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PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology
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PSYCHOLOGY, Abnormal Psychology

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  • Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D.
    These slides ©1999 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 11 PsychologicalPsychological DisordersDisorders
    • 2. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 22 Abnormal BehaviorAbnormal Behavior Patterns of emotion, thought & actionPatterns of emotion, thought & action considered pathological for 1 or more ofconsidered pathological for 1 or more of the following reasons:the following reasons: Statistical rarityStatistical rarity Interference with normal functioningInterference with normal functioning Personal distressPersonal distress Deviance from social normsDeviance from social norms
    • 3. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 33 Abnormal BehaviorAbnormal Behavior 1. Statistical rarity1. Statistical rarity Behavior does not occur oftenBehavior does not occur often 2. Interference with normal functioning2. Interference with normal functioning EmotionsEmotions ThoughtsThoughts Actions that interfere with ability to functionActions that interfere with ability to function Own lifeOwn life SocietySociety
    • 4. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 44 Abnormal BehaviorAbnormal Behavior 3. Personal distress3. Personal distress Person’s own judgmentPerson’s own judgment 4. Deviance from social norms4. Deviance from social norms Violates cultural normsViolates cultural norms Walking down the street naked.Walking down the street naked.  Can change over timeCan change over time  Vary across groupsVary across groups
    • 5. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 55 Abnormal BehaviorAbnormal Behavior InsanityInsanity Legal rulingLegal ruling Not responsible for a crimeNot responsible for a crime Inability to tell difference between right &Inability to tell difference between right & wrong at time of crime.wrong at time of crime. Insanity pleaInsanity plea Rarely usedRarely used Rarely successfulRarely successful
    • 6. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 66 Abnormal BehaviorAbnormal Behavior Medical modelMedical model Abnormal behaviors no different fromAbnormal behaviors no different from illnessesillnesses Seeks to identify symptomsSeeks to identify symptoms Prescribe medical treatmentsPrescribe medical treatments Psychodynamic modelPsychodynamic model Psychological disorders result fromPsychological disorders result from unconscious conflicts related to sex &unconscious conflicts related to sex & aggression.aggression.
    • 7. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 77 Abnormal BehaviorAbnormal Behavior Behavioral modelBehavioral model Classical conditioningClassical conditioning Operant conditioningOperant conditioning ModelingModeling Cognitive modelCognitive model Our interpretation of events & beliefsOur interpretation of events & beliefs influence our behaviorinfluence our behavior
    • 8. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 88 Abnormal BehaviorAbnormal Behavior  Sociocultural modelSociocultural model  Emphasizes importance of social & cultural influences onEmphasizes importance of social & cultural influences on  FrequencyFrequency  DiagnosisDiagnosis  Conception of psychological disordersConception of psychological disorders  Biopsychosocial modelBiopsychosocial model  IncorporatesIncorporates  Biological (medical-model)Biological (medical-model)  Psychological and sociocultural (social) factors.Psychological and sociocultural (social) factors.  Most common beliefMost common belief  Many disorders have multiple causesMany disorders have multiple causes  Simultaneous use of several models is likely to advance ourSimultaneous use of several models is likely to advance our understanding.understanding.
    • 9. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 99 Classifying and CountingClassifying and Counting Psychological DisordersPsychological Disorders DiagnosisDiagnosis Process of deciding whether a person hasProcess of deciding whether a person has symptoms that meet established criteria of ansymptoms that meet established criteria of an existing classification system.existing classification system. Major purposeMajor purpose Make predictions regarding course of disorderMake predictions regarding course of disorder Whether it will respond to treatmentWhether it will respond to treatment Which treatment is bestWhich treatment is best Communication between professionalsCommunication between professionals  Insurance paymentsInsurance payments
    • 10. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 1010 Classifying and CountingClassifying and Counting Psychological DisordersPsychological Disorders  American PsychiatricAmerican Psychiatric Association’sAssociation’s Diagnostic andDiagnostic and Statistical Manual ofStatistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4thMental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text RevisionEdition, Text Revision ((DSM-IV-TRDSM-IV-TR).).
    • 11. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 1111 Classifying and CountingClassifying and Counting Psychological DisordersPsychological Disorders  Rosenhan's pseudopatient studyRosenhan's pseudopatient study  7 colleagues7 colleagues  Mental hospitalsMental hospitals  Hearing voicesHearing voices  Diagnosed schizophrenicDiagnosed schizophrenic  After admission reported no voicesAfter admission reported no voices  Hospitalized 19 daysHospitalized 19 days  Combined total of 2,000 pillsCombined total of 2,000 pills  Raises questionsRaises questions  Ability to distinguish normal & abnormal behaviorsAbility to distinguish normal & abnormal behaviors  Shows how labels affect perception of behavior.Shows how labels affect perception of behavior.
    • 12. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 1212 Classifying and CountingClassifying and Counting Psychological DisordersPsychological Disorders • 1-year prevalence estimates for selected psychological disorders •Based on combined data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study & National Comorbidity Survey.
    • 13. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 1313 Classifying and CountingClassifying and Counting Psychological DisordersPsychological Disorders Most common psychological disordersMost common psychological disorders PhobiasPhobias AlcoholAlcohol Drug abuse or dependenceDrug abuse or dependence Major depressive disorderMajor depressive disorder These & other psychological disorders often areThese & other psychological disorders often are comorbidcomorbid  Occur with other disordersOccur with other disorders
    • 14. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 1414 Classifying and CountingClassifying and Counting Psychological DisordersPsychological Disorders  Simultaneous occurrence of disorders, or comorbidity,Simultaneous occurrence of disorders, or comorbidity, makes it more difficult to make appropriate diagnoses & tomakes it more difficult to make appropriate diagnoses & to develop effective treatment plans.develop effective treatment plans.
    • 15. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 1515 Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorders AnxietyAnxiety Disorders (5)Disorders (5) General feeling of apprehensionGeneral feeling of apprehension characterized by behavioral, cognitive, orcharacterized by behavioral, cognitive, or physiological symptoms.physiological symptoms. Anxiety characteristic feature & avoidance ofAnxiety characteristic feature & avoidance of anxiety seems to motivate behavior.anxiety seems to motivate behavior.
    • 16. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 1616 Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorders 1. Generalized anxiety disorder1. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)(GAD) Chronically high level of anxiety that is notChronically high level of anxiety that is not attached to a specific stimulusattached to a specific stimulus Free-floatingFree-floating
    • 17. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 1717 Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorders  2. Panic disorder2. Panic disorder Most severe anxiety disorderMost severe anxiety disorder Characterized byCharacterized by Intense physiological arousal not related to a specificIntense physiological arousal not related to a specific stimulus.stimulus. Fear or discomfort arises abruptly & peaks in 10 minutesFear or discomfort arises abruptly & peaks in 10 minutes or less.or less.  5 – 20 minutes5 – 20 minutes About 50% of the people who suffer from panicAbout 50% of the people who suffer from panic attacks also experience agoraphobia.attacks also experience agoraphobia.
    • 18. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 1818 Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorders  RapidRapid increase inincrease in heart rateheart rate during aduring a panicpanic attack.attack.
    • 19. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 1919 Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorders 3. Phobias3. Phobias Excessive, irrational fears of activities,Excessive, irrational fears of activities, objects, or situations.objects, or situations. AgoraphobiaAgoraphobia  Fear of open spacesFear of open spaces  Avoidance of public places or situations in which escapeAvoidance of public places or situations in which escape may be difficult should the individual developmay be difficult should the individual develop incapacitating or embarrassing symptoms of panic.incapacitating or embarrassing symptoms of panic.  Most common phobia treatedMost common phobia treated
    • 20. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 2020 Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorders  Specific phobias are common.Specific phobias are common.
    • 21. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 2121 Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorders Cognitive psychologistsCognitive psychologists Panic attacksPanic attacks Occur when bodily sensations of anxiety areOccur when bodily sensations of anxiety are misinterpreted as signs of impending disaster.misinterpreted as signs of impending disaster.
    • 22. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 2222 Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorders 4. Obsessive–compulsive disorder4. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)(OCD) Characterized by:Characterized by: ObsessionsObsessions  RepetitiveRepetitive  Irrational intrusiveIrrational intrusive  ThoughtsThoughts  ImpulsesImpulses  ImagesImages
    • 23. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 2323 Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorders  OCDOCD  CompulsionsCompulsions  Irresistible, repetitiveIrresistible, repetitive actsacts  Checking that doors areChecking that doors are lockedlocked  Washing handsWashing hands
    • 24. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 2424 Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorders Behavioral psychologists viewBehavioral psychologists view compulsionscompulsions Learned habits that reduce anxiety.Learned habits that reduce anxiety. Compulsive behaviorCompulsive behavior Associated with anxiety reduction through operantAssociated with anxiety reduction through operant conditioning.conditioning. OCD runs in families; identical twins areOCD runs in families; identical twins are more likely than fraternal twins to sharemore likely than fraternal twins to share the disorder.the disorder.
    • 25. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 2525 Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorders 5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD Occurs following a deeply disturbing eventOccurs following a deeply disturbing event Difficulty concentratingDifficulty concentrating Emotional numbingEmotional numbing GuiltGuilt FlashbacksFlashbacks NightmaresNightmares
    • 26. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 2626 Mood DisordersMood Disorders DepressionDepression Category includesCategory includes Dysthymic DisorderDysthymic Disorder Depressive DisorderDepressive Disorder Bipolar DisorderBipolar Disorder Cyclothymic DisorderCyclothymic Disorder Mood disorder due to general medicalMood disorder due to general medical conditioncondition Substance-induced mood disorderSubstance-induced mood disorder
    • 27. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 2727 Mood DisordersMood Disorders Mood disordersMood disorders Ranging from severe depression to excessiveRanging from severe depression to excessive euphoria.euphoria. Symptoms of depression fall into 4Symptoms of depression fall into 4 categories:categories: EmotionalEmotional CognitiveCognitive MotivationalMotivational Somatic/behavioralSomatic/behavioral
    • 28. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 2828 DSM-IV TRDSM-IV TR Diagnostic CriteriaDiagnostic Criteria for Dysthymic Disorderfor Dysthymic Disorder  Depressed mood most of the day, for more days thanDepressed mood most of the day, for more days than not, as indicated either by subjective account ornot, as indicated either by subjective account or observation by others, for at least 2 years.observation by others, for at least 2 years.  Note:Note: in children and adolescents, mood can be irritablein children and adolescents, mood can be irritable and duration must be at least 1 year.and duration must be at least 1 year.  Presence, while depressed, of 2 (or more) of thePresence, while depressed, of 2 (or more) of the following:following:  Poor appetite or overeatingPoor appetite or overeating  Insomnia or hypersomniaInsomnia or hypersomnia  Low energy or fatigueLow energy or fatigue  Low self-esteemLow self-esteem  Poor concentration or difficulty making decisionsPoor concentration or difficulty making decisions  Feelings of hopelessnessFeelings of hopelessness  (Rule-outs not included)(Rule-outs not included)
    • 29. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 2929 Mood DisordersMood Disorders DepressionDepression  DysthymiaDysthymia  Mild depressionMild depression  Sadness (dysphoria)Sadness (dysphoria)  Describe themselves in unflattering termsDescribe themselves in unflattering terms  Example:Example:  InferiorInferior  UnattractiveUnattractive  Insomnia frequently associated withInsomnia frequently associated with depression:depression:  Difficulty falling asleep (Difficulty falling asleep ( sleep-onset insomniasleep-onset insomnia ))  Awakening early in the morning with an inability toAwakening early in the morning with an inability to return to sleep.return to sleep.
    • 30. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 3030 DSM-IV TRDSM-IV TR Diagnostic CriteriaDiagnostic Criteria for Major Depressive Episodefor Major Depressive Episode  5 (or more) of the following symptoms5 (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-have been present during the same 2- week period & represent a change fromweek period & represent a change from previous functioningprevious functioning  At least 1 of the symptoms is either (1)At least 1 of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest ordepressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.pleasure.  Depressed mood most of the dayDepressed mood most of the day  Markedly diminished interest or pleasure inMarkedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the dayall, or almost all, activities most of the day
    • 31. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 3131 DSM-IV TRDSM-IV TR Diagnostic CriteriaDiagnostic Criteria for Major Depressive Episodefor Major Depressive Episode Cont.Cont.  Significant weight loss when not dieting orSignificant weight loss when not dieting or weight gainweight gain  Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearlyPsychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every dayevery day  Fatigue or loss of energyFatigue or loss of energy  Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guiltFeelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt  Diminished ability to think or concentrate, orDiminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisivenessindecisiveness  DeathDeath  Recurrent thoughts of deathRecurrent thoughts of death  Recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific planRecurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan  Suicide attemptSuicide attempt  Specific plan for committing suicideSpecific plan for committing suicide
    • 32. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 3232 Mood DisordersMood Disorders Major DepressionMajor Depression  Major depressionMajor depression  4th leading cause of worldwide disease4th leading cause of worldwide disease  Responsible for more disability than heart disease.Responsible for more disability than heart disease.  1 of most common identified psychological disorder in1 of most common identified psychological disorder in U.S.U.S.  Children also effected.Children also effected.  Twice as high among womenTwice as high among women
    • 33. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 3333 Mood DisordersMood Disorders  SuicideSuicide Often associated with depressionOften associated with depression 1 of the leading causes of death in US1 of the leading causes of death in US  Risk factors for suicideRisk factors for suicide MaleMale UnmarriedUnmarried DepressionDepression  If you suspect that someone you know mightIf you suspect that someone you know might attempt suicide you should not be afraid toattempt suicide you should not be afraid to ask, “Are you thinking about suicide?”ask, “Are you thinking about suicide?”
    • 34. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 3434 Mood DisordersMood Disorders  Immediate medical & psychological helpImmediate medical & psychological help  Talk aboutTalk about  Attempt suicideAttempt suicide  Most suicidal people are ambivalent aboutMost suicidal people are ambivalent about committing suicidecommitting suicide  In painIn pain  HelplessnessHelplessness  HopelessnessHopelessness  Time is important ally to prevent a suicideTime is important ally to prevent a suicide  Most do not remain seriously suicidal for long.Most do not remain seriously suicidal for long.  MedicMedic  Keep them busy until professional helpKeep them busy until professional help
    • 35. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 3535 Mood DisordersMood Disorders Bipolar disorderBipolar disorder  Bipolar disorderBipolar disorder  Person experiencesPerson experiences  Episodes of mania & depressionEpisodes of mania & depression  Usually alternateUsually alternate  ManiaMania  Excessive activityExcessive activity  Accelerated speechAccelerated speech  ImpulsiveImpulsive  Delusions of grandeurDelusions of grandeur  EuphoriaEuphoria
    • 36. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 3636 Mood DisordersMood Disorders Biological factorsBiological factors Role in development of mood disorders.Role in development of mood disorders. Symptoms of depression cross culturalSymptoms of depression cross cultural DrugsDrugs DepressionDepression Elavil & ProzacElavil & Prozac ManiaMania LithiumLithium
    • 37. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 3737 Mood DisordersMood Disorders  MoodMood disordersdisorders tend to run intend to run in familiesfamilies  SuggestsSuggests geneticgenetic transmissiontransmission ..
    • 38. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 3838 Mood DisordersMood Disorders DepressionDepression Low levels of norepinephrine or serotonin.Low levels of norepinephrine or serotonin. Psychodynamic modelPsychodynamic model  Emphasizes early childhood experiences asEmphasizes early childhood experiences as the foundation of adult behavior andthe foundation of adult behavior and emotional reactions.emotional reactions.
    • 39. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 3939 Mood DisordersMood Disorders Rate for mood disorders among bothRate for mood disorders among both identical twins is approximately 65%; theidentical twins is approximately 65%; the rate among fraternal twins is about 14%.rate among fraternal twins is about 14%.
    • 40. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 4040 Anxiety, Somatoform, andAnxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative DisordersDissociative Disorders Somatoform disordersSomatoform disorders Complaints of bodily symptoms that do notComplaints of bodily symptoms that do not have a known medical cause; insteadhave a known medical cause; instead psychological factors are involved.psychological factors are involved. HypochondriasisHypochondriasis Somatization disorderSomatization disorder Conversion disorderConversion disorder
    • 41. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 4141 Anxiety, Somatoform, andAnxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative DisordersDissociative Disorders  HypochondriasisHypochondriasis  Believes serious diseaseBelieves serious disease  Despite repeated medical findings to contrary.Despite repeated medical findings to contrary.  Somatization DisorderSomatization Disorder  Vague but complicated & dramatic medical histories.Vague but complicated & dramatic medical histories.  Conversion disorderConversion disorder  Mainly sensory & motor functions that are normallyMainly sensory & motor functions that are normally under voluntary control.under voluntary control.  Symptoms can be dramatic & include apparentSymptoms can be dramatic & include apparent blindness, deafness, paralysis, & seizures.blindness, deafness, paralysis, & seizures.
    • 42. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 4242 Anxiety, Somatoform, andAnxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative DisordersDissociative Disorders Dissociative disordersDissociative disorders Disruptions in a particular function of theDisruptions in a particular function of the mind, such as memory for events,mind, such as memory for events, knowledge of one’s identity, orknowledge of one’s identity, or consciousness.consciousness. Dissociative amnesiaDissociative amnesia Sudden inability to recall importantSudden inability to recall important personal information; it often occurs inpersonal information; it often occurs in response to trauma or extreme stress.response to trauma or extreme stress.
    • 43. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 4343 Anxiety, Somatoform, andAnxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative DisordersDissociative Disorders Dissociative fugueDissociative fugue Amnesia & flight from workplace or home; itAmnesia & flight from workplace or home; it may involve establishing a new identity in amay involve establishing a new identity in a new location.new location. Dissociative identity disorderDissociative identity disorder (multiple personality)(multiple personality) Person has 2 or more separate personalities,Person has 2 or more separate personalities, which usually alternate.which usually alternate.
    • 44. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 4444 Anxiety, Somatoform, andAnxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative DisordersDissociative Disorders Alters in DID contrast sharply with oneAlters in DID contrast sharply with one another and have very different personalanother and have very different personal histories, behavior patterns, friends,histories, behavior patterns, friends, beliefs, habits, values, and even voicesbeliefs, habits, values, and even voices and facial expressions.and facial expressions.
    • 45. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 4545 Mood DisordersMood Disorders Depression may involve low levels ofDepression may involve low levels of norepinephrine or serotonin.norepinephrine or serotonin. According to the learned helplessnessAccording to the learned helplessness model, depression can also be brought onmodel, depression can also be brought on when people believe that they cannotwhen people believe that they cannot control outcomes.control outcomes.
    • 46. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 4646 Mood DisordersMood Disorders Learned helplessnessLearned helplessness You believe you have no control over theYou believe you have no control over the reinforcements in your life.reinforcements in your life. This model of depression explains theThis model of depression explains the lethargy and lack of motivation seen inlethargy and lack of motivation seen in depressed individuals.depressed individuals.
    • 47. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 4747 Mood DisordersMood Disorders Hopelessness modelHopelessness model Focuses on people’s beliefs about theFocuses on people’s beliefs about the situations in which they find themselves.situations in which they find themselves. Some people become depressed notSome people become depressed not because they lack control over a situationbecause they lack control over a situation but because of the way they explain thebut because of the way they explain the situation.situation.
    • 48. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 4848 Mood DisordersMood Disorders The hopelessness model has much inThe hopelessness model has much in common with the cognitively orientedcommon with the cognitively oriented theories of researchers who viewtheories of researchers who view depression as stemming from problems indepression as stemming from problems in the way people think.the way people think. Depressed people may drawDepressed people may draw arbitraryarbitrary inferences,inferences, conclusions drawn in theconclusions drawn in the absence of supporting information.absence of supporting information.
    • 49. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 4949 SchizophreniaSchizophrenia SchizophreniaSchizophrenia Psychotic disorder characterized byPsychotic disorder characterized by Positive symptoms (excesses)Positive symptoms (excesses)  oror Negative symptoms (deficits)Negative symptoms (deficits) PsychosisPsychosis General term for disorders in which severelyGeneral term for disorders in which severely disturbed people lose contact with reality &disturbed people lose contact with reality & may require hospitalization.may require hospitalization.
    • 50. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 5050 SchizophreniaSchizophrenia Schizophrenia means “split brain”Schizophrenia means “split brain” Often confused with dissociative identityOften confused with dissociative identity disorder (MPD)disorder (MPD)  ““split”split” From realityFrom reality Split between thoughts & emotions.Split between thoughts & emotions.
    • 51. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 5151 SchizophreniaSchizophrenia  TheThe positive symptomspositive symptoms of schizophrenia areof schizophrenia are distortions or excesses of normal functions, suchdistortions or excesses of normal functions, such as fluent but disorganized speech, delusions,as fluent but disorganized speech, delusions, and hallucinations.and hallucinations.  While listening to the speech of a patient withWhile listening to the speech of a patient with schizophrenia, you may struggle to follow his orschizophrenia, you may struggle to follow his or her pattern of thought; the disorganized speechher pattern of thought; the disorganized speech is thought to reflect disturbances in theis thought to reflect disturbances in the underlying thought processes.underlying thought processes.
    • 52. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 5252 SchizophreniaSchizophrenia The ideas expressed by a person withThe ideas expressed by a person with schizophrenia can be like a train that hasschizophrenia can be like a train that has slipped off its track onto another track; thisslipped off its track onto another track; this pattern of speech is calledpattern of speech is called looseloose associationsassociations.. Among the most frequently observedAmong the most frequently observed positive symptoms arepositive symptoms are delusions,delusions, oror false beliefs that cannot be correctedfalse beliefs that cannot be corrected despite strong evidence to the contrary.despite strong evidence to the contrary.
    • 53. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 5353 SchizophreniaSchizophrenia HallucinationsHallucinations are perceptions that areare perceptions that are not caused by stimulation of the relevantnot caused by stimulation of the relevant sensory receptors.sensory receptors. They can occur in any of the senses,They can occur in any of the senses, althoughalthough auditory hallucinationsauditory hallucinations are theare the most common.most common.
    • 54. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 5454 SchizophreniaSchizophrenia Negative symptoms are reductions orNegative symptoms are reductions or losses of function.losses of function. These behavior deficits or defects includeThese behavior deficits or defects include poverty of speechpoverty of speech as well as disturbancesas well as disturbances in affect and volition (will).in affect and volition (will). These symptoms are associated withThese symptoms are associated with more cognitive impairment and poorermore cognitive impairment and poorer prognoses than positive symptoms.prognoses than positive symptoms.
    • 55. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 5555 SchizophreniaSchizophrenia The speech of people with schizophreniaThe speech of people with schizophrenia may be adequate in amount yet conveymay be adequate in amount yet convey little information: Language that is vague,little information: Language that is vague, too abstract, too concrete, or repetitive istoo abstract, too concrete, or repetitive is termedtermed poverty of contentpoverty of content.. A restriction in the amount of spontaneousA restriction in the amount of spontaneous speech that is evident in brief andspeech that is evident in brief and unelaborated replies to questions is calledunelaborated replies to questions is called poverty of speechpoverty of speech..
    • 56. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 5656 SchizophreniaSchizophrenia  Failure to experience any emotion is calledFailure to experience any emotion is called flatflat affectaffect; an inability to experience the typical; an inability to experience the typical range of emotions is calledrange of emotions is called blunted affectblunted affect..  AvolitionAvolition (difficulty making decisions) and(difficulty making decisions) and apathyapathy are characterized by a lack of energy and driveare characterized by a lack of energy and drive such that a person is unable to initiate or persistsuch that a person is unable to initiate or persist in tasks.in tasks.  A number of disturbances in motor movementsA number of disturbances in motor movements and a lack of self-care also characterize someand a lack of self-care also characterize some forms of schizophrenia.forms of schizophrenia.
    • 57. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 5757 SchizophreniaSchizophrenia  5 subtypes of schizophrenia:5 subtypes of schizophrenia:  CatatonicCatatonic  DisorganizedDisorganized  ParanoidParanoid  ResidualResidual  UndifferentiatedUndifferentiated  Undifferentiated subtype Indeed, the is aUndifferentiated subtype Indeed, the is a category for cases that do not fit into othercategory for cases that do not fit into other subtypes.subtypes.
    • 58. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 5858 SchizophreniaSchizophrenia  SchizophreniaSchizophrenia tends to run intends to run in families.families.  Risk of developingRisk of developing the disorderthe disorder increases with theincreases with the degree of geneticdegree of genetic relatednessrelatedness between anbetween an individual and aindividual and a family member whofamily member who has schizophrenia.has schizophrenia.
    • 59. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 5959 SchizophreniaSchizophrenia BiologicalBiological Various brain abnormalitiesVarious brain abnormalities Larger ventriclesLarger ventricles Excess of neurotransmitter dopamineExcess of neurotransmitter dopamine
    • 60. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 6060 SchizophreniaSchizophrenia Environmental influences onEnvironmental influences on schizophreniaschizophrenia StressStress Hostile family communicationHostile family communication Neurodevelopmental modelNeurodevelopmental model Schizophrenia results from a combination ofSchizophrenia results from a combination of Genetic predispositionGenetic predisposition Other factorsOther factors
    • 61. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 6161 PersonalityPersonality  Personality disordersPersonality disorders  Long-standing patterns of maladaptive behavior thatLong-standing patterns of maladaptive behavior that are usually evident during the adolescent years & areare usually evident during the adolescent years & are resistant to treatment.resistant to treatment.  DSM-IV-TRDSM-IV-TR 10 personality disorders divided into10 personality disorders divided into 3 clusters:3 clusters:  Cluster ACluster A  Odd or eccentric behaviorOdd or eccentric behavior  Cluster BCluster B  Dramatic, emotional, or erratic behaviorDramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior  Cluster CCluster C  Anxious or fearful behaviorAnxious or fearful behavior
    • 62. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 6262 PersonalityPersonality Antisocial personality disorderAntisocial personality disorder Characterized by deceitful, impulsive,Characterized by deceitful, impulsive, reckless actions that violate social norms forreckless actions that violate social norms for which the individual feels no remorse.which the individual feels no remorse. PastPast TermsTerms PsychopathPsychopath SociopathSociopath
    • 63. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 6363 PersonalityPersonality Rarely seek professional helpRarely seek professional help UnlessUnless Excuse to be absent from workExcuse to be absent from work Acquire drugsAcquire drugs Avoid prisonAvoid prison  Submitting to court-ordered treatmentSubmitting to court-ordered treatment
    • 64. Copyright 2004 - Prentice HallCopyright 2004 - Prentice Hall 6464 PersonalityPersonality  Antisocial individuals do not experience theAntisocial individuals do not experience the warning signals of anxietywarning signals of anxiety  ImpulsiveImpulsive  No regard for feelings or well-being of others.No regard for feelings or well-being of others.  Immediate gratificationImmediate gratification  Lack emotional attachmentsLack emotional attachments  No remorseNo remorse  Antisocial persons do not develop conditionedAntisocial persons do not develop conditioned fear responses readily.fear responses readily.

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