Life span chapter 6

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Life span chapter 6

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood 3-5 Years-of-Age PowerPoints developed by Jenni Fauchier, Butchered by Professor Carney
  2. 2. Class Exercise • Take out a piece of paper and describe yourself. • You will not turn this in. • Keep the paper out since we will discuss this further in a moment. 2-5 Years-of-Age
  3. 3. Self-Understanding • Self-understanding – The child’s cognitive representation of self, the substance & content of the child’s selfconception. • How they think about themselves 2-5 Years-of-Age
  4. 4. Self-Understanding • Self-recognition – Describe self in concrete & observable terms: • Blonde hair • Green eyes • Body attributes – “I’m a taller than Suzie.” • Material possessions – “I have a pink bike & she doesn’t.” • Physical activities – “I play basketball.” 2-5 Years-of-Age
  5. 5. Self-Understanding 2-5 Years-of-Age
  6. 6. Class Exercise • How does your self description differ from a 4-year-olds? 2-5 Years-of-Age
  7. 7. Understanding Others • Ability to understand others varies – Empathy limited – Understands others’ statements may be untrue • Understands simple jokes – Describes others in terms of psychological traits. • “My daddy is very silly.” – Research: Kids 3 & up not as egocentric as Piaget thought. Chapter 10, ages 2-6 7
  8. 8. Emotional Development • Why is shame, pride, embarrassment & guilt self-conscious emotions? 2-5 Years-of-Age
  9. 9. Emotional Development • Self Awareness – Feel more emotions – Increased ability to talk about one’s • Own emotions • Others’ emotions – More words to describe emotions 2-5 Years-of-Age
  10. 10. Regulating Emotions • Emotion-coaching parents – Parents observing & explaining: • “You should think about Raphael's feelings next time before you hit him.” – Children become better at: » Self-soothing » Regulate negative emotions » Fewer behavior problems 2-5 Years-of-Age
  11. 11. Regulating Emotions • Emotion-dismissing parents – Deny • Boys don’t cry – Ignore – Change negative emotions • Okay to be sad 3-5 Years-of-Age
  12. 12. Emotion & Peer Relationships – Kids with emotional control • More popular – Moody & emotionally negative children • Rejected 2-5 Years-of-Age
  13. 13. Moral Development • Moral development – Development of thoughts, feelings, & behaviors regarding rules & conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people. – Hit by a flag. • Black eye 2-5 Years-of-Age
  14. 14. Moral Development • Freudian theory – Superego • Moral element of personality – Guilt – Anxiety 3-5 Years-of-Age
  15. 15. Moral Development • Empathy – Responding to another person’s feelings with an emotion that echoes the other’s feelings. 2-5 Years-of-Age
  16. 16. Understanding Others • Who is most empathic in your family? – Why? 2-5 Years-of-Age
  17. 17. Moral Behavior • Behavioral & social cognitive approach – Reinforcement • Likely to repeat – Punishment • Extinguish 2-5 Years-of-Age
  18. 18. Situational Behavior • Behavioral & social cognitive approach – Behavior is situational – Honest in one situation but not another. • Example? • No – Totally honest child – Totally dishonest child • Ability to resist temptation – Tied to of self-control • For life 2-5 Years-of-Age
  19. 19. Gender • Gender – Social & psychological dimensions of being male or female • Gender identity – Sense of being male or female – By age 3 • Gender roles – Sets of expectations prescribe how females or males should • Think • Act • Feel 2-5 Years-of-Age
  20. 20. Gender • Preschool children act to: – Match culture's gender roles – Exhibit sense of gender identity 2-5 Years-of-Age
  21. 21. Social Theories of Gender Development   • 3 main social theories of gender – 1. Social role theory – 2. Psychoanalytic theory – 3. Social cognitive theory of gender 2-5 Years-of-Age
  22. 22. Social Theories of Gender Development   • 1. Social Role theory – Observation – Men & women • Behave differently • Take on different roles – Why? • Societies expectations – 3 common patterns are: • Women more domestic tasks • Different occupational roles • In occupations – women often have lower status 2-5 Years-of-Age
  23. 23. Social Theories of Gender Development  • 2. Psychoanalytic Theory – Freud • Age 5 or 6 – Oedipus complex – Resolution? – Electra complex » Problems with theory? • 3. Social Cognitive Theory – Observing – Imitating • Rewarded • Punished 2-5 Years-of-Age
  24. 24. Parental Influence on Gender Development • By action & example, parents influence their children’s gender development – All cultures mothers & fathers different roles – Mothers’ Socialization Strategies • Obedient • Responsible – Fathers’ Socialization Strategies • More attention to sons • More activities with sons • More effort to promote sons’ intellectual development 2-5 Years-of-Age
  25. 25. Peer Influences • Peers extensively reward & punish gender behavior – Reject children who act like opposite gender especially boys • “You throw like a girl!” – Reward cultures appropriate gender behavior – Gender molds important aspects of peer relations 2-5 Years-of-Age
  26. 26. Peer Influences • Gender group composition: • 3 yrs. same sex play • Increases until 12 – Group size: • 5 yrs. boys larger groups – Group goal • Girls triads – Interaction in same sex groups • Boys rougher, competitive, conflicts, dominance • Girls collaborative 3-5 Years-of-Age
  27. 27. 2-5 Years-of-Age
  28. 28. Consequences of Corporal Punishment • Corporal punishment associated with: – higher levels of immediate compliance – increased aggression – lower levels of moral internalization • Why? – lower levels of mental health – more adjustment problems – spanking before age 2 • Related to behavioral problems – in middle & late childhood 2-5 Years-of-Age
  29. 29. Reasons to Avoid Physical Punishment • Out-of-control model – May imitate • Punishment can instill: – Fear – Rage – Avoidance • Learn what not to do • Doesn’t learn what to do • Punishment can be abusive 2-5 Years-of-Age
  30. 30. Coparenting & Alternatives to Corporal Punishment • Handling misbehavior: – Use reasoning • Explain consequences of behavior – Ask what they could do next time • Time out – Child briefly removed from setting • Co-parenting – Parents provide support for one another 2-5 Years-of-Age
  31. 31. Child Maltreatment • 84% abused by parent or parents – 2002 report • Laws in many states require reporting by: – Physicians – Teachers – Therapists • Many cases go unreported • Especially those of battered infants 2-5 Years-of-Age
  32. 32. Types of Child Abuse • Physical abuse • Child neglect – failure to provide basic needs • Sexual abuse – fondling a child’s genitals, intercourse, incest, rape, sodomy, etc. • Emotional abuse – psychological/verbal abuse/mental injury – acts/omissions that have caused, or could cause, serious behavioral, cognitive, or emotional problems 2-5 Years-of-Age
  33. 33. Developmental Consequences of Abuse • • • • • • • Poor emotion regulation Attachment problems Problems with peer s Difficulty adapting to school Depression Delinquency Difficulty in establishing & maintaining healthy intimate relationships • As adults – – – – Higher risk for violent behavior toward other adults Substance abuse Anxiety Depression 2-5 Years-of-Age
  34. 34. Prevention of Maltreatment • Recent study – 2 treatments effective in reducing child abuse: • 1. Home visitation that emphasized – Improved parenting – Coping with stress – Increasing support for the mother • 2. Parent-infant psychotherapy focused on improving maternal-infant attachment 2-5 Years-of-Age
  35. 35. Birth Order • First-born children – More: • • • • • • • • Intelligent Adult-oriented Helpful Conforming Self-controlled Guilt Anxiety Difficulty coping with stress – Excel in: • Academically • Professionally – Why? 2-5 Years-of-Age
  36. 36. Birth Order • Only children – Often achievement-oriented – Good personality – Why? 3-5 Years-of-Age
  37. 37. 2-5 Years-of-Age
  38. 38. Consequences of Divorce • 40% of US children: parent’s divorce • Children in divorced families more likely: – Academic problems – Show externalized problems • Acting out • Delinquency • Internalized problems – Anxiety – Depression – – – – Less competent intimate relationships Drop out of school Sexually active at early age Use drugs
  39. 39. Consequences of Divorce • Joint custody better adjusted • Majority of children – No significant adjustment problems – New studies say: • The DEATH of a parent is LESS devastating to a child than a DIVORCE. • Should parents stay together for children? 2-5 Years-of-Age
  40. 40. Gay & Lesbian Parents 2-5 Years-of-Age
  41. 41. Gay Male and Lesbian Parents • Parents – @ 20% of lesbians – @ 10% of gay • Many lost custody to heterosexual spouses after divorce • Most born in a heterosexual relationship • Controversial – Thoughts? – Just as adjusted as other kids (if 2 parents) – Mostly heterosexual 2-5 Years-of-Age
  42. 42. Television • Television most influential mass media affecting children’s behavior • More time in front of television than with parents – Average • 2 - 4 hours day – Negative effects? 2-5 Years-of-Age
  43. 43. Effects of Television • Negative influence – – – – – Passive learners Distracting from homework Teaching stereotypes Violent models of aggression Unrealistic views of world 2-5 Years-of-Age
  44. 44. Other Media • Increased concern: children who play violent video games – Especially highly realistic • May become deeply immersed – Altered state of consciousness – Rational thought suspended – Linked to aggression in M & F 2-5 Years-of-Age
  45. 45. Newsletter • Newsletter about 2 – 5 yrs. 3-5 Years-of-Age

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