Life span chapter 8

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Life span chapter 8

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood 6-11 Years-of-Age PowerPoints developed by Jenni Fauchier, Butchered by Professor Carney 6-11 Years-of-Age 1
  2. 2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ir8BO4-7DkM 6-11 Years-of-Age 2
  3. 3. The Development of SelfUnderstanding   • Increasingly describe selves with psychological characteristics & traits – Ex: • Popular • Nice • Smart 6-11 Years-of-Age 3
  4. 4. The Development of SelfUnderstanding   • More likely: – Recognize social aspects of self • Include groups they belong to – Girl Scouts – Christian – What do I do in comparison to others? • Previous stage – What I do or don’t do 6-11 Years-of-Age 4
  5. 5. Self-Esteem & Self-Concept   • Personal perceptions match reality? • Maybe • Self-concept – Self-evaluate in many areas • Academic • Athletic • Appearance – How might this affect a child? 6-11 Years-of-Age 5
  6. 6. Self-Efficacy • Self-efficacy – Belief that one can master a situation & produce favorable outcomes • Low self-efficacy for learning – May avoid many learning tasks, especially challenging ones • Math: know it when I grow up • High-self-efficacy for learning – Eagerly work at learning tasks 6-11 Years-of-Age 6
  7. 7. Self Regulation • Self-regulation – Manage • Behavior • Emotions • Thoughts – Allows social skills & achievement • Capacity in self-regulation – Development, prefrontal cortex 6-11 Years-of-Age 8
  8. 8. Developmental Changes in Emotion • Better understanding of emotions • Can experience more than 1 emotion at a time. – Angry sister broke your toy – Sad you don’t have toy • Increased awareness of events leading to emotional reactions – “She hit me so I smashed her toy.” 6-11 Years-of-Age 9
  9. 9. Developmental Changes in Emotion • Ability to suppress or conceal – Negative feelings • Strategies for redirecting feelings – Self-soothing after upset • Play with favorite toy • Capacity for genuine empathy 6-11 Years-of-Age 10
  10. 10. Kohlberg Stages • Based on Piaget • 6 stages of moral development • Believed universal 6-11 Years-of-Age 11
  11. 11. 6-11 Years-of-Age 12
  12. 12. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O7pQJ0ptjk0 Kohlberg Stages 6-11 Years-of-Age 13
  13. 13. Kohlberg's Moral Development Theory • http://www.youtube.c om/watch? v=zY4etXWYS84 6-11 Years-of-Age 14
  14. 14. Kohlberg Stages • 3 Levels – Level 1: Preconventional reasoning – Level 2: Conventional reasoning – Level 3: Postconventional reasoning • 6 Stages – 2 stages in each level – (Need to keep in mind the 3 levels only) 6-11 Years-of-Age 15
  15. 15. Preconventional Reasoning – Early childhood development – Interpret good & bad in terms of (behaviorism) • External rewards • Punishments – Egocentric 6-11 Years-of-Age 16
  16. 16. Conventional Reasoning • Middle school • Apply certain standards – Standards set by others • Parents • Government • Learn to conform 6-11 Years-of-Age 17
  17. 17. Postconventional Reasoning • Usually college years • Recognize alternative moral courses – Explore options – Decide on personal moral code 6-11 Years-of-Age 18
  18. 18. Kohlberg Stages Research • Moral stages appeared later than Kohlberg envisioned. • Reasoning at Stage 6 rare. 6-11 Years-of-Age 19
  19. 19. Physical Development • Females • Males – Longer life expectancy – Less likely to develop • physical disorders • mental disorders – 10% taller – 2X’s risk of coronary disease – Hormones – More depression – Hormones • Stop growth of long bones at puberty 6-11 Years-of-Age • Promote growth of long bones 20
  20. 20. Physical Development • Females • Males – Brain smaller – Larger • More folds – Portions of corpus callosum larger – Areas involved in emotional expression show more activity 6-11 Years-of-Age • Part of hypothalamus related to sex • Area of parietal lobe larger – Visuospatial skills 21
  21. 21. Cognitive Development • Males better – Math – Visuospatial skills • Females better – Verbal abilities • Later studies – Verbal differences between females & males virtually disappeared – Math & visuospatial differences still existed • Have cognitive differences between females & males been exaggerated? 6-11 Years-of-Age 22
  22. 22. Aggresion • Who is more aggressive M or F? 6-11 Years-of-Age 23
  23. 23. Socioemotional Development • Aggression: – Boys more physically aggressive – Girls more verbally aggressive • Spread malicious rumors • Ignoring someone when angry • Boys more likely to hide – Negative emotions • Girls less likely to express – Disappointment that might hurt others’ feelings 6-11 Years-of-Age 24
  24. 24. Gender Differences in Prosocial Behavior • Prosocial behavior – Acting to help another person, particularly when only goal is to help. • Females – View selves as more prosocial & empathic – Across childhood & adolescence, engage in more prosocial behavior • Biggest gender difference occurs for kind & considerate behavior • Smaller difference in sharing 6-11 Years-of-Age 25
  25. 25. Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Relationships • Parents – spend less time with children – continue to be important – support & stimulate academic achievement • Children – less physical discipline than they did as preschoolers – more self-regulation 6-11 Years-of-Age 26
  26. 26. Developmental Changes in Peer Relations • Peers – Socializing time increases – Group size increases – Less supervision – Same-sex groups preferred • Until age 12 6-11 Years-of-Age 27
  27. 27. Being Popular • Popular children – – – – – – – – reinforce others listen open lines of communication with peers happy control negative emotions show enthusiasm show empathy self-confident , not conceited 6-11 Years-of-Age 28
  28. 28. Other Statuses • Neglected children – Low rates of interaction with peers – Described as shy by peers • Rejected children – Often more serious adjustment problems than those neglected – Some are aggressive 6-11 Years-of-Age 29
  29. 29. Bullying • Bullied children – Reported • More loneliness • Difficulty making friends • Victimized – Anxious & socially withdrawn children • Non-threatening & unlikely to retaliate – Aggressive children • May be targets because their behavior is irritating to bullies 6-11 Years-of-Age 31
  30. 30. Bullying Cont. • Victims – more headaches – more abdominal pain – sleeping problems – tired – more depression • Bullies – More likely to have a poor academic record – Smoke – Drink alcohol 6-11 Years-of-Age 32
  31. 31. Functions of Friendships • Children’s friendships serve what functions? 6-11 Years-of-Age 33
  32. 32. 6 Functions of Friendships 6-11 Years-of-Age 35
  33. 33. Socioeconomic Status & Ethnicity • Schools in low-income areas are more likely to have: – more students with low achievement test scores – low graduation rates – small % of students going to college – young teachers with less experience – encourage rote learning – buildings & classrooms old & crumbling 6-11 Years-of-Age 37
  34. 34. Newsletter • Newsletter 6-11 yrs. 6-11 Years-of-Age 39

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