophecies • Person’s self-perception perpetuated by feedback from others • May play a role in success as well. • People who feel they are attractive - not necessarily rated as such– • Just as successful as those judged to be good-looking. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 27
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Research on self-disclosure • The more a person reveals about themselves • More positive the impression • Too much early in a relationship • May result in a negative first impression Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 28
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Communication • Nonverbal communication • Important in determining initial impressions. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 29
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • 1st Impressions • How do they effect us? • Hear something bad about someone? • Murder ? • All the facts are in hard to believe • 1. Wealthy • 2. Popular • 3. Family man Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 30
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Attributions • Addresses how people make judgments about the causes of behavior. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 31
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Internal Versus External Causes • Internal attributions • Behavior is seen as being caused by factors that reside within a person. • Stupid, smart, unfocused, critical, etc. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 32
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  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • External attributions • Causes of behavior are viewed as residing outside an individual. • Environmental • Wave • Bright light Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 34
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Fundamental attribution error • Tendency to attribute the behavior of others to causes within themselves. • Example • Driving • He drives reckless because he is an asshole. • Test • She did poorly on the test because she is rather stupid. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 35
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Self-Serving Bias • Defensive Attribution • Tendency to attribute our successes to our own efforts or qualities • Failures to external factors • Driving • I drive fast because I am in a hurry. • He drives fast because he is an asshole. • Test • I did poorly on the test because the room was noisy. • I did well on the test because I am intelligent. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 36
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Actor-perceiver bias • Perceivers more likely to make internal attributions • Actors more likely to make external attributions. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 37
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Another aspect of the self-serving bias involves the just world belief. • Just world belief • Bad things happen to bad people • Good things happen to good people Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 41
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Attitudes • Relatively stable organization of • Beliefs • Feelings • Behavior • Directed toward something or someone. • Position on something or someone. • Can be positive, negative, or neutral Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 42
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • 3 components of attitude formation • Think • Feel • Do Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 43
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • 1st component of attitude formation • Evaluative beliefs • Think • Facts • Opinions • General knowledge Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 44
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • 2nd component of attitude formation • Feeling • • • • • • Mad Sad Glad Scared Surprise Disgust Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 45
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • 3rd component of attitude formation • Behavioral tendency • Approach • Avoid Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 46
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Example: • Cell phone • Think • Feel • Do • Do we always act according to our attitudes? • Why or why not? Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 47
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Social pressure? • Does the Dare program work? • Why or why not? Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 48
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • What variables help form our basic attitudes? Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 49
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • • • • • Parents Teachers Media Peers Billboards • Kids sponges Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 50
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Advertisers • Make sure our 1st exposure to product is very positive. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 51
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Self-reports often used to measure attitudes • Influence responses • Types of questions asked • Way they are worded • Attitudes can be measured by Likert scales & evaluation of observed behaviors. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 52
  • How We View Others and Their Behavior • Likert scales • Questionnaires participants indicate degree of agreement or disagreement with statements. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 53
  • Experiment • Shoes Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 54
  • Social Influences on Behavior • Obedience • The initiating or changing of behavior in response to a direct command of an authority. • In cases in which obedience will result in harm to another person, obedience increases with proximity to the source of the commands but decreases with proximity to the victim. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 55
  • Social Influences on Behavior • Milgram • More than 800 townspeople in New Haven, Connecticut participated • Scientist (the experimenter) wearing a white laboratory coat • Middle-aged man • Confederate • Learner • Participant • Teacher • Real participant Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 56
  • Social Influences on Behavior • Teacher read a list of word • Learner gave 1st word of a pair and asked the learner to identify the second word from among 4 words. • Each time the learner gave an incorrect answer • Teacher instructed to administer an electric shock starting at 15 volts • Before the session began, each teacher experienced a mild (45-volt) shock to appreciate what the learner would feel. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 57
  • Social Influences on Behavior • Ultimately 65% of all of the "teachers" punished the "learners" to the maximum 450 volts. • No subject stopped before reaching 300 volts! Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 58
  • Social Influences on Behavior Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 59
  • Social Influences on Behavior • Milgram • Authority figure takes responsibility for any harm resulting from obedience to commands, the likelihood of obedience is high. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 60
  • Social Influences on Behavior • Milgram's experiment • Results: • • • • • • 2/3 obeyed fully Why do we obey authority? Waco Jonestown Heaven's gate Hitler Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 61
  • Social Influences on Behavior • Conformity • Results from indirect social pressure on an individual to change his or her behaviors and thoughts. • The nature of the authority behind pressures for conformity is not as obvious as it is in commands for obedience. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 62
  • Social Influences on Behavior • Selecting the matching line • 30% of Asch’s participants chose incorrectly to conform with the group. Copyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 63