CHILD PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 3.4 Physical Development


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CHILD PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 3.4 Physical Development

  1. 1. Physical Development 3.4
  2. 2. 3.4 NUTRITION Group Work 2
  3. 3. Nutrition (Group Work) What do you know about proper nutrition? Where did you learn it? Do you think what you know is common knowledge? How did your family eat? Did you all eat together? Did you eat in front of the TV? Was there plenty of junk food in your house? Was nutrition ever discussed? Were you told to eat everything on your plate? Want to eat less? What are some EASY things to do? 3
  4. 4. Nutrition Children born this century may not live as long as their parents Why? 4
  5. 5. Children born this century may not live as long as their parents Why? Poor childhood nutrition is associated with later Obesity Diabetes Heart Disease Today 3” taller than in 1776 5
  6. 6. Nutrition More nutrients More involved with peers Expressed more positive emotions Less anxiety More curious Persistent Self- confident More alert Better energy 6
  7. 7. Nutrition Poor nutrition Less energy Less physical activity Less exploration Less attention to environmental stimuli Diminished cognitive involvement Diminished development 7
  8. 8. Nutrition Confess: Do you eat breakfast? What? Did you eat breakfast as a kid? What? 8
  9. 9. Nutrition Why is breakfast the most important meal of the day? Positive effect Memory Increased: Concentration Reasoning ability Problem-solving Creativity 9
  10. 10. Nutrition Habit forming important Children who eat breakfast: More healthful food choices More likely to keep proper weight Create lifetime of better food choices 10
  11. 11. Nutrition Adolescent and breakfast More independent choices Mean number of days eating breakfast drops 25% Translates: Greater weight in early adulthood Males after 6 yrs. of no breakfast 37% risk of overweight 11
  12. 12. Nutritional Needs Parents worry Child eating enough? Don’t worry Provide healthy choices Toddlers & preschoolers Good at regulating nutritional intake How do parents… Encourage overeating? Reward overeating? Problems? What should you feed your children? 12
  13. 13. Nutritional Needs Daily basis kids need: Low in fat & high in fiber Protein Lean meats such as chicken (low in fat) Meat, rice, soy, beans, dairy and peanut butter. 13
  14. 14. Nutrition Daily basis kids need cont.: High in Iron to prevent anemia Dark leafy Vegetables Iron fortified cereal Meat Seafood Calcium-rich Diary, soy, vegetables, nuts, fish Bones Teeth 14
  15. 15. Instant Noodles Malnourished Health of 80-year old Weighs 98 pounds & 5'3". Isn’t worried, "I just love noodles!" she said. 15
  16. 16. Nutrition Children follow nutritional habits of parents. Snacks in moderation Adolescents Poor eating habits Additional healthy calories to support accelerated growth High need for calcium beginning age 9 16
  17. 17. Overweight & Obesity in Childhood Obesity: 20% higher than normal for height. 17% US children & adolescents obese Since 1960’s tripled Younger & younger children diagnosed Breastfeeding may reduce risks Overweight children susceptible in adulthood 17
  18. 18. Overweight & Obesity in Childhood Health issues later: Cardiovascular diseases Pulmonary Endocrine Pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus, gastrointestinal tract & adrenal glands. 18
  19. 19. Overweight & Obesity in Childhood Health issues later cont.: Orthopedic problems Risk of psychological problems Lower self-esteem, tired, less attractive Peer relations; rejection & withdrawal 19
  20. 20. Overweight & Obesity in Childhood Motor development connected Brain development Long-term effects of being overweight. Overweight infants Excess fat cells Life long overweight Late motor development Cause of being overweight Nature or nurture? Help? 20
  21. 21. Overweight Children Treatment: Combination of Diet, weight loss programs Exercise Calorie-burning activities Family walk Other? Behavior modification, lifestyle changes Daily diary Parents are very important for change Activity levels are not hereditary What Are Central Issues in Children’s Health? 21
  22. 22. Anorexia Nervosa Potentially life-threatening eating disorder Intense fear of becoming fat Distorted body image Self-starvation Primarily in adolescent & young adult females 10% die in 10 yrs. 20% die in 20 yrs. Recovery about 1.7 yrs. 22
  23. 23. Anorexia Nervosa Highest mortality rate of any mental disorder Starvation Cardiac arrest Suicide Depression 23
  24. 24. Anorexia Nervosa Pro-anoerxia web sites “Tips & Tricks Make yourself a snack, but instead of eating it throw it away. Leave the dirty dishes where your parents can find them. They will think you ate. Prepare a list of excuses as to why you can't eat - You're sick, you're a vegetarian, allergic, etc. You'd be amazed at how many good excuses there are. Get out of your house! If you're not sitting around then people can't start shit with you about not eating. Join a pro-ana group or start your own website. Anything that will keep you motivated.” 24
  25. 25. Bulimia Nervosa Eating disorder Characterized by binges of eating followed by self-induced vomiting. Binges Vomiting May after every meal Each morsel of food or water 25
  26. 26. Bulimia Nervosa Exercise 3 hours a day Self-medicate Speed Enemas Laxatives (whole box) Diuretics 26
  27. 27. Dangers Associated with Bulimia Foreign Objects: Objects used to induce purging. (rupture) Teeth rotted away from stomach acid. Acid / food damage to esophagus. Finger skin & nail damage from acid. Red spots around the eyes. Subconjunctival hemorrhage Prevent absorption of needed vitamins & minerals Skin ages. 27
  28. 28. Bulimia Cause? Treatment Behavioral Cognitive Family 28
  29. 29. Binge Eating Disorder Usually overweight Rapidly eat unusually large amounts of food several times week. Binge when alone Most common eating disorder among adolescents 1.6% Cause unknown? Depression Brain chemicals Hormones 29
  30. 30. Eating Disorders Anyone willing to discuss a friend, family member with eating disorder. 30
  31. 31. PUBERTY 3.5 31
  32. 32. Puberty Puberty Most important marker of beginning of adolescence Ends before adolescence ends 32
  33. 33. Puberty Rapid physical maturation Hormonal Bodily changes Most noticeable changes Signs of sexual maturation Increases Height Weight 33
  34. 34. Age of Puberty Boys 11 ½ Girls 9 ½ -13 Affect puberty’s timing & makeup Nutrition Health Other environmental factors? 34
  35. 35. Hormones Affect Hormones Suppress or activate Behavior Moods Stress Eating patterns Exercise Sexual activity 35
  36. 36. Puberty Girls Early adolescence Outweigh boys Tall or taller than boys Mean age growth spurt at 10 yrs. Boys Mean age growth spurt 12 yrs. Can be 5” or more yr. 36
  37. 37. Increase in estrogen Hormone associated with development of: Widening of the hips (wider birth canal) Breast Uterus & vagina Skeletal Distribution of fat Hips, legs, & breast Skin becomes softer Puberty in Girls 37
  38. 38. Puberty in Girls Breast budding 1st visual sign of sexual development Menarche (period) follows in 2 – 3 yrs. Ova becoming mature enough to be fertilized Puberty ends in 2 - 6 yrs. 38
  39. 39. Puberty Girls 8-year-olds puberty: 15% of white girls 50% of African-American girls Rise in early puberty linked to: Rise in obesity in U.S. children Environment Genetics Concerns of breast cancers in these girls later 39
  40. 40. Gender Differences in Body Image Adolescents preoccupied with their bodies Develop images of what their bodies are like Girls Less happy with their bodies more negative body images 40
  41. 41. Boys More satisfied with their body Probably due to muscle mass increases Gender Differences in Body Image 41
  42. 42. Early and Late Maturation Mature earlier or later perceive selves differently In what ways? 42
  43. 43. Early maturation increases vulnerability to problems More likely to: Attention from older boys Greater rates of delinquency Drink Depressed Do poorly in school Anxious Drug use Earlier sexual experiences Early and Late Maturation 43