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Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
Child 3.2
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Child 3.2

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  1. 3 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Maturation 3.2 1
  2. Most obvious feature of physical growth. HEIGHT 2
  3. HEIGHT • Average US newborn • 20” long • Year 1: Grow 50% • 30” long • Year 2: 5” • Until adolescence • Growth speed slowly decreases 3
  4. CEPHALOCAUDAL • Cap • Growth starts at the top & moves downward. • Birth Head • Head 25% body length • Years 1 & 2 • Torso & limbs begin to catch up • Adult Head • Head 1/8th of height 4
  5. CHANGES IN PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN BODY DURING GROWTH 5
  6. GROSS MOTOR SKILLS 6
  7. Individual Differences in Infancy Assessed for Predictions MEASURES OF INFANT DEVELOPMENT • Gesell: • Distinguish abnormal babies for adoption agencies • Developmental quotient (DQ): • Overall developmental score • 4 categories • Motor • Language • Adaptive • Personal-social 7
  8. Individual Differences in Infancy Assessed for Predictions MEASURES OF INFANT DEVELOPMENT • Bayley Scales of Infant Development • Bayley-III • Age 1-3 • Widely used if problem suspected • Assesses infant, predicts later behavior 8
  9. BAYLEY KIT 9
  10. MILESTONES IN GROSS MOTOR DEVELOPMENT 10
  11. CULTURAL VARIATIONS How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills? • Reach motor milestones in different cultures • Based on activity opportunities • Mothers in developing cultures • Stimulate infants’ motor skills more than mothers in more advanced cultures. • Why? 11
  12. How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills? GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Milestones for large muscle activities • Development of posture • Learning to walk; locomotion, balance, & practice (crawling to walking) • Adapting to slopes • 1st yr. milestones: walks easily • Development in 2nd yr. • Skilled & mobile: pull toys, climb stairs • Natural exercise: walk quickly, run stiffly 12
  13. GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Scales reliable? • Cross cultural reliability? • Only good for Western cultures? • Does environment play a role? 13
  14. GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Cultures may promote earlier walking by: • Massaging legs • Stretching legs • Motor exercises 14
  15. CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN GUIDING INFANTS’ MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Infants worldwide reach motor milestones within close age range. • Variations not large • Milestones reached within normal age ranges • Algonquin of Canada • Cradle boards • Jamaica • Baby massages and limb stretching 15
  16. GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Most noticeable change during first 5 years • Scooting • Crawling (6-10 mo.'s) • Walking (12 mo.’s) • School age • Preform same movements as adults • Lacking strength & skill • T-Ball • Bowling ramps 16
  17. What Changes Take Place in Body Growth, Brain, and Motor Development? GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Middle/late childhood: • Smoother movement • Better coordination • Mastered skills, feel pleasure 17
  18. FINE MOTOR SKILLS 18
  19. How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills? FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Finely tuned (coordinated) movements • Birth grasp: Palmer • Palmar • End of 1st year • Pincer Pincer • Wrists & hands turn & rotate more • Experience & exercise have impact 19
  20. BLUEBERRY PANCAKE AND PINCER GRASP 20
  21. 21
  22. FINE MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Age 7 • Hands used more as ‘tools,’ • Age 8-10 • More independent with hands • Fine motor skills develop • Age 10-12 (end of elementary school) • Manipulative skills like adults 22
  23. FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Accidents • Gross motor skills • Development of mobility • Fine motor skills • Pick up small objects • May lead to accidents. • Such as? • What precautions should parents take? 23
  24. SEX DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT 24
  25. SEX DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Boys better gross motor skills • Speed • Strength • At 3 yrs. average boy • Jumps higher • Runs faster • At 3 yrs. average girl • Better balancing skills • Gymnastics 25
  26. SEX DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Boys more active since birth • Accelerates brain growth of motor neurons • Needed for: • Strength • Speed • Boys also conditioned to be active 26
  27. SEX DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Girls • Within 24 hours after birth • Adults use softer language • Mothers do more: • Cuddling • Emotionally expressive • Smile • Talk • Responsive to needs 27
  28. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SCHOOL 28
  29. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SCHOOL • Preschool • Most active time period in our lives • Should be allowed plenty of physical activity • Should a 3 yr. old be expected to sit still at dinner? • Elementary • Physical activity contributes to: • Overall attention • Greater cognitive development • Unstructured play best 29
  30. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SCHOOL • Middle school • Decline in physical activity • Nature: • Maturation • Nurture • Parents activity level • High school • Organized sports 30
  31. What Are Central Issues in Children’s Health? EXERCISE AND SPORTS • Exercise • Children not exercising enough • Less P.E. programs/involvement in school • TV & video games promote sedentary lifestyles • High-intensity resistance exercise • Decreases body fat • Lessens overweight risks • Increases muscle strength • Linked to important cognitive activity • Parental encouragement a must 31
  32. What Are Central Issues in Children’s Health? EXERCISE & SPORTS • Sports: • Involvement increasing every year • Positive consequences • Healthy exercise • Opportunities to learn • Raises self-esteem • Good peer relationships 32
  33. EXERCISE & SPORTS • Problems with kids in organized sports? 33
  34. EXERCISE & SPORTS • Negative consequences • Pressure to win/achieve • Parents • Teammates • Coaches • Self • Physical injuries • Academic work falters • Too competitive • Unrealistic expectations for athletic success 34
  35. KIDS & SPORTS HTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=U1_CKOBVACI 35
  36. PARENTS’ SPORTS GUIDE FOR CHILDREN Pros – Exercise – Opportunities to learn how to compete – Self-esteem – Setting for developing peer relations and friendships Cons – Pressure to achieve, high stress created – Physical injuries – Distraction from academic work – Exploitation – Wrong values taught; win-at-all-costs 36
  37. PHYSICAL DISABILITIES 37
  38. AGES 6 - 11
  39. PHYSICAL DISABILITIES • 1.3 % Physical handicap involving movement • Vision • What signs should parents look for? • Hearing • May have difficulties with abstract thought, solving math problems, understanding concepts • Due to how they process language 39
  40. PHYSICAL DISABILITIES • Speech • Adults should understand • 50% of what 2 yr. olds say • 75% of what 3 yr. olds say • 100% of what 4 yr. olds say 40
  41. PHYSICAL DISABILITIES • Speech • Problems pronouncing sounds correctly • Difficulty with pronouncing “s”, “r” • Stuttering • Common 2-5 year olds • Brain is processing faster than they can get the words out • Usually goes away within a few months 41
  42. PHYSICAL DISABILITIES • Stuttering Cont. • If persistent: • Evaluation • Parents • Patient • DO NOT bring it to their attention • Psychological? • No • Stuttering can cause psychological problems 42
  43. BOWEL & BLADDER CONTROL 43
  44. BOWEL & BLADDER CONTROL • Toilet training • Nature & nurture • Body ready between 18 – 30 mo.'s. • Stay dry for at least 2 hrs. a day • Brazelton’s approach • Shaping • Steps? 44

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