Life span chapter 1
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  • 1. Chapter 1 Introduction to Life-span Development Jenni Fauchier Butchered by Professor Carney
  • 2. Life-span Perspective  Development – The pattern of movement or change that begins at conception & continues through the human life span. – Each of us develops  Partly like – – – All others Some others No other individuals
  • 3. Each of us develops Partly like:
  • 4. Characteristics of LifeSpan Perspective  Development involves – Growth – Decline
  • 5. Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective  Traditional – – – approach emphasizes Extensive change birth to adolescence Little or no change in adulthood Decline in old age
  • 6. Characteristics of LifeSpan Perspective  Life-span approach emphasizes – Developmental change throughout  Childhood  Adulthood
  • 7. Life Span vs Life Expectancy  Human Life Span – Oldest age documented -- 122 yrs  Maximum life span of humans – Not changed since beginning of recorded history  Life Expectancy – “ Average number of years that a person born in a particular year can expect to live.”  Life expectancy increased 30 yrs in 20 th century
  • 8. Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective  Life-span perspective views development as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Lifelong Multidimensional Multidirectional Plastic Multidisciplinary Contextual Involves growth, maintenance & regulation of loss 8. Construction of biology, culture & the individual 
  • 9. Life-Span Perspective Views Development as: 1. Lifelong – No age period dominates
  • 10. Life-Span Perspective Views Development as:
  • 11. Life-Span Perspective Views Development as: 2. Multidimensional – These change & affect each other  Biological – Nature  Cognitive – Thinking  Emotions  Relationships
  • 12. Life-Span Perspective Views Development as: 3. Multidirectional  Expansion & shrinkage – Older – Card game  Skill increases  Processing speed declines
  • 13. Life-span perspective views development as: 4. Plastic – Changeable  Meth addiction changes someone's life?  Brain injury
  • 14. Life-span perspective views development as: 5. Multidisciplinary – Studied by:  Psychologists  Sociologists  Anthropologists  Neuroscientists  Medical researchers
  • 15. Life-span perspective views development as: 6. Contextual  3 Types of Influences: Normative (normal) 1. Normative Age -graded Influences 2. Normative History -graded Influences 3. Non-normative or Highly Individualized Life Events
  • 16. Life-span perspective views development as: 7. Involves growth, maintenance & regulation of loss
  • 17. Life-span perspective views development as: 8. Combination of biology, culture & the individual – Example: – Shaped by experiences that individuals have or pursue.
  • 18. We are shaped by:
  • 19. Culture Shapes our Brain Example  American & Chinese students – Placed in an MRI – Shown images  Example on previous slide  Americans primary attention – On “object” in the picture  Chinese – Context of picture—the lobby – Greater level of anxiety regarding the incongruence of a sheep standing in a lobby
  • 20. The Nature Of Development Changes in:
  • 21. The Nature Of Development 1. Biological processes – Changes in an individual’s physical nature  Hormonal  Brain  Height & weight gains
  • 22. The Nature Of Development 2. Cognitive processes – Changes in the individual’s  Thought  Intelligence  Language
  • 23. The Nature Of Development 3. Socioemotional processes – Changes in individual’s:  Relationships with others  Emotions  Personality
  • 24. Periods of Development  Developmental period – Time frame in a person’s life that is characterized by certain features  Prenatal period – Conception to birth  Infancy – Birth to 18 or 24 months  Early childhood – End of infancy to age 5 or 6  Middle and late childhood – 6 to 11 years of age
  • 25. Periods of Development Cont. – Adolescence  Transition from childhood to early adulthood  Approximately 10 - 12 to 18 - 22 years – Early adulthood  Late teens or early twenties through the thirties – Middle adulthood  Approximately 40 - 60 years – Late adulthood  60’s or 70’s until death
  • 26. Conceptualizing Age  Chronological  Biological age age  Psychological age  Social age
  • 27. Conceptualizing Age  Chronological age – # of years since birth
  • 28. Conceptualizing Age  Biological age – Age in terms of biological health – People you know very healthy or unhealthy for their age?
  • 29. Conceptualizing Age  Psychological age – Individual’s adaptive capacities  Changes in technology – Maturity
  • 30. Conceptualizing Age  Social age – Society’s age expectations – Example:  What are expectations for a 10 yr. old – In our culture? – Another culture?
  • 31. Nature-Nurture Issue  Nature – Biological inheritance  Nurture – Environmental experiences   Which has the greatest influence? How do they interact?
  • 32. Class Exercise  Nature versus Nurture in Your Life
  • 33. Scientific Method  4-step process: – 1. Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied – 2. Collect research information (data) – 3. Analyze data – 4. Draw conclusions
  • 34. Theories of Development  Psychoanalytic Theory  Cognitive Theory  Behavioral & Social Theory  Ethological Theory  Ecological Theory  Eclectic Theoretical Orientation
  • 35. Psychoanalytic Theory  Sigmund Freud’s theory – Behavior & problems result of experiences early in life  Mainly first 5 years  Adult personality – Resolution of conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage & the demands of reality
  • 36. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
  • 37. Psychosocial Theory    Erik Erikson   – Primary motivation for human behavior  Social – Developmental change  Occurs throughout life span
  • 38. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
  • 39. Erikson & Freud
  • 40. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages 1. Trust Versus Mistrust (Hope)
  • 41. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages  1.  Trust Versus Mistrust (Hope) – – Infancy - 1 Does child believe caregivers are reliable? – Successful  Develops trust & security & a basic optimism. – Badly handled  Becomes insecure & mistrustful. 
  • 42. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages 2.  Autonomy Versus Shame & Doubt (Will)
  • 43. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages  2.  Autonomy Versus Shame & Doubt (Will) – Infancy: 1 – 3 – Early part of crisis  Stormy self – will  Tantrums  Stubbornness  Negativism – "well - parented" child  Confident  Happy with new found control  Proud
  • 44. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages 3. Initiative Versus Guilt (Purpose)
  • 45. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages  3. Initiative Versus Guilt (Purpose) – 3 – 5 yrs. – Child learns to: – Imagine  Broaden skills through active play, fantasy  Cooperate  Lead & follow – Immobilized by guilt:     Fearful Hangs on fringes of groups Too dependent on adults Restricted in development of play skills & imagination.  
  • 46. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages 4.  Industry Versus Inferiority (Competence)
  • 47. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages  4.  Industry Versus Inferiority (Competence) – 6- puberty – Learns to master more formal skills of life:  (1) Relating with peers according to rules  (2) Progressing from free play - structured play – Rules & teamwork  (3) Mastering social studies, reading, arithmetic.  – Trusting  Autonomous  Full of initiative  Easily learn to be industrious – Mistrusting child  Doubt future  Shame & guilt, experiences defeat & inferiority. 
  • 48. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages 5. Identity Versus Identity Confusion (Fidelity)
  • 49. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages  5.  Identity Versus Identity Confusion (Fidelity) – 10 – 20 yrs. – "Who am I?“  Learns answer satisfactorily & happily  Role identity confusion – Most experiment with minor delinquency – Rebellion – Self - doubts
  • 50. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages  5.  Identity Versus Identity Confusion (Fidelity) cont. – Successful early adolescence  Mature time perspective developed  Self-certainty  Experiments with different usually constructive roles  Anticipates achievement & achieves  Later adolescence – Clear sexual identity  Seeks leadership (someone to inspire him)  Develops a set of ideals socially congruent & desirable  Can experiment – Try various roles, & find one most suitable
  • 51. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages 6. Intimacy Vs Isolation (Love)
  • 52. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages  6.  Intimacy Vs Isolation (Love)  20’s, 30’s – Successful young adult  1 st time, can experience true intimacy – Makes possible good marriage or a genuine & enduring friendship.
  • 53. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages 7. Generativity Vs Stagnation (Care)
  • 54. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages  7.  Generativity Vs Stagnation (Care)  40’s, 50’s – "Generativity"  Term coined by Erikson – Creativity between generations. – Can be expressed in many ways – Try to "make a difference" with your life, to "give back”  From raising a child to stopping a tradition of abuse  From writing a family history to starting a new organization.
  • 55. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages 8.  Integrity Versus Despair (Wisdom)
  • 56. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages   8.  Integrity Versus Despair (Wisdom) 60’s onward – If other 7 psychosocial crisis have been successfully resolved:       Develops peak of adjustment; integrity.  Trusts Independent Works hard Well defined role in life Happy with self-concept – Can be intimate without strain, guilt, regret, or lack of realism – Proud of what you create    Children Work Hobbies – 1 or more earlier psychosocial crises unresolved  May view self & his life with disgust & despair.
  • 57. Cognitive Theory  Emphasis on conscious thoughts – 3 important cognitive theories  Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory  Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory  Information-processing theory
  • 58. Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory     Child: 4 stages of cognitive development Each stage – – – Age-related Distinct way of thinking Different way of understanding
  • 59. Jean Piaget, Swiss Pychologist, 1896 - 1980
  • 60. Cognitive Development In Childhood  Jean Piaget – 50 yrs observed children’s intellectual functioning. – Cognitive development progresses in stages. – All children progress through these stages  Same sequence.
  • 61. Sensorimotor Stage  Sensorimotor stage – Birth – 2  Learn to coordinate senses & motor behavior.  Organize world into schemas: – What – What – What can I put in my mouth is graspable makes noise
  • 62. Sensorimotor Stage  Object permanence – Perception that objects continue to exist even when out of sight. – Baby’s favorite game?  Why?
  • 63. Sensorimotor Stage  Self-recognition – – – – Towards end of stage Rouge test Lewis & Brooks 1979 Placed in front of mirror Touched nose at 18 – 24 months
  • 64. Preoperational Stage  Ages 2 to 7 – Able to use mental representations & language to    Describe Remember Reason – about the world, though only an egocentric fashion  Egocentrism – Inability to see things from another person's point of view.
  • 65. Preoperational Stage  Animistic Thinking – Imagining that inanimate objects have life & mental processes.  Child tripped over coffee table, what will they say?  Fantasy Play – Believe they are Batman  Symbolic Gestures – Stick becomes a gun
  • 66. Cognitive Development In Childhood  Conservation – Understanding that a change in the size or shape of a substance does not change the amount of that substance.
  • 67. Concrete Operational        Ages 7 - 11 Can attend to more than 1 thing at a x. Can understand another's point of view. In the now Understand conservation Parent can be more than just your parent Thought more logical – Thinking limited to concert matters  Mystery Garden
  • 68. Thought more logical Thinking limited to concert matters Mystery Garden
  • 69. Formal Operational Stage  Ages 11 & above  Capable of abstract thought  Formulate hypothesis & test it  Beyond here & now  Cause & effect  Consider possibilities
  • 70. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory     Emphasizes how culture & social interaction guide cognitive development
  • 71. The Information-Processing Theory     Thinking – – – – – is information processing Perceive Encode Represent Store Retrieve
  • 72. The InformationProcessing Theory   Emphasis – – – on ways individuals Manipulate information Monitor information Strategize information  Develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing information – Allows for acquisition of increasingly complex knowledge & skills
  • 73. Behavioral & Social Cognitive Theories  Behaviorism – Scientifically study only what can be directly observed & measured 2 versions of behaviorism – B.F. Skinner’s operant conditioning – Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory
  • 74. Mrs. Garrison’s Theory of Evolution
  • 75. Behavioral Theories  Skinner’s Operant Conditioning    – Consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence  Rewards & punishments shape development
  • 76. Behavioral Theories  Rewards & punishments shape development – What happens if you get in trouble with your parents for shooting a someone with your sling shot?
  • 77. Social Cognitive Theories  Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory – Key factors in development  Behavior  Environment  Cognition – Observational learning (also called imitation or modeling)  Cognitively represent behavior of others  Sometimes adopt behavior themselves
  • 78. Ethological Theory  Ethology (Comparative Psychology) – Examines:  Origins or causes of behavior  Evolutionary Psychologists use this information to attempt to compare our behavior to other species  Behavior strongly influenced by biology  – Tied to evolution – Characterized by critical or sensitive periods Noted ethologists – Konrad Lorenz – John Bowlby – {Mrs. Garrison}
  • 79. Eclectic Theoretical Orientation  No single theory – Explains complexity of life-span development  Each contributes to understanding development
  • 80. Research in Life-Span Development   Application of scientific method Methods for collecting data – Observation  Laboratory  Naturalistic – – – – Survey & interview Standardized testing Case study Physiological measures
  • 81. Research Designs  Descriptive research – Observe & record behavior  Correlational research – Describe strength of relationship between 2 or more events or characteristics  Experiment – 1 or more variables manipulated while all other factors held constant
  • 82. Experimental & Control Groups    Experimental group – Experience manipulated  Control group – Comparison group
  • 83. Time Span of Research  Cross-sectional approach – Simultaneously compares individuals of different ages  Longitudinal approach – Same persons studied over a period of x  Usually several years  Cohort (PeerEffects – How same event affects peers  Holocaust – Effect on teens
  • 84. Research Ethics  Addresses: – Rights of participant – Responsibilities of researchers – APA’s guidelines address 4 important issues  Informed consent  Confidentiality  Debriefing  Deception