Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Child 3.2
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Child 3.2

425
views

Published on


0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
425
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
23
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 3 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Maturation 3.2 1
  • 2. Most obvious feature of physical growth. HEIGHT 2
  • 3. HEIGHT • Average US newborn • 20” long • Year 1: Grow 50% • 30” long • Year 2: 5” • Until adolescence • Growth speed slowly decreases 3
  • 4. CEPHALOCAUDAL • Cap • Growth starts at the top & moves downward. • Birth Head • Head 25% body length • Years 1 & 2 • Torso & limbs begin to catch up • Adult Head • Head 1/8th of height 4
  • 5. CHANGES IN PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN BODY DURING GROWTH 5
  • 6. GROSS MOTOR SKILLS 6
  • 7. Individual Differences in Infancy Assessed for Predictions MEASURES OF INFANT DEVELOPMENT • Gesell: • Distinguish abnormal babies for adoption agencies • Developmental quotient (DQ): • Overall developmental score • 4 categories • Motor • Language • Adaptive • Personal-social 7
  • 8. Individual Differences in Infancy Assessed for Predictions MEASURES OF INFANT DEVELOPMENT • Bayley Scales of Infant Development • Bayley-III • Age 1-3 • Widely used if problem suspected • Assesses infant, predicts later behavior 8
  • 9. BAYLEY KIT 9
  • 10. MILESTONES IN GROSS MOTOR DEVELOPMENT 10
  • 11. CULTURAL VARIATIONS How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills? • Reach motor milestones in different cultures • Based on activity opportunities • Mothers in developing cultures • Stimulate infants’ motor skills more than mothers in more advanced cultures. • Why? 11
  • 12. How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills? GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Milestones for large muscle activities • Development of posture • Learning to walk; locomotion, balance, & practice (crawling to walking) • Adapting to slopes • 1st yr. milestones: walks easily • Development in 2nd yr. • Skilled & mobile: pull toys, climb stairs • Natural exercise: walk quickly, run stiffly 12
  • 13. GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Scales reliable? • Cross cultural reliability? • Only good for Western cultures? • Does environment play a role? 13
  • 14. GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Cultures may promote earlier walking by: • Massaging legs • Stretching legs • Motor exercises 14
  • 15. CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN GUIDING INFANTS’ MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Infants worldwide reach motor milestones within close age range. • Variations not large • Milestones reached within normal age ranges • Algonquin of Canada • Cradle boards • Jamaica • Baby massages and limb stretching 15
  • 16. GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Most noticeable change during first 5 years • Scooting • Crawling (6-10 mo.'s) • Walking (12 mo.’s) • School age • Preform same movements as adults • Lacking strength & skill • T-Ball • Bowling ramps 16
  • 17. What Changes Take Place in Body Growth, Brain, and Motor Development? GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Middle/late childhood: • Smoother movement • Better coordination • Mastered skills, feel pleasure 17
  • 18. FINE MOTOR SKILLS 18
  • 19. How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills? FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Finely tuned (coordinated) movements • Birth grasp: Palmer • Palmar • End of 1st year • Pincer Pincer • Wrists & hands turn & rotate more • Experience & exercise have impact 19
  • 20. BLUEBERRY PANCAKE AND PINCER GRASP 20
  • 21. 21
  • 22. FINE MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Age 7 • Hands used more as ‘tools,’ • Age 8-10 • More independent with hands • Fine motor skills develop • Age 10-12 (end of elementary school) • Manipulative skills like adults 22
  • 23. FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Accidents • Gross motor skills • Development of mobility • Fine motor skills • Pick up small objects • May lead to accidents. • Such as? • What precautions should parents take? 23
  • 24. SEX DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT 24
  • 25. SEX DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Boys better gross motor skills • Speed • Strength • At 3 yrs. average boy • Jumps higher • Runs faster • At 3 yrs. average girl • Better balancing skills • Gymnastics 25
  • 26. SEX DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Boys more active since birth • Accelerates brain growth of motor neurons • Needed for: • Strength • Speed • Boys also conditioned to be active 26
  • 27. SEX DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Girls • Within 24 hours after birth • Adults use softer language • Mothers do more: • Cuddling • Emotionally expressive • Smile • Talk • Responsive to needs 27
  • 28. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SCHOOL 28
  • 29. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SCHOOL • Preschool • Most active time period in our lives • Should be allowed plenty of physical activity • Should a 3 yr. old be expected to sit still at dinner? • Elementary • Physical activity contributes to: • Overall attention • Greater cognitive development • Unstructured play best 29
  • 30. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SCHOOL • Middle school • Decline in physical activity • Nature: • Maturation • Nurture • Parents activity level • High school • Organized sports 30
  • 31. What Are Central Issues in Children’s Health? EXERCISE AND SPORTS • Exercise • Children not exercising enough • Less P.E. programs/involvement in school • TV & video games promote sedentary lifestyles • High-intensity resistance exercise • Decreases body fat • Lessens overweight risks • Increases muscle strength • Linked to important cognitive activity • Parental encouragement a must 31
  • 32. What Are Central Issues in Children’s Health? EXERCISE & SPORTS • Sports: • Involvement increasing every year • Positive consequences • Healthy exercise • Opportunities to learn • Raises self-esteem • Good peer relationships 32
  • 33. EXERCISE & SPORTS • Problems with kids in organized sports? 33
  • 34. EXERCISE & SPORTS • Negative consequences • Pressure to win/achieve • Parents • Teammates • Coaches • Self • Physical injuries • Academic work falters • Too competitive • Unrealistic expectations for athletic success 34
  • 35. KIDS & SPORTS HTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=U1_CKOBVACI 35
  • 36. PARENTS’ SPORTS GUIDE FOR CHILDREN Pros – Exercise – Opportunities to learn how to compete – Self-esteem – Setting for developing peer relations and friendships Cons – Pressure to achieve, high stress created – Physical injuries – Distraction from academic work – Exploitation – Wrong values taught; win-at-all-costs 36
  • 37. PHYSICAL DISABILITIES 37
  • 38. AGES 6 - 11
  • 39. PHYSICAL DISABILITIES • 1.3 % Physical handicap involving movement • Vision • What signs should parents look for? • Hearing • May have difficulties with abstract thought, solving math problems, understanding concepts • Due to how they process language 39
  • 40. PHYSICAL DISABILITIES • Speech • Adults should understand • 50% of what 2 yr. olds say • 75% of what 3 yr. olds say • 100% of what 4 yr. olds say 40
  • 41. PHYSICAL DISABILITIES • Speech • Problems pronouncing sounds correctly • Difficulty with pronouncing “s”, “r” • Stuttering • Common 2-5 year olds • Brain is processing faster than they can get the words out • Usually goes away within a few months 41
  • 42. PHYSICAL DISABILITIES • Stuttering Cont. • If persistent: • Evaluation • Parents • Patient • DO NOT bring it to their attention • Psychological? • No • Stuttering can cause psychological problems 42
  • 43. BOWEL & BLADDER CONTROL 43
  • 44. BOWEL & BLADDER CONTROL • Toilet training • Nature & nurture • Body ready between 18 – 30 mo.'s. • Stay dry for at least 2 hrs. a day • Brazelton’s approach • Shaping • Steps? 44