Life span chapter 5

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Life span chapter 5

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood 3-5 Years-of-Age PowerPoints developed by Jenni Fauchier, Butchered by Professor Carney 3-5 Years-of-Age
  2. 2. 3-5 Years-of-Age
  3. 3. How Does a Young Child’s Body and Brain Grow and Change? Intimate Moment • Did the parents handle the situation well? • What could they have done differently? 3-5 Years-of-Age
  4. 4. Physical Development • Early childhood 3-5 yrs. – Growth rate slows • About 2 ½” per year • 5-7 lbs. 02/19/14 3-5 Years-of-Age 4
  5. 5. Approximate Height 3-5 Years-of-Age
  6. 6. Physical Development • Girls – Slightly smaller & lighter – More fatty tissue • Boys – – – – – 02/19/14 More muscle tissue Heads still large for bodies Body fat slow, steady decline Body slims & trunks lengthen Increasingly aware of their bodies 3-5 Years-of-Age 6
  7. 7. Variations in Growth • Most important factors to height differences: – 1. Ethnic origin (heredity) • African-American’s taller than white children – 2. Nutrition (environment) 3-5 Years-of-Age
  8. 8. Variations in Growth • Growth patterns vary – Due to heredity mostly – Environment • Environmental – Urban • Middle class • 1st born children – Taller than • Rural • Lower class • Later-born children 02/19/14 3-5 Years-of-Age 8
  9. 9. Brain and Nervous System Development • Cognitive abilities improve – Brain maturation – Opportunities for experience? • Plan actions • Attend to stimuli more effectively • Increased language development • Brain material doubles in a year – Some areas 02/19/14 3-5 Years-of-Age 9
  10. 10. Brain and Nervous System Development • Prefrontal Cortex – Evolutionary advanced • 3-6 extensive development – Attention – Working memory • Pruning 02/19/14 3-5 Years-of-Age 10
  11. 11. Neurons • Dendrites increase – Number – Size • Myelination continues – Relates to improvement of abilities • Hand-eye coordination – Complete age 4 02/19/14 3-5 Years-of-Age 11
  12. 12. 02/19/14 3-5 Years-of-Age 12
  13. 13. Gross Motor Skills • 3 years – Hopping, jumping, & running back & forth – Like to show off skills • 4 years of age – More adventurous – Increased abilities on steps • Age 5 – Even more adventuresome – Run hard – Enjoy races with each other & parents 02/19/14 3-5 Years-of-Age 13
  14. 14. Fine Motor Skills • Age 3: – Can pick up tiny objects • Clumsy – Build high towers • Age 4: – Much more precise • Age 5: – Hand, arm, & body all move together 02/19/14 3-5 Years-of-Age 14
  15. 15. Motor Skills • Recall your favorite early childhood activities. • Did you prefer gross motor oriented activities or fine motor oriented activities? • How did you spend most of your time? • Do you remember any activity that you wanted to be able to participate in, but you were not physically coordinated enough to do? • Can you recall a time of triumph, when you accomplished a particular feat for the first time? 3-5 Years-of-Age
  16. 16. What Are Some Aspects of Young Children’s Health? Nutrition • Energy needs – Calorie needs increase with age – Needs vary by age, sex, & size • Preschooler • Up to 1,800 calories per day. • Diets worsen as children age – Why? • Today’s meals exceed dietary needs • Eating influenced by? 8 3-5 Years-of-Age
  17. 17. What Are Some Aspects of Young Children’s Health? Nutrition • Malnutrition Low-Income Families – Most common: • Iron deficiency anemia – Causes chronic fatigue – Less • Fresh fruits • Vegetables • Education – More processed foods • Linked to cognitive deficits, physical growth • Can improve with use of U.S. food programs • Linked to behavioral, conduct problems 3-5 Years-of-Age
  18. 18. Piaget’s Cognitive Stages 3-5 Years-of-Age
  19. 19. 3-5 Years-of-Age
  20. 20. Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood Piaget’s Preoperational Stage • Not yet capable of operations • What is an operation? • Operations definition: – Internalized set of actions highly organized & conform to principles of logic. • Do mentally what was done physically before. – Ex: Math problems in head » Not yet capable 3-5 Years-of-Age
  21. 21. Piaget’s Preoperational Stage 3-5 Years-of-Age
  22. 22. Piaget’s Preoperational Stage • Preoperational stage – Ages 2 - 7 – Stable concepts formed – Mental reasoning, magical beliefs emerge – Contains 2 substages: – 1. Symbolic Function – 2. Intuitive Thought 3-5 Years-of-Age
  23. 23. Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood Piaget’s Preoperational Stage • 1. Symbolic Function Stage, Age 2 – 4 – Creates mental images of objects • Store for later use – Disneyland – Imaginative drawings – Mentally represent object not present • Ex: Scribbles represent people – Awareness of what scribble represents even over time. 3-5 Years-of-Age
  24. 24. 4 year old 3-5 Years-of-Age
  25. 25. Piaget’s Preoperational Stage • 1. Symbolic Function Stage Cont. – Thoughts limited beliefs: • Egocentrism: –Inability to see things from another person's point of view. »What happens if parents divorce at this stage? 3-5 Years-of-Age
  26. 26. Piaget’s Preoperational Stage • Symbolic Function Stage Cont. – Animistic Thinking • Imagining that inanimate objects have life & mental processes. – Child trips over coffee table, what will they say? 3-5 Years-of-Age
  27. 27. Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood Piaget’s Preoperational Stage • 2. Substage: Intuitive Thought – @ 4 - 7 yrs. of age – Primitive reasoning • Can’t answer “what if” questions. – Have many questions • “What makes you grow?” 3-5 Years-of-Age
  28. 28. Piaget’s Preoperational Stage Intuitive Thought Cont. • Limits in preoperational thought • Do not understand at this stage: – Centration: • Salient: Focusing attention on 1 characteristic to exclusion of others – Conservation: • Realizes altering object’s substance does not change it quantitatively 3-5 Years-of-Age
  29. 29. Information Processing • 2 ways preschool child’s attention deficient: – 1. Salient vs. relevant dimensions • Salient means – Attention to what stands out • Flashy clown presents directions – Remembers clown – Forget instructions » By 6 or 7 » Pay attention to directions 3-5 Years-of-Age
  30. 30. Information-Processing Approach • 2. Planfulness – Preschool • 2 pictures are they the same? • Look quickly, make a decision without examining details – 6-7 • Compare one detail at a time 3-5 Years-of-Age
  31. 31. School Readiness • Longer attention spans linked to school readiness. 3-5 Years-of-Age
  32. 32. Memory • Short-term memory – Retain information for @ 30 sec. – Rehearsal • (repeating information ) • Keeps information in short-term memory longer • Older children better able to rehearse – Memory becomes more accurate 3-5 Years-of-Age 34
  33. 33. Factors Influencing Accuracy of Memory • Susceptible to misleading or incorrect postevent information • Individual differences in suggestibility • Interviewing techniques can produce distortions – Suggestible • Small details • Central aspects of event – Interviewing kids about child abuse? 3-5 Years-of-Age 35
  34. 34. Theory of Mind 3-5 Years-of-Age
  35. 35. Theory of Mind • Theory of Mind – Awareness of one’s own mental processes & the mental processes of others • Children’s theory of mind changes as they develop 3-5 Years-of-Age 37
  36. 36. Theory of Mind: Beyond age 5 • Not until middle & late childhood – Move from understanding that beliefs can be false • to – Realizing same event can be open to multiple interpretations 02/19/14 3-5 Years-of-Age 39
  37. 37. Star Wars according to a 3 year-old 3-5 Years-of-Age
  38. 38. 3 year-old asked about monsters 3-5 Years-of-Age
  39. 39. Language Development • Between 2 & 3 – Transition from • Simple sentences that express a single proposition – to • Saying complex sentences 02/19/14 3-5 Years-of-Age 42

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