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Child & Adolescent
Development
Introduction
Chapter 1
1
Study guides and syllabus:
• Slides will be posted on SlideShare:
http://www.slideshare.net/professorjcc
Introduction
• Turn to the person next to you and
describe a favorite childhood memory.
• How old were you?
• Why is it yo...
Why?
• Stories of Ted Kaczynski & Alice
Walker
– Child genius becomes social misfit &
murderer.
– Impoverished & painful c...
Child Development
• Subfield of developmental
psychology
– The pattern of movement or change
that begins at conception &
c...
• What are the benefits of studying
Child Development?
• What issues might occur if people are
unaware of how a child deve...
Child Development
• Importance of studying development
– Improving
• children’s lives
• health & well-being
• child educat...
Child Development
• Health & well-being
– Does a poor diet affect a child’s ability to learn?
– Premature infants
• Massag...
Child Development
• Parenting
– Changing family patterns
• Gay parents
• More working parents
• Increased use of day-care
...
• Education
– Parents taking a greater role in
education of their children
• Asking questions about curriculum
– Why has t...
Child Development
• Sociocultural Contexts & Diversity
– Where development occurs
• Influenced by
1. Culture
2. Ethnicity
...
HOW IS CHILD DEVELOPMENT A
SCIENCE?
• Importance of Research—
– Objective & systematic
– Reduces likelihood information is...
Importance of Research
• Scientific Method
– Conceptualize or identify a problem
– Refer to a theory (set of ideas that pr...
Biological, Cognitive, &
Socioemotional Development
• Human development combination of:
– Physical Development
• Physical ...
Periods of Development
• Developmental period
– Time frame in a person’s life that is characterized
by certain features
– ...
Periods of Development
– Adolescence
• Transition from childhood - early adulthood
• Approximately 10 - 12 to 18 - 22 year...
Issues in Development
• Nature-Nurture issue
– Nature
• Influences of biological inheritance
– Genetics
• Development seen...
Nurture
• Nurture
– Influences of environment
• Ex: Culture
– Influenced by social experiences
• Ex: Schooling with studen...
• Nature-Nurture issue
– Which has the greatest influence, & how
do the two interact?
Issues in Development
Images of Child Development
• Jim & Jim Twins
– Identical twins separated after birth
– Identical lifestyles after 39 yr’s...
Images of Child Development
• Minnesota Study of Twins Reared
Apart
– From all over world
– Asked 15,000 questions
– Other...
Other Explanations
• Similarities just due to genetics?
• Other factors?
Other Explanations
• Adopted by parents with similar
backgrounds
• Grew up in same generation
• Grew up in same culture
Nature-Nurture Interaction
Scarr & McCartney
• (Theory with 3 ways heredity
predisposition affect environment)
• Heredity
...
Nature-Nurture Interaction
• 1. Passive genotype-environment
– Early childhood
• Parents are musical
– Genes for being mus...
Nature-Nurture Interaction
• 2. Evocative genotype-environment
– Starts in childhood
• Whole Life
– Jack social (father)
–...
Nature-Nurture Interaction
• 3. Active genotype-environment
– About 8-9 yrs.
• Related to their skill choice environment
–...
Nature-Nurture Interaction
• Heredity Environment
• Epigenetic view
– Obesity may activate genes for diabetes
– Behaviors ...
Continuity vs Discontinuity Debate
–Continuity
• Believes development has:
–Gradual, continuous changes
What Characterizes...
Continuity vs Discontinuity Issue
• Discontinuity
– Believes development has:
• Distinct stages, abrupt changes
Critical & Sensitive Periods of
Development
• Critical periods
– Mark the time when environmental
influences have the grea...
Critical & Sensitive Periods of
Development
• Sensitive Periods
– Compensatory mechanisms if
development does not take pla...
• Theories on child development
– Psychoanalytic perspective
– Learning perspective
– Cognitive perspective
– Biological &...
PSYCHOANALYTIC
PERSPECTIVE
Psychoanalytic Perspective
Freud
• Psychoanalytic theories
• Freud born 1856 – 1939, Austrian
• Theory developed in early ...
Personality Development
Sigmund Freud
• Personality developed around 3 components
• Id
– Unconscious instincts
– Infants
•...
Psychoanalytic Perspective
Erikson
• Freud
– Childhood most important
• Erikson
– Change occurs throughout life
• Psychoso...
Psychoanalytic Perspective
Erikson
• Learn from Erikson’s stages:
– Nurture infants to:
• Develop trust
• Encourage & moni...
LEARNING PERSPECTIVE
Behaviorism
Behavioral and Social
Cognitive Theories
• Behaviorism
–Development is observable
–Behavior learned from
experiences
• Rei...
Learning Perspective
• Classical Conditioning, 1901
– I. Pavlov, Russian physiologist, 1849 -
1936
– Neutral stimulus acqu...
7/6/2015 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
42
Pavlov Cont.
• Serendipity
• Noticed dogs salivated be...
Behavioral and Social
Cognitive Theories
• Classical conditioning
– J. Watson, American, 1878 - 1958
– Experiment:
• Littl...
Behavioral and Social
Cognitive Theories
• Operant Conditioning
– B.F. Skinner, American, 1904 - 1990
– Consequences of be...
Behavioral and Social
Cognitive Theories
• Social Cognitive Theory
• A. Bandura, American, 1925 -
– Observational learning...
COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
Cognitive Theories
• Piaget
• Born in Switzerland 1896 - 1980
• Cognitive development theory
– Children actively construct...
Cognitive Theories
• Born in Russia, 1896- 1934 (same year as
Piaget)
• Sociocultural theory (L. Vygotsky)
– Social & cult...
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural
Cognitive Theory
• Emphasizes how culture & social
interaction guide cognitive
development
BIOLOGICAL & ECOLOGICAL
PERSPECTIVES
Bioecological
Theory
• U. Bronfenbrenner (1917- 2005)
• Focus on nurture
• Child is affected by context in which
they live...
Ecological Map
• Your influences in life?
Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-Ecological Model
• The microsystem - activities and
interactions in the child's
immediate surrounding...
Bioecological
Theory
• Microsystem:
– Individual helps form (Inside Group)
• Includes family, peers, school, &
neighborhoo...
• Mesosystem:
– Interrelationship between microsystems
• Family to school experiences
Bioecological
Theory
• Exosystem:
• Links between a social setting
(no control)
– &
• Individual's immediate context.
• Ch...
Bioecological
Theory
• Macrosystem:
• Culture in which
individuals live.
– Developing &
industrialized
countries,
socioeco...
Bioecological
Theory
• Chronosystem:
– Patterning of environmental events &
transitions over life, as well as
sociohistori...
CHILD DEVELOPMENT
RESEARCH
Ethics
• Conducting ethical research
– Protect rights of research subjects
• Do no harm
• informed consent
– Parent & chil...
Research Methods
• Research designs (3)
– 1. Descriptive research: observe and
record
• Naturalistic Observation
• Survey
...
Research Methods
• 3. Experimental research
– Behavior manipulated, change measured
– Demonstrates cause and effect
– Inde...
Research Methods
• Observation
– Laboratory or naturalistic observation
• Survey & interview
• Standardized test – uniform...
Research Methods
• Time span of research
– Cross-sectional approach
• Several groups (usually different ages)
compared at ...
Minimizing Bias
• Gender bias
– Preconceived ideas about female & male
abilities, magnifying differences found
Caring for ...
• Cultural & ethnic bias
– Excluding minorities, preconceived ideas
• Ex: This population not ‘average’
• Ethnic gloss
– U...
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Transcript of "CHILD PSYCHOLOGY, Chapter 1 WEB"

  1. 1. Child & Adolescent Development Introduction Chapter 1 1
  2. 2. Study guides and syllabus: • Slides will be posted on SlideShare: http://www.slideshare.net/professorjcc
  3. 3. Introduction • Turn to the person next to you and describe a favorite childhood memory. • How old were you? • Why is it your favorite memory?
  4. 4. Why? • Stories of Ted Kaczynski & Alice Walker – Child genius becomes social misfit & murderer. – Impoverished & painful childhood leads to creativity & award-winning publications. – Why ? Why Is Caring For Children Important?
  5. 5. Child Development • Subfield of developmental psychology – The pattern of movement or change that begins at conception & continues through the human life span. (death) Why Is Caring For Children Important?
  6. 6. • What are the benefits of studying Child Development? • What issues might occur if people are unaware of how a child develops? – Home – School – Society Child Development
  7. 7. Child Development • Importance of studying development – Improving • children’s lives • health & well-being • child education – Learning better parenting – Better social policies affecting children
  8. 8. Child Development • Health & well-being – Does a poor diet affect a child’s ability to learn? – Premature infants • Massage therapy can facilitate weight gain. – Why?
  9. 9. Child Development • Parenting – Changing family patterns • Gay parents • More working parents • Increased use of day-care – How do they influence child development? – Which is preferred home or day-care?
  10. 10. • Education – Parents taking a greater role in education of their children • Asking questions about curriculum – Why has this changed? Child Development
  11. 11. Child Development • Sociocultural Contexts & Diversity – Where development occurs • Influenced by 1. Culture 2. Ethnicity 3. Socioeconomic Status 4. Gender (See chart)
  12. 12. HOW IS CHILD DEVELOPMENT A SCIENCE? • Importance of Research— – Objective & systematic – Reduces likelihood information is based on • Personal beliefs • Opinions • Feelings
  13. 13. Importance of Research • Scientific Method – Conceptualize or identify a problem – Refer to a theory (set of ideas that predict) – Develop a hypothesis (testable assumption) – Collect the data (to test the hypothesis) – Analyze the data (by statistical methods) – Draw conclusions – Compare to other research outcomes What Characterizes Development?
  14. 14. Biological, Cognitive, & Socioemotional Development • Human development combination of: – Physical Development • Physical changes in a person – Cognitive Development • Changes in thought, intelligence, & language – Psychosocial Development • Changes in personality, emotions, relationships What Characterizes Development?
  15. 15. Periods of Development • Developmental period – Time frame in a person’s life that is characterized by certain features – Prenatal period • Conception to birth – Infancy • Birth - 18 or 24 mo’s – Early childhood • End of infancy to age 5 or 6 – Middle and late childhood • 6 - 11 yrs of age What Characterizes Development?
  16. 16. Periods of Development – Adolescence • Transition from childhood - early adulthood • Approximately 10 - 12 to 18 - 22 years – Early adulthood • Late teens or early twenties through the thirties – Middle adulthood • Approximately 40 - 60 years – Late adulthood • 60’s or 70’s until death
  17. 17. Issues in Development • Nature-Nurture issue – Nature • Influences of biological inheritance – Genetics • Development seen as orderly – All forms of growth from conception to death What Characterizes Development?
  18. 18. Nurture • Nurture – Influences of environment • Ex: Culture – Influenced by social experiences • Ex: Schooling with students from various parts of the world. – Deprivation or enrichment have impact • Ex: Vygotsky – Children helping other children
  19. 19. • Nature-Nurture issue – Which has the greatest influence, & how do the two interact? Issues in Development
  20. 20. Images of Child Development • Jim & Jim Twins – Identical twins separated after birth – Identical lifestyles after 39 yr’s apart • Both: – Part-time deputy sheriffs – Married/divorced women named Betty – Chewed fingernails – Dogs named Toy – Sons named: James Alan, James Allan What is the Evolutionary Perspective?
  21. 21. Images of Child Development • Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart – From all over world – Asked 15,000 questions – Other twin’s similar outcomes • Why? What is the Evolutionary Perspective?
  22. 22. Other Explanations • Similarities just due to genetics? • Other factors?
  23. 23. Other Explanations • Adopted by parents with similar backgrounds • Grew up in same generation • Grew up in same culture
  24. 24. Nature-Nurture Interaction Scarr & McCartney • (Theory with 3 ways heredity predisposition affect environment) • Heredity • (Genotype: physical characterists) – How the genes are reinforced by environment. Environment
  25. 25. Nature-Nurture Interaction • 1. Passive genotype-environment – Early childhood • Parents are musical – Genes for being musical – Environment musical » Bottom line » Child doesn’t make this happen.
  26. 26. Nature-Nurture Interaction • 2. Evocative genotype-environment – Starts in childhood • Whole Life – Jack social (father) – Friends of mine positive feedback – Reinforced to develop heredity, social skills » Bottom line: » Genes influence behavior, child reinforced to continue behavior
  27. 27. Nature-Nurture Interaction • 3. Active genotype-environment – About 8-9 yrs. • Related to their skill choice environment – Musical older children pursue band » Experience is directed by genotype (genes) » Important to reinforce children’s talents (nurture) » Bottom line: » Genes musical, child choses playing instrument
  28. 28. Nature-Nurture Interaction • Heredity Environment • Epigenetic view – Obesity may activate genes for diabetes – Behaviors may turn genes on or off.
  29. 29. Continuity vs Discontinuity Debate –Continuity • Believes development has: –Gradual, continuous changes What Characterizes Development?
  30. 30. Continuity vs Discontinuity Issue • Discontinuity – Believes development has: • Distinct stages, abrupt changes
  31. 31. Critical & Sensitive Periods of Development • Critical periods – Mark the time when environmental influences have the greatest impact on development. • Permanent consequences • Ex: Terterogens – Damage done from drinking, etc. » Critical period of development of fetus » Between 2 - 8 weeks
  32. 32. Critical & Sensitive Periods of Development • Sensitive Periods – Compensatory mechanisms if development does not take place during a particular time. • Young children most sensitive to learning language – Learn language easily • Abusive childhood – Can resolve issues in adulthood » Ex: Exercise
  33. 33. • Theories on child development – Psychoanalytic perspective – Learning perspective – Cognitive perspective – Biological & ecological perspectives Theories of Development
  34. 34. PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE
  35. 35. Psychoanalytic Perspective Freud • Psychoanalytic theories • Freud born 1856 – 1939, Austrian • Theory developed in early 1900’s – Behavior affected by • Underlying emotions • Unconscious mind What Characterizes Development?
  36. 36. Personality Development Sigmund Freud • Personality developed around 3 components • Id – Unconscious instincts – Infants • Ego – Executive branch of mind, deals with reality – Ages 2 – 3 • Conscious awareness begins • Superego – Moral branch of mind, one’s ‘conscience’ – Ages 3 – 6
  37. 37. Psychoanalytic Perspective Erikson • Freud – Childhood most important • Erikson – Change occurs throughout life • Psychosocial theory (Eric Erikson) – German, 1902 - 1994 • 8 stages • Each stage – Unique crisis to resolve – Developmental task What Characterizes Development?
  38. 38. Psychoanalytic Perspective Erikson • Learn from Erikson’s stages: – Nurture infants to: • Develop trust • Encourage & monitor autonomy – Encourage initiative • Freedom to explore their world – Promote industry in elementary years • Nurture motivation for mastery & curiosity – Stimulate adolescent identity exploration • Self-exploration Caring for Children
  39. 39. LEARNING PERSPECTIVE Behaviorism
  40. 40. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories • Behaviorism –Development is observable –Behavior learned from experiences • Reinforced or punished –Scientific measurements possible Caring for Children
  41. 41. Learning Perspective • Classical Conditioning, 1901 – I. Pavlov, Russian physiologist, 1849 - 1936 – Neutral stimulus acquires ability to produce response originally produced by another stimulus • Dogs salivated to food • Pairing food with bell produces salivation • Sound of bell will produce salivation without food Caring for Children
  42. 42. 7/6/2015 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 42 Pavlov Cont. • Serendipity • Noticed dogs salivated before food presented • Sounded bell before feeding dogs • Dogs salivated at sound of bell whether food or not. • Ringing a bell alone would not ordinarily produce salivation. • Classical conditioning has been demonstrated in all species.
  43. 43. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories • Classical conditioning – J. Watson, American, 1878 - 1958 – Experiment: • Little Albert & white rat – Generalizing fear as an involuntary response Caring for Children
  44. 44. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories • Operant Conditioning – B.F. Skinner, American, 1904 - 1990 – Consequences of behavior • Change probability of behavior’s occurrence • Use of punishments & rewards – Shapes behavior & development
  45. 45. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories • Social Cognitive Theory • A. Bandura, American, 1925 - – Observational learning • Modeling – Imitation – Behavior, environment, & cognition • Key factors in development – Father aggressive » Effect development? Caring for Children
  46. 46. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
  47. 47. Cognitive Theories • Piaget • Born in Switzerland 1896 - 1980 • Cognitive development theory – Children actively construct their understanding of the world – 4 stages of cognitive development Caring for Children
  48. 48. Cognitive Theories • Born in Russia, 1896- 1934 (same year as Piaget) • Sociocultural theory (L. Vygotsky) – Social & cultural interaction • Guide cognitive development – Child needs interaction • With more skilled adults & peers – Interactions teach skills • How to learn – Memory, attention, reasoning involves learning to use society’s inventions Caring for Children
  49. 49. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory • Emphasizes how culture & social interaction guide cognitive development
  50. 50. BIOLOGICAL & ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES
  51. 51. Bioecological Theory • U. Bronfenbrenner (1917- 2005) • Focus on nurture • Child is affected by context in which they live. – Government – Schools – Health Schools – Social
  52. 52. Ecological Map • Your influences in life?
  53. 53. Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-Ecological Model • The microsystem - activities and interactions in the child's immediate surroundings: parents, school, friends, etc. • The mesosystem - relationships among the entities involved in the child's microsystem: parents' interactions with teachers, a school's interactions with the daycare provider • The exosystem - social institutions which affect children indirectly: the parents' work settings and policies, extended family networks, mass media, community resources • The macrosystem - broader cultural values, laws and governmental resources • The chronosystem - changes which occur during a child's life, both personally, like the birth of a sibling and culturally, like the Iraqi war.
  54. 54. Bioecological Theory • Microsystem: – Individual helps form (Inside Group) • Includes family, peers, school, & neighborhood.
  55. 55. • Mesosystem: – Interrelationship between microsystems • Family to school experiences
  56. 56. Bioecological Theory • Exosystem: • Links between a social setting (no control) – & • Individual's immediate context. • Child's influenced, mother's work – Requiring travel, might cause conflict with husband & change interaction with child.
  57. 57. Bioecological Theory • Macrosystem: • Culture in which individuals live. – Developing & industrialized countries, socioeconomic status, poverty, & ethnicity. • India: Millions live this way
  58. 58. Bioecological Theory • Chronosystem: – Patterning of environmental events & transitions over life, as well as sociohistorical (how society is affected by history) • Divorces
  59. 59. CHILD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH
  60. 60. Ethics • Conducting ethical research – Protect rights of research subjects • Do no harm • informed consent – Parent & child • Deception – Conduct debriefing • Anonymity – Respect confidentiality Caring for Children
  61. 61. Research Methods • Research designs (3) – 1. Descriptive research: observe and record • Naturalistic Observation • Survey • Case Study – 2. Correlational research: measure strength of association • How 2 or more variables relate to each other Caring for Children
  62. 62. Research Methods • 3. Experimental research – Behavior manipulated, change measured – Demonstrates cause and effect – Independent variable (gets manipulated) – Dependent variable (gets measured) – Control group (forms baseline measure) – Experimental group (gets manipulated) – Random assignment (assignment by chance) Caring for Children
  63. 63. Research Methods • Observation – Laboratory or naturalistic observation • Survey & interview • Standardized test – uniform procedures • Case study – in-depth on individual • Physiological measures – fMRI (electromagnetic waves used) Caring for Children
  64. 64. Research Methods • Time span of research – Cross-sectional approach • Several groups (usually different ages) compared at one time – Longitudinal approach • Follows same group over long period of time (usually years) Caring for Children
  65. 65. Minimizing Bias • Gender bias – Preconceived ideas about female & male abilities, magnifying differences found Caring for Children
  66. 66. • Cultural & ethnic bias – Excluding minorities, preconceived ideas • Ex: This population not ‘average’ • Ethnic gloss – Use of ethnic label portraying ethnic groups as more homogeneous than they really are • Are all Germans the same? Minimizing Bias
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