Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Child chapter 2 prenatal 2.2

574

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
574
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
29
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Conception & Period of the Zygote  Reproduction  Begins when female gamete (ovum) fertilized by male gamete (sperm)  Zygote  Single cell formed through fertilization  23 pairs of chromosomes
  • 2. Conception & Period of the Zygote  Zygote  Egg & a sperm fuse  Create single cell  23 unpaired chromosomes from egg & sperm combine to form  1 set of 23 paired chromosomes  1 chromosome of each pair is from  Mother’s egg  Father’s sperm  Each parent contributes 1/2 of offspring’s genetic material
  • 3. Prenatal Development  3 prenatal periods  1.  2.  3. Germinal Period Embryonic Period Fetal Period  (Gabby Eats Frogs)
  • 4. The Course of Prenatal Development 1. The Germinal Period  Takes place in 1st 2 weeks after conception.  1. Creation of zygote  2. Cell division  3. Attachment of zygote to uterine wall
  • 5. The Germinal Period Egg goes from ovary through fallopian tube (uterine tube)
  • 6. The Germinal Period Creation of zygote (fertilized egg)  Mature human egg   23 chromosomes Mature human sperm   23 chromosomes Egg fertilized by sperm   Creates zygote  46 chromosomes
  • 7. The Germinal Period  Many sperm race to egg  1 wins…usually.  Makes way to egg by smell  Once a sperm penetrates  Chemical is released  Prevents other sperm from entering  2 penetrate  Possible miscarriage
  • 8. Zygote
  • 9. The Germinal Period
  • 10. 2. The Embryonic Period
  • 11. The Course of Prenatal Development 2. The Embryonic Period  Occurs 2 - 8 weeks  after conception  Cell differentiation intensifies  Support systems for cells form  Organs appear  Heart first
  • 12. The Course of Prenatal Development The Placenta and the Umbilical Cord Uterus Umbilical cord Placenta Umbilical vein Umbilical arteries Fetal portion of placenta Fig. 3.2 Maternal portion of placenta
  • 13. Placenta  Attaches to inside of uterus  Connected to fetus by umbilical cord  Produces pregnancy-related hormones  Small blood vessels carrying fetal blood run through placenta, which is full of maternal blood.
  • 14. The Course of Prenatal Development Embryo’s Life-Support System  Placenta  Intertwines  Does not join mother & baby  Umbilical cord  Connects baby to placenta
  • 15. Embryo’s Life-Support System  Amnion & amniotic fluid  Provides baby’s environment  Drinks it  Organogenesis  Organ formation  Especially vulnerable to environmental changes
  • 16. The Course of Prenatal Development 3. The Fetal Period  Begins 2 mo’s after conception  Lasts @ 7 mo’s - birth  Largest prenatal size & weight gains  Development:  Fingers toes lungs  Skin features reflexes
  • 17. Trimester 2: Week 21 27
  • 18. The Course of Prenatal Development The Brain  At birth – 100 billion neurons  Basic architecture assembled  1st 2 trimesters  Neural tube: first 18–24 days  Forms the spinal cord  Neural Tube Defects  Effect so severe, won’t show you  Defect tied to nutrition
  • 19. Neural Tube Defects
  • 20. The Brain  Neurogenesis:  5th prenatal week:  Proliferation of new immature neurons  Continues through prenatal period  3rd trimester  Connectivity  Functioning of neurons
  • 21. Fetal Learning  3rd Trimester  Increased responsiveness:  Familiar voices  Differences in heart rate  Experiment  Cat in the Hat read to fetus  2x’s a day  Preference for book & voice after birth  Any help to development?  None detected
  • 22. THREATS TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
  • 23. Hazards to Prenatal Development Threats to prenatal development  Teratogen  Any agent that causes a birth defect  Severity & type of defect affected by  Dose  Genetic susceptibility  Time of exposure
  • 24. Threats to prenatal development  All drugs (prescribed, illegal) can have effects on unborn fetus  Antibiotics, analgesics, asthma medications  X-rays  Pollution  Large doses Vitamin A  1961: thalidomide tragedy
  • 25. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • 26. Teratogens and Timing of Their Effects on Prenatal Development Zygote 1 2 Most serious damage from teratogens in first 2–8 weeks Embryonic period (wks) 3 4 5 6 7 8 Central nervous system Heart Arms Eyes Legs Ears Period of susceptibility to structural defects Period of susceptibility to functional defects Fig. 3.7 (modified) Fetal Period (wks) 9 16 32 38 Teeth Palate External genitalia
  • 27. Hazards to Prenatal Development Psychoactive Drugs  Psychoactive drugs  Act on nervous system & change moods  Alter states of conscious, modify perceptions  Extent of risk & harm varies
  • 28. Your Doctor Wants You to Smoke 1951
  • 29. Nicotine (March of Dimes longitudinal study, 2011)  – Heart defects – Absence or severe underdevelopment of hands, feet, radius, tibia, ulna or fibula – Missing fused or extra fingers or toes – Clubfoot – Cleft lip or palate – Eye defects – Gastrointestinal defects  Baby more likely  2 or more defects
  • 30. Psychoactive Drugs  Dangers of second-hand smoke  http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2011/03/0  Extent of risk & harm varies
  • 31. Hazards to Prenatal Development Environmental Hazards  Father’s exposure to lead, radiation  X-ray radiation  Pollutants & toxin wastes  Fertilizers & pesticides  Lead-based paints  Petrochemicals  Why father’s exposure causes harm?
  • 32. Maternal Nutrition  Weight Gain  25 - 35 lbs. best reproductive outcomes  Inadequate & excessive weight gain  May affect  Baby birth weight  Mother’s health  Gestational Diabetes
  • 33. Strategies for Expectant Mothers Maternal Nutrition  Nutrition  Increased need for all nutrients  50% increased need for:  Protein  Iron  Vitamin D  Calcium  Phosphorus  Magnesium  Water essential
  • 34. Hazards to Prenatal Development Maternal Nutrition  Maternal diet, nutrition, & weight  Folic acid & iron  Fish: PCBs & mercury levels  Maternal age  Highest risks: adolescents, over 35 years  Down syndrome  Maternal emotional states
  • 35. Exercise During Pregnancy Strategies for Expectant Mothers  Decrease duration & intensity as pregnancy progresses  Avoid high-risk activities  Warm up, stretch, cool down  Reduce exercise significantly in last 4 weeks  Exercise not linked to preterm birth
  • 36. Hazards to Prenatal Development Parental Factors  Paternal factors  Father’s diet & low vitamin C  Drug use effects on sperm  Smoking – effects of second-hand smoke  Father’s age at conception  Birth defects: dwarfism, Marfan’s Syndrome
  • 37. PRENATAL TESTS
  • 38. Chorionic Villas Sampling
  • 39. 2.3 INFERTILITY & REPRODUCTIVE CHOICE

×